Kinich Ahau is the 16th-century Yucatec name of the Maya sun god, designated as God G when referring to the codices. In the Classic period, God G is depicted as a middle-aged man with an aquiline nose, large square eyes, cross-eyed, a filed incisor in the upper row of teeth. There is a k'in'sun'-infix, sometimes in the eyes. Among the southern Lacandons, Kinich Ahau continued to play a role in narrative well into the second half of the twentieth century. Kinich Ahau is the Lacandon name of the sun god; the element kʼinich assumed to mean'sun-eyed', appears to have been in general use as a royal title during the Classic Period. Kinich Ahau should not be confused with Ah Kʼin Chob. Ah Kʼin is Yucatec for ` someone who deals with the day'; the term refers to priests in general. As to Ah Kʼin Chob, J. E. S. Thompson suggested that this Lacandon deity name could refer to the sun deity, but the mythology of Ah Kʼin Chob does not bear this out. Although the element chob has been translated as'squint-eyed', an iconographic feature of the Classic sun deity, the only source for this translation is a single statement by Tozzer.
Kinich Ahau was the patron of one of the four years of the 52-year cycle. In the rituals introducing this year, war dances were executed. Kinich Ahau was considered an aspect of the upper god, Itzamna, he may conceivably be related to the patron deity of Izamal, Kinich Kakmo'Fire Parrot', reported to descend to earth while the sun was standing in the zenith in order to consume offerings. God G's appearances in Classic Maya art are best known from large stucco masks adorning pyramids. Compared to the deities connected to agricultural fertility, God G occurs rather infrequently in other media than stucco, is part of narrative events, it may be noted that the Hero Twins and Xbalanque, although stated to have changed into Sun and Moon, are never shown assimilated to God G. The Sun God is associated with an aquatic eastern paradise, where he can assume the shape of a chimerical water bird, or be shown as a young man, paddling a canoe; such imagery could suggest lyric religious poetry comparable to the Aztec evocations of a'flower paradise'.
The sun deity can be shown as a king seated high on a throne cushion, or as a ruler carrying the bicephalic'ceremonial bar'. Inversely, the Maya king is assimilated to the sun deity; the emblematic double-bird of the early Copan king, Yax Kʼukʼ Moʼ'Great Quetzal-Parrot', shows the head of the sun deity within its beaks. Ancestral Maya kings assimilated to the sun deity were sometimes depicted while vertically descending from the zenith. In Yaxchilan, the ancestral king is seated within a solar cartouche, his wife in a lunar crescent; the solar aspect of a king seems to imply apotheosis and life after death. Hieroglyphically, the sun god is the patron of the day-unit, the month of Yaxkʼin'dry season', the number Four. Several other deities evince a large eye, such as God D, various jaguar gods. Attribute sharing occurs chiefly with the so-called Jaguar God of the Underworld and a human-faced ocean deity with shell ears, fins beside the mouth, a sacrificial awl set in the mouth. The'Jaguar God of the Underworld' is traditionally referred to by scholars as the'Night Sun', i.e. the form taken by the sun during his subterranean journey from West to East.
It has been suggested that the three just-mentioned deities involved in the sharing of attributes could represent various stages of the sun's daily cycle. Recent Maya mythology is concerned with Sun's childhood and the conflicts leading up to his actual solar transformation. Although specific imagery is used for the path of the sun, there are hardly any histories concerning the mature sun deity, save for the southern Lacandons. According to them, Kinich Ahau, the elder brother of the upper god, will put an end to this world by descending from the sky and have his jaguars devour mankind. Little is known about specific solar rituals, although it is noteworthy that Kinich Ahau occurs in the Dresden Codex, concerned with ritual matters. Boremanse, Contes et mythologie des indiens lacandons. 1986. Hellmuth, Monster und Menschen in der Maya-Kunst. 1987. Landa, see Star Gods of the Maya. Stuart and Stuart, Eternal City of the Maya. Thames and Hudson 2008. Taube, Flower Mountain. Res 45: 69-98. Taube and Miller, The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya.
Thompson, Maya History and Religion. 1970. Tozzer, A Comparative Study of the Mayas and the Lacandones. New York 1907. Tozzer, Landa's Relación de las Cosas de Yucatán. 1941
Arqueología Mexicana is a bimonthly magazine published by Editorial Raíces and the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. The first issue, devoted to Teotihuacán, was published in April–May in 1993. Arqueología Mexicana contains articles by scholars, a wide selection of photographs on the diverse Mesoamerican cultures, as well as maps and timelines that provide a modern understanding of the Mesoamerican legacy. Official website WorldCat record
A caiman is an crocodilian alligatorid belonging to the subfamily Caimaninae, one of two primary lineages within Alligatoridae, the other being alligators. Caimans inhabit South America from marshes and swamps to mangrove rivers and lakes. Caimans have scaly skin, live a nocturnal existence, they are small-sized crocodilians, with an average maximum weight of 6 to 40 kg depending on species, with the exception of the black caiman, which can grow more than 5 m in length and weigh up to 1,100 kg. The black caiman is the largest caiman species in the world and is found in the slow-moving rivers and lakes that surround the Amazon basin; the smallest species is the Cuvier's dwarf caiman. There are six different species of caiman found throughout the watery, jungle habitats of Central and Southern America; the average length for most of the other caiman species is about 2 to 2.5 m long. Caimans are distinguished from alligators, their closest relatives, by a few defining features: a lack of a bony septum between the nostrils, ventral armour composed of overlapping bony scutes formed from two parts united by a suture, longer, more slender, teeth than those possessed by alligators.
The calcium rivets on its scales make their hides stiffer, thus less valuable, than those of alligators and crocodiles, both of which have a similar appearance but are more pliable. Several extinct forms are known, including Purussaurus, a giant Miocene genus that grew to 12 m and the large Mourasuchus, which had a wide duck-like snout; the caimans are predators and, like the alligators and the crocodiles, their diet consists of a great deal of fish. The caimans hunt insects and small mammals and reptiles. Due to the large size and ferocious nature of the caimans, they have few natural predators within their environments. Humans are the main predators of the caimans as they have been hunted for their skin. Jaguars and anacondas are the only other predators of the caimans but they prey only on the smaller specimens. During summer or droughts, the caiman may dig a burrow and go into a form of summer hibernation called aestivation. Female caimans build a large nest in which to lay their eggs, which can be more than 1.5 metres wide.
Female caimans lay between 50 eggs which hatch within about 6 weeks. Once they have hatched, the mother caiman takes her young to a shallow pool of water where they can learn how to hunt and swim. Subfamily Caimaninae Genus †Acresuchus Genus †Centenariosuchus Genus †Protocaiman Genus †Kuttanacaiman Genus †Gnatusuchus Genus †Culebrasuchus Genus †Eocaiman Genus †Globidentosuchus Genus Paleosuchus P. palpebrosus, Cuvier's dwarf caiman P. trigonatus, smooth-fronted caiman Genus †Purussaurus Genus †Mourasuchus Genus †Necrosuchus Genus †Orthogenysuchus Genus †Tsoabichi Genus Caiman C. yacare, yacare caiman C. crocodilus, spectacled caiman C. c. crocodilus, spectacled caiman C. c. apaporiensis, Rio Apaporis caiman C. c. fuscus, brown caiman †C. lutescens †C. venezuelensis †C. wannlangstoni †C. brevirostris C. latirostris, broad-snouted caiman Genus Melanosuchus †M. fisheri M. niger, black caiman Below is a cladogram modified from Brochu. Below is a cladogram modified from Hastings et al
The Dresden Codex is a Mayan book, the oldest surviving from the Americas, dating to the 13th or 14th century. The codex was rediscovered in the city of Dresden, hence the book's present name, it is located in the museum of the Saxon State Library. The book suffered serious water damage during World War II; the pages are made of Amate, 8 inches high, can be folded accordion-style. It is written in Mayan hieroglyphs and refers to an original text of some three or four hundred years earlier, describing local history and astronomical tables; the Dresden Codex contains. Most pages have writing on both sides, they have a border of red paint. The pages are divided into three sections; some pages have just two horizontal sections, while one has another five sections. The individual sections with their own theme are separated by a red vertical line. Sections are divided into two to four columns; the Dresden Codex is one of four hieroglyphic Maya codices that survived the Spanish Inquisition in the New World.
Three, the Dresden and Paris codices, are named after the city where they were rediscovered. The fourth is the Grolier Codex, located at the Grolier Club in New York City; the Dresden Codex is held by the Saxon University Library Dresden in Dresden, Germany. The Maya codices all have about the same size pages, with a height of about 20 centimetres and a width of 10 centimetres; the pictures and glyphs were painted by skilled craftsmen using thin brushes and vegetable dyes. Black and red were the main colors used for many of the pages; some pages have detailed backgrounds in shades of yellow and the Mayan blue. The codex was written by eight different scribes, who all had their own writing style, glyph designs, subject matter; the Dresden Codex is described by historian J. Eric S. Thompson as writings of the indigenous people of the Yucatán Peninsula in southeastern Mexico. Maya historians Peter J. Schmidt, Mercedes de la Garza, Enrique Nalda confirm this. Thompson further narrows the probable origin of the Dresden Codex to the area of Chichen Itza, because certain picture symbols in the codex are only found on monuments in that location.
He argues that the astronomical tables would support this as the place of origin. Thompson claims that the people of the Yucatán Peninsula were known to have done such studies around 1200 A. D. Thompson notes the similar ceramic designs in the Chichen Itza area which are known to have ceased in the early thirteenth century. British historian Clive Ruggles suggests, based on the analyses of several scholars, that the Dresden Codex is a copy and was written between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. Thompson narrows the date closer to 1200 to 1250. Maya archaeologist Linton Satterthwaite puts the date when it was made as no than 1345, it is the oldest surviving book from the Americas. Johann Christian Götze, German theologian and director of the Royal Library at Dresden, purchased the codex from a private owner in Vienna in 1739 while traveling to Italy. Thompson speculates that the codex was sent as a tribute to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor by Hernán Cortés, governor of Mexico, since examples of local writings and other Maya items were sent to the king in 1519 when he was living in Vienna.
Alexander von Humboldt published pages 47–52 from the Dresden Codex in his 1811 atlas Vues des Cordillères et Monuments des Peuples Indigènes de l'Amérique, the first reproduction of any of its pages. The first copy of the codex was published by Lord Kingsborough in his 1831 Antiquities of Mexico. In 1828 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque had identified this book as being of Maya origin based on its glyphs looking like those found at Palenque. Historian Cyrus Thomas made a connection between the codex and the 260 year cycle of the Maya calendar and the 365 days in a year. Ruggles shows that in the codex the Maya related their 260-day calendar to celestial bodies Venus and Mars; the codex has played a key role in the deciphering of Mayan hieroglyphs. Dresden librarian Ernst Wilhelm Förstemann published the first complete facsimile in 1880, he deciphered the calendar section of the codex, including the Maya numerals used therein. Förstemann determined that these numbers, along with deities and day names, related to the Mayan calendar and the Mayan Long Count calendar.
In the 1950s Yuri Knorozov used a phonetic approach based on the De Landa alphabet for decoding the codex, followed up in the 1980s by other scholars that did additional deciphering based on this concept. Paul Schellhas in 1897 and 1904 assigned letters to gods for specific glyphs since they had several possible names. For example God D could be Hunab Ku Itzam Na among several other names and God A could be Cizin among others; the Schellhas system of assigning letters for the gods represented by certain glyphs as a noncommittal system was adopted by researchers of Maya codices. The Dresden Codex contains accurate astronomical tables, which are recognized by students of the codex for its detailed Venus tables and lunar tables; the lunar series has intervals correlating with eclipses, while the Venus tables correlate with the movements of the planet Venus. The codex contains astrological tables and ritual schedules; the religious references show in a cycle of a 260-day ritual calendar the important Maya royal events.
The codex includes information on the Maya new-year ceremony tradition. The rain god Chaac is rep
For the region on Io see Chaac-Camaxtli Region Chaac is the name of the Maya rain deity. With his lightning axe, Chaac produces thunder and rain. Chaac corresponds to Tlaloc among the Aztecs. Like other Maya gods, Chaac manifold. Four Chaacs are wear the directional colors. In 16th-century Yucatán, the directional Chaac of the east was called Chac Xib Chaac'Red Man Chaac', only the colors being varied for the three other ones. Contemporary Yucatec Maya farmers distinguish many more aspects of the rain and the clouds and personify them as different, hierarchically-ordered rain deities; the Chorti Maya have preserved important folklore regarding the process of rain-making, which involved rain deities striking rain-carrying snakes with their axes. The rain deities had their human counterparts. In the traditional Mayan community, one of the most important functions was that of rain maker, which presupposed an intimate acquaintance with the rain deities, a knowledge of their places and movements. According to a Late-Postclassic Yucatec tradition, Chac Xib Chaac was the title of a king of Chichen Itza, similar titles were bestowed upon Classic rulers as well.
Among the rituals for the rain deities, the Yucatec Chʼa Cháak ceremony for asking rain centers on a ceremonial banquet for the rain deities. It includes four boys chanting as frogs. Asking for rain and crops was the purpose of 16th-century rituals at the cenotes, of Yucatán. Young men and women were lowered into these wells, so as to make them enter the realm of the rain deities. Alternatively, they were thrown into the wells to be drawn up again, give oracles; the rain deity is a patron of agriculture. A well-known myth in which the Chaacs have an important role to play is about the opening of the mountain in which the maize was hidden. In Tzotzil mythology, the rain deity figures as the father of nubile women representing maize and vegetables. In some versions of the Qʼeqchiʼ myth of Sun and Moon, the rain deity Choc'Cloud' is the brother of Sun. Chocl commits adultery with his brother's wife and is duly punished. Versions of this myth show the rain deity Chac in his war-like fury, pursuing the fleeing Sun and Moon, attacking them with his lightning bolts.
Chaac is depicted with a human body showing reptilian or amphibian scales, with a non-human head evincing fangs and a long, pendulous nose. In the Classic style, a shell serves as his ear ornament, he carries shield and lightning-axe, the axe being personified by a related deity, god K, called Bolon Dzacab in Yucatec. The Classic Chaac sometimes shows features of the Central Mexican precursor of Tlaloc. A large part of the most important Maya book, the Dresden Codex, is dedicated to the Chaacs, their locations, activities, it illustrates the intimate relationship existing between the Chaacs, the Bacabs, the aged goddess, Ixchel. The main source on the 16th-century Yucatec Maya, Bishop Diego de Landa, combines the four Chaacs with the four Bacabs and Pauahtuns into one concept; the Bacabs were aged deities governing its water supplies. In the Classic period, the king impersonated the rain deity while a portrait glyph of the rain deity can accompany the king's other names; this may have given expression to his role as a supreme rain-maker.
However, it is the war-like fury of the rain deity that receives emphasis. The king personifying the rain deity is shown carrying war implements and making prisoners, while his actions seem to be equated with the violence of a thunderstorm. About Chaac's role in Classic period mythological narrative, little is known, he is present at the resurrection of the Maya maize god from the carapace of a turtle representing the earth. The so-called'confrontation scenes' are of a more legendary nature, they show a young nobleman and his retinue wading through the waters and being approached by warriors. One of these warriors is a man personifying the rain deity, he represents an ancestral king, seems to be referred to as Chac Xib Together with the skeletal Death God, Chaac appears to preside over an initiate's ritual transformation into a jaguar. Klein, Chac: Dios de la lluvia, a film made with Mayan actors. Yopaat, a related southern Maya storm god Aktzin Braakhuis and Kerry Hull, Pluvial Aspects of the Mesoamerican Culture Hero.
Anthropos 2014/2: 449-466. Cruz Torres, Rubelpec. García Barrios, Ana, El aspecto bélico de Chaahk, el dios de la lluvia, en el Periodo Clásico maya. Revista Española de Antropología Americana 39-1: 7-29. Redfield and Alfonso Barrera Vasquez, Chan Kom. Roys, Ralph L; the Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel. 1967. Taube, Karl, An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. Thompson, J. E. S. Maya History and Religion. 1970. Tozzer, Landa's Relación de las Cosas de Yucatán, a Translation. 1941. Wisdom, The Chorti Mayas
San Bartolo (Maya site)
San Bartolo is a small pre-Columbian Maya archaeological site located in the Department of Petén in northern Guatemala, northeast of Tikal and fifty miles from the nearest settlement. San Bartolo's fame derives from its splendid Late-Preclassic mural paintings still influenced by Olmec tradition and from examples of early and as yet undecipherable Maya script; the Maya site includes an 85-foot pyramid named "Las Ventanas". The pyramid was constructed from ca 300 BC and was completed ca 50 AD. In 2001, in the base of a pyramid, a team led by William Saturno discovered a room with murals that were carbon-dated as from 100 BC, making them the oldest ones to date. Excavation started in March 2003; the murals were stabilized and a special technique was used for photographically recording the paintings. Fallen fragments were pieced together and photographed. Detailed reconstruction drawings were made by Heather Hurst; the iconography of the mural scenes was subsequently analyzed and interpreted by project iconographer Karl Taube.
Besides the murals, the oldest known Maya royal tomb was discovered in San Bartolo, by archaeologist Monica Pellecer Alecio. As Saturno and Taube have argued, the murals on the northern and western walls of the chamber in the base of the temple pyramid depict elements of Maya creation mythology reminiscent of the Popol Vuh as well as of Yucatec cosmological traditions; the north wall mural consists of two scenes. One scene is situated in front of a mountain cave; the Maya maize god is shown in the midst of a group of men and women, while receiving a vine calabash. The other scene shows four babies, with their umbilical cords still attached, surrounding a calabash, which has now split up and from which a fifth, clothed male emerges. A large deity figure watches the scene; the west wall mural has a far greater number of scenes. One part of the mural has four successive images of trees with birds, kings with the markings of the Maya Hero Twin Hunahpu, sacrifices, to which a fifth tree has been added.
The five trees are comparable to the directional trees of the Codex Borgia and to those mentioned in the Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel. The sacrifices are comparable to those in the Year Bearer section of the Dresden Codex; the first four kings are shown piercing their penises, spilling sacrificial blood offering a sacrifice. The fifth figure, associated with a fifth tree belonging to the centre - the tree of life itself - is the Maya maize god; the directional representation as a whole might refer to the initial arrangement of the world. Another part of the western mural depicts three scenes from the life of the maize god and the coronation of a king, showing divine right to rule coming from the gods, providing evidence that the Maya had full-fledged monarchies centuries earlier than thought; the three maize god scenes show a maize baby held by a man kneeling in the waters. Scene has been suggested to represent the death of the maize deity. Alternatively, it may refer to the maize god's role as a rain bringer.
For an explanation of many of the mural scenes, the Popol Vuh hardly offers clues, scholars have started to look in other directions. The three maize god scenes of the western mural, for example, have been suggested to refer to present-day Gulf Coast myths about a maize god subduing the gods of thunder and lightning and creating the conditions for agriculture; the calabash scene of the northern mural, on the other hand, may constitute an illustration of a Pipil myth concerning a group of young boys born, together with their'youngest brother', from a gourd tree. In this myth, Nanahuatzin is the one who introduces agriculture. At the same time, the author interprets the calabash - now taken as a vine gourd - together with its four surrounding babies as a symbol for a place of origins mentioned in Highland Maya sources, Suywa or Tsuywa, to be situated somewhere in the Gulf Coast region; the earliest inscriptions which are identifiably Maya have been found at San Bartolo. In particular, an important stone block text has been found dating to around 300 BC.
It has been argued. This time period may have been projected to end sometime between 220.127.116.11.0 and 18.104.22.168.0 — 295 and 256 BCE, respectively. Besides this being the earliest Maya hieroglyphic text so far uncovered, it would arguably be the earliest existing glyphic evidence of a Mesoamerican Long Count calendar notation in Mesoamerica. Akkeren, Ruud van,'Tzuywa: Place of the Gourd'. Ancient America, 9. Braakhuis, H. E. M.'Challenging the Lightnings: San Bartolo's West Wall Mural and the Maize Hero Myth'. Wayeb Notes No. 46. Http://www.wayeb.org/notes/wayeb_notes0046.pdf Saturno, William,'Sistine Chapel of the Early Maya', National Geographic 204: 72-76. Saturno, William.