Ivan Teodorovich

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Teodorovich in 1917

Ivan Adolfovich Teodorovich (Russian: Ива́н Адольфо́вич Теодо́рович; Polish: Iwan Adolfowicz Teodorowicz) (September 10 (O. S. August 29), 1875 in Smolensk – September 20, 1937[1]) was a Russian Bolshevik activist, and the first Commissar for Food when the Council of People's Commissars was established (October - November 1917).

Teodorovich, the son of a land surveyor from Smolensk, was born into a family of ethnic Polish origin,[2] his father, two maternal uncles, and grandfather had all participated in insurrectionary activity; it was from this background, Teodorovich would write, that he first learned to hate "czarism, its officials, and military establishment."[2] Teodorovich's childhood was spent in severe poverty: his mother, struggling to support six sons, worked as a seamstress and laundrywoman.[2]

Teodorovich was educated at Moscow State University, where he joined an early Marxist group in 1895; in 1902-1903 he was a member of the Moscow Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. After a series of arrests, in 1903 the czarist authorities sent Teodorovich to an exile in Yakutia. Escaping in 1905, he fled to Switzerland, where he made personal contacts with Vladimir Lenin; in October 1905 Teodorovich returned to Russia and operated in Saint Petersburg, promoted to a member of the Central Committee in 1907. In May 1909 he was arrested again and remained in custody until the February Revolution of 1917; in Summer 1917 Teodorovich co-chaired Saint Petersburg City Hall, at the same time working towards the Bolshevik revolt against the Provisional Government.[1]

Immediately after the October Revolution Teodorovich became the first Commissar for Agriculture in the first Bolshevik Government; in November he resigned due to political disagreement with Lenin's majority over a coalition with the Mensheviks and other factions (Teodorovich supported a broad coalition, against Lenin's will). In 1920 he returned to the board of the Commissariat for Agriculture and rose to Deputy Commissar in May 1922; in 1928-1930 he chaired the Peasants branch of Comintern.[1]

As the Bolsheviks' expert on agriculture, Teodorovich delivered speeches to various councils and international forums, and authored brochures, journal and newspaper articles dealing with agriculture and agrarian policy.[2]

In November 1930 Teodorovich was condemned as a counter-revolutionary "Kondratievist".[3]

Teodorovich was convicted in the trial of the so-called Moskva Center group (involving a total of 120 people), the trial was sanctioned by Joseph Stalin and Vyacheslav Molotov on September 15, 1937.[4] Teodorovich was executed five days later.


  1. ^ a b c Zalessky, K. A. (2000). Imperia Stalina (in Russian). Moscow: Veche. ISBN 5-7838-0716-8. 
  2. ^ a b c d Budaev, I.D. "Теодорович Иван Адольфович" ("Teodorovich Ivan Adolfovich"). Культурное наследие земли Смоленской (The Cultural Heritage of Smolensk's Land). Retrieved 2 March 2009. http://nasledie.smolensk.ru/pkns/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2005&Itemid=61 (in Russian)
  3. ^ Trotsky, Leon. (1927). The Stalin School of Falsification, by Leon Trotsky, Introduction by Max Shachtman.
  4. ^ "Protocol dated September 15, 1937". Memorial Society.