Formula Three called Formula 3 or F3, is a class of open-wheel formula racing. The various championships held in Europe, South America and Asia form an important step for many prospective Formula One drivers. Formula Three has traditionally been regarded as the first major stepping stone for F1 hopefuls – it is the first point in a driver's career at which most drivers in the series are aiming at professional careers in racing rather than being amateurs and enthusiasts. F3 is regarded as a key investment in a young driver's future career. Success in F3 can lead directly to a Formula 2 seat or a Formula One test or race seat. Formula Three evolved from postwar auto racing, with lightweight tube-frame chassis powered by 500 cc motorcycle engines; the 500 cc formula evolved in 1946 from low-cost "special" racing organised by enthusiasts in Bristol, just before the Second World War. The second post-war motor race in Britain was organised by the VSCC in July 1947 at RAF Gransden Lodge, 500cc cars being the only post-war class to run that day.
The race was a complete flop, as three of the seven entrants were non-starters, and, of the four runners, all but one were out of it in the first lap, leaving Eric Brandon in his Cooper Prototype trailing round to a virtual walk-over at the unimpressive speed of 55.79 mph, though his best lap was 65.38 mph. Cooper came to dominate the formula with mass-produced cars, the income this generated enabled the company to develop into the senior categories. Other notable marques included Kieft, JBS and Emeryson in England, Effyh and Scampolo in Europe. John Cooper, along with most other 500 builders, decided to place the engine in the middle of the car, driving the rear wheels; this was due to the practical limitations imposed by chain drive but it gave these cars exceptionally good handling characteristics which led to the mid-engined revolution in single-seater racing. The 500cc formula was the usual route into motor racing through the mid-1950s. Other notable 500 cc Formula 3 drivers include Stuart Lewis-Evans, Ivor Bueb, Jim Russell, Peter Collins, Don Parker, Ken Tyrrell, Bernie Ecclestone.
From a statistical point of view, Don Parker was the most successful F3 driver. Although coming to motor racing late in life, he won a total of 126 F3 races altogether, was described by Motor Sport magazine as "the most successful Formula 3 driver in history." Although Stirling Moss was a star by 1953, Parker beat him more than any other driver, was Formula 3 Champion in 1952, again in 1953, in 1954 he only lost the title by a half-point. He took the title for a third time in 1959. In 1954, Parker took on a young man named Norman Graham Hill as his mechanic and general assistant, gave him his first taste of competitive motorsport in a 500cc car at Brands Hatch; some years now using his middle name of Graham, this young man twice became Formula 1 World Champion. Parker retired from Formula Three after the 1959 season, chose not to move to Formula 2 or Formula 1 because of his age. However, he did race for one final season, representing Jaguar in the British Saloon Car Championships, winning at Oulton Park on June 6 in his XK150.
As a retirement gift in 1961, Jaguar's Lofty England presented him with a specially-designed 3.8 litre Jaguar Mark 2. It was claimed to be the fastest Mark 2 Jaguar had built, being tested at 140 mph on the newly opened M4 motorway in 1963. 500cc Formula Three declined at an international level during the late 1950s, although it continued at a national level into the early 60s, being eclipsed by Formula Junior for 1000 or 1100 cc cars. A one-litre Formula Three category for four-cylinder carburetted cars, with tuned production engines, was reintroduced in 1964 based on the Formula Junior rules and ran to 1970; these engines tended to rev highly and were popularly known as "screamers". The "screamer" years were dominated by Brabham and Tecno, with March beginning in 1970. Early one-litre F3 chassis tended to descend from Formula Junior designs but evolved. For 1971 new regulations allowing 1600 cc engines with a restricted air intake were introduced; the 1971–73 seasons were contested with these cars, as aerodynamics started to become important.
Two-litre engine rules were introduced for 1974, still with restricted air intakes. Today engine regulations remain unchanged in F3, a remarkable case of stability in racing regulations; as the likes of Lotus and Brabham faded from F3 to concentrate on Formula One, F3 constructors of the 1970s included Alpine, March, Modus, GRD, Ensign. By the start of the 1980s however, Formula Three had evolved well beyond its humble beginnings to something resembling the modern formula, it was seen as the main training ground for future Formula One drivers, many of them bypassing Formula Two to go straight into Grand Prix racing. The chassis became sophisticated, mirroring the more senior formulae – ground effects
1957 Argentine Grand Prix
The 1957 Argentine Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 13 January 1957 at the Buenos Aires circuit. It was race 1 of 8 in the 1957 World Championship of Drivers. Juan Manuel Fangio had left Ferrari for Maserati to attempt to win a fifth world championship with the help of their much modified 250Fs. Without him, Ferrari had one of the strongest driver lineups in history, with Mike Hawthorn moving from BRM to join Peter Collins, Luigi Musso and Eugenio Castellotti. Since the British teams were not present, Stirling Moss — who had signed for Vanwall — was part of the Maserati line-up with Jean Behra as third driver. Fangio and Behra raced away into the distance as the rest of the field floundered. Moss's throttle linkage broke on the startline and he lost 10 laps having it fixed; the Ferraris were all suffering with clutch problems, as both Collins and Musso burnt theirs out, whilst Hawthorn's was slipping badly. Both Collins and Wolfgang von Trips took over Cesare Perdisa's Ferrari in an attempt to stop the Maseratis, but were powerless to stop them taking the first four places.
Moss set fastest lap on his way to 8th place. Notes^1 – 1 point for fastest lap Shared Drives: Car #20: Alfonso de Portago and José Froilán González, they shared the 2 points for fifth place. Car #18: Cesare Perdisa, Peter Collins and Wolfgang von Trips. Grand Prix debut for: Alessandro de Tomaso. Last Grand Prix appearance for: Eugenio Castellotti, Cesare Perdisa, Alfonso de Portago. Career Firsts: Carlos Menditeguy. Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included
Goodwood Circuit is a historic venue for both two- and four-wheeled motorsport in the United Kingdom. The 3.8 kilometres circuit is situated near Chichester, West Sussex, close to the south coast of England, on the estate of Goodwood House, encircles Chichester/Goodwood Airport. This is the racing circuit dating from 1948, not to be confused with the separate hillclimb course located at Goodwood House and first used in 1936; the racing circuit began life as the perimeter track of RAF Westhampnett airfield, constructed during World War II as a relief airfield for RAF Tangmere. The first race meeting took place on 18 September 1948, organised by the Junior Car Club and sanctioned by the Duke of Richmond and Gordon; the winner of the first race was P. de F. C. Pycroft, in his 2,664 c.c. Pycroft-Jaguar, at 66.42 m.p.h. Stirling Moss won the 500cc race, followed by Eric Brandon and "Curly" Dryden, all in Coopers. Goodwood became famous for its Glover Trophy non-championship Formula One race, Goodwood Nine Hours sports car endurance races run in 1952, 1953 and 1955, the Tourist Trophy sports car race, run here 1958-1964.
The cars that raced in those events can be seen recreating the endurance races at the Goodwood Revival each year in the Sussex trophy and the Royal Automobile Club Tourist Trophy. Goodwood has, over the years, played host to many famous drivers: Mike Hawthorn and Graham Hill had their first single seat races there, Roger Penske visited in 1963, Jim Clark and Jack Sears competed in 1964; the accident that ended Stirling Moss's International career happened at St. Mary's Corner in 1962. Donald Campbell demonstrated his Bluebird CN7 Land Speed Record car at Goodwood in July 1960 at its initial public launch, again in July 1962, before being shipped to Australia—where it broke the record in 1964; the car was a 30-foot-long Bristol Siddeley turbine-powered 4,500 hp streamliner, with a theoretical top speed of 450 to 500 miles per hour. The laps of Goodwood were at "tick-over" speed, because the car had only four degrees of steering lock, with a maximum of 100 mph on the straight on one lap. Goodwood saw its last race meeting for over 30 years in 1966, because the owners did not want to modify the track with chicanes to control the increased speeds of modern racing cars.
The last event was a club meeting organised by the British Automobile Racing Club on 2 July 1966. The circuit claimed the life of McLaren-founder Bruce McLaren in a testing accident on 2 June 1970; the accident happened on Lavant Straight, when a rear bodywork failure on McLaren's M8D car caused it to spin and leave the track, hitting a structure on the infield at over 100 mph while travelling sideways. Goodwood is noted for its annual Festival of Speed and Goodwood Revival events; the Goodwood Festival of Speed is an annual hill climb, held in late June or early July not on the circuit, but in the nearby grounds of Goodwood House. It features modern motor-racing vehicles. In 2010, the event had over 176,000 visitors over four days. Following the success of the Festival of Speed hill climb, racing returned to the Goodwood circuit in 1998; the Goodwood Revival is a three-day festival held each September for the types of cars and motorcycles that would have competed during the circuit's original period, 1948–1966.
Historic aircraft help to complete the vintage feel. In 2008, a crowd of 68,000 people attended the event on the main Sunday - 9,000 more than in 2007; the track is now used for classic races, track days, try-out days. Nearly everyone dresses up in vintage outfit from mods and rockers to racing drivers and just smart period clothes. In 2009, the Mongol Rally, a charity fundraising car rally to Mongolia, moved its starting point from Hyde Park, London to Goodwood. Entrants are on show to the public in the paddock before beginning the rally with a parade lap of the circuit; the National Finals of the Greenpower schools electric car racing challenge takes place at Goodwood each year. The Greenpower challenge is a nationwide series of electric vehicle endurance races for schools, who build their own 24 volt single-seater racing cars. There is a corporate version of the race, featuring teams like Lola, Jaguar Land Rover, Bentley Motors and Prodrive. The'Breakfast Club' was introduced in March 2006; this is a semi regular free to enter, open-to-all monthly gathering of drivers and riders who come to view each other's cars, bikes etc.
Each meeting is themed with striking examples of the days theme paraded on the start finish straight. The circuit hosted the 1982 UCI Road World Championships for cycle racing, notable for the men's professional race, which saw a late breakaway by the American rider Jacques Boyer being closed down by a pack led by Boyer's teammate Greg LeMond; the circuit was used as a filming location in the series Downton Abbey. Brighton Speed Trials British Automobile Racing Club Firle Hill Climb Gurston Down Motorsport Hillclimb Lewes Speed Trials Thruxton Circuit in Thruxton, Hampshire Brooklands circuit in Weybridge, Surrey Goodwood 500 Owners Association Greenpower
Lister Motor Company
The Lister Motor Company Ltd. is a British sports car manufacturer founded by Brian Lister in 1954 in Cambridge, which became known for its involvement in motorsport. Sold in 1986, Laurence Pearce produced variants of the Jaguar XJS before producing a bespoke sports car, the Lister Storm. In 2013, Lister Cars was acquired by Lawrence Whittaker's company Warrantywise. Production of the original sports car restarted in 2014 and ten continuation Lister Jaguar Knobblys were built to celebrate Lister’s 60th Anniversary. In 2016, the company announced. On 31 January 2018, the Lister LFT-666 based on the Jaguar F-Type was announced. Beginning in 1954, company manager and racing driver Brian Lister brought out the first in a series of sports cars from a Cambridge iron works. Inspired by Cooper, he used de Dion rear axle and inboard drum brakes. Like others, he used a tuned MG stock gearbox, it made its debut at the British Empire Trophy at Oulton Park in 1954, with former MG driver Archie Scott Brown at the wheel.
Lister swapped in a Moore-tuned Bristol two-litre engine and knockoff wire wheels in place of the MG's discs to improve performance. For the sports car race supporting the 1954 British Grand Prix at Silverstone, Scott Brown won the two-litre class and placed fifth overall behind only works Aston Martins. In 1955, a handful of Lister-Bristols were built with a new body built by an ex-Bristol employee with the aid of a wind tunnel. Despite its new fins and strakes, it was less successful than the original Lister-Bristol of 1954. Lister moved up to a six-cylinder motor from a Formula 2 Maserati A6GCS for their own car, while customers continued to receive the Bristol motor, sold for ₤3900. Lister attempted single-seater racing with a multi-tube chassis powered by a Coventry-Climax motor and using an MG gearbox, but the car was a failure. For 1957, Lister redesigned the car around a 3.4 litre Jaguar D-type XK inline-six, with an aerodynamic aluminium body. It was tested by racing journalist John Bolster.
Driver Archie Scott Brown won the 1957 British Empire Trophy in the new Lister-Jaguar. Refined again in 1958, the Lister-Jaguar entered international competitions. Brown was killed that season. Lister developed another single-seater car based on the Lister-Jaguar, for use in the unique Race of Two Worlds at Monza. Cars from this era are affectionately known as the "Lister Knobbly" cars, due to their curved bodywork. For 1959, Lister hired aerodynamicist Frank Costin who produced new bodywork built around a new Chevrolet Corvette power plant. However, the front-engine layout of the new Lister-Chevrolet was eclipsed by the rear-engine layout of the new Cooper sports car. By the end of 1959 Lister withdrew from competition although production of sports cars continued for customers. In 1963, Brian Lister was chosen by the Rootes Group to prepare the Sunbeam Tiger for the prototype category of the 24 Hours of Le Mans; the Ford V8-powered Tiger was still in the early stages of development while Lister was constructing the chassis at the Jensen factory.
Lister upgraded the suspension and brakes, added an aerodynamic fastback hardtop with a more sloping windscreen and a Kamm tail. The 260 cu in Ford V8 engine was tuned by Carroll Shelby in order to allow it to produce 275 hp instead of the 160 hp in standard specification; the car was designed with a top speed of 170 mph in mind, but were developed in a short time frame and suffered engine failures. Rootes received a refund for the engines; the two cars and one prototype mule still exist. The failure of the cars and Rootes' bankruptcy led to the demise of Lister's tuning work as well; the Lister company returned in 1986 as Lister Cars Ltd. based in Leatherhead, with engineer Laurence Pearce tuning 90 Jaguar XJSs and improving their top speed to over 200 mph, with an asking price of over £100,000. Success at this endeavour led the newly formed company to design the Lister Storm. Launched in 1993, it would use the largest V12 engine fitted to a production car at that time, a 7.0 L unit derived from the Jaguar XJR9.
The Storm was developed for motorsport in various guises, winning the FIA GT Championship in 2000. Lister developed a bespoke Le Mans Prototype, the Storm LMP in 2003. In 2012, Lawrence Whittaker and his father visited the Lister factory to source parts when restoring a Lister Knobbly, the opportunity to purchase the Lister Motor Company arose. In 2013, ownership of George Lister Engineering Limited of Cambridge, original intellectual property rights, the plans and drawings for all original Lister cars, as well as the property rights of Pearce's Lister Cars were bought by father and son Andrew and Lawrence Whittaker, who own car warranty company Warrantywise; the new company, along with its associated partners, was rebranded as the Lister Motor Company Ltd. Ten months the Lister Motor Company announced the build and sale of the Lister Knobbly to mark 60 years since the first Lister Racing Car was built; the new company started building of the original Lister designs in 2014. To celebrate the 60th Anniversary of The Lister Motor Company, the release of the Lister Knobbly was announced, described as the most successful racing car of the late 1950s.
The Lister Knobbly was driven by some of the most notable racing car drivers of the 50s including: Archie Scott Brown, Stirling Moss, Ivor Beaub, Bruce Halford and Innes Ireland amongst many others. Within a matter of weeks half of the 60th Anniversary Lister race cars were sold
1957 Formula One season
The 1957 Formula One season was the 11th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1957 World Championship of Drivers which commenced on 13 January 1957 and ended on 8 September after eight races. Juan Manuel Fangio won his fourth consecutive title, his fifth in total, in his final Championship – a feat that would not be matched for nearly 50 years; the season included numerous non-championship races for Formula One cars. Fangio chose joining Maserati before the start of the season; the decision to switch proved to be a masterstroke, with Ferrari's line-up of Peter Collins, Eugenio Castellotti and the returning Mike Hawthorn failing to win a race. Castellotti and Alfonso de Portago were killed during the season, making this a disastrous year for Ferrari; the man Fangio replaced at Maserati, Stirling Moss, moved to Vanwall, a team beginning to fulfill their promise. Between them Fangio and Moss won every championship race of the season with the exception of the Indianapolis 500, with Fangio taking four victories to Moss' three.
Fangio's drive at the Nürburgring, where he overtook Collins and Hawthorn on the penultimate lap after a pit stop had put him nearly a minute behind, is regarded as a notable drive. At the end of the year it was announced. Maserati pulled out, citing financial reasons; this was the final year in which points were awarded for shared drives. The first race of the season was in January at the Buenos Aires Autodrome in Argentina's capital city. Briton Moss took pole ahead of Fangio, ahead of Behra, Ferrari drivers Castellotti, Collins and Hawthorn. At the start of the race Behra took the lead from Castellotti. Moss was taken by surprise and a juddering start damaged the throttle mechanism and he pitted at the end of the first lap. While Moss sat in the pits, Castellotti led but was overtaken by Behra. Soon afterwards Collins worked his way to the front but within a few laps he was in trouble with his clutch and had to pit; this left Behra in the lead again but he was soon passed by Fangio. Castelotti had lost his third position after a spin, so now Hawthorn was leading the charge although both he and Musso would retire after a while with clutch problems.
Castellotti remained the only challenge to the Maseratis at the front but his race ended when a wheel fell off with 24 laps to go. Menditeguy and Schell were promoted to third and fourth when Castellotti went out and so Maserati started the season by romping home with a 1-2-3-4 result, with Fangio winning his 4th Argentine Grand Prix in a row ahead of Behra. Argentina'57 would be Castellotti's last Grand Prix, he was killed testing a Ferrari at the Modena Aerodrome in March. A non-championship race was held in Syracuse on the southern Italian island of Sicily; the Pau Grand Prix, held on the city streets of the southwestern French town of Pau was won by home favorite Behra in a Maserati, while on the same day, the Glover Trophy at the Goodwood circuit in southern England was won by Briton Stuart Lewis-Evans in a Connaught-Alta. 6 days after these two events, Collins won the Naples Grand Prix. Another works Ferrari driver, Spaniard Alfonso de Portago, was killed in May while contesting the Mille Miglia sportscar race in Italy for Ferrari.
Four months after the Argentine round and a number of non-championship races, the teams assembled in Monaco for the second championship round of the season. Moss had joined Vanwall from Maserati, driving a car designed by Colin Chapman and financed by Tony Vanderwell, a wealthy British industrialist, leaving Fangio as the undisputed team leader at Maserati. Fangio took pole position, however Moss took the lead at the first corner with Fangio behind him but on the second lap Collins got ahead of the Argentine driver. Moss went off and crashed at the chicane on lap 4, Collins swerved to avoid the crash and ended up hitting a stone wall. Fangio managed to get through without a problem and Brooks braked hard only to be rammed from behind by Hawthorn. Only Brooks was able to keep going, but he was five seconds behind Fangio by the time he was up to speed again. Von Trips was third with Menditeguy fourth and Schell fifth. Menditeguy would have to stop early for new tyres after hitting a curb so Schell moved to fourth until his suspension broke.
Brabham was next in the little Cooper with Trintignant chasing him but the Frenchman soon dropped away with a stop to cure a misfire. After a number or retirements, Australian Jack Brabham was up to third as a result of this but a fuel pump failure left him to push the car to the line, he was classified sixth, Fangio won again ahead of Brooks, Masten Gregory in a Maserati, Lewis-Evans and Trintignant. The Indianapolis 500 was the 3rd round of the championship but since that race was not run to Formula One rules, no competitors who raced in Formula One raced at the Indy 500, vice versa; the Belgian and Dutch Grands Prix, scheduled for June 2 and June 16, were both canceled because of disputes over money affected by the Suez crisis in Egypt, so there was a six-week break between Monaco and the French GP, to be held at the Rouen-Les-Essarts public road circuit in northern France, extended from its previous layout used in 1952. In practice Fangio was fastest with Musso alongside on the front row.
Behind them were Schell and Collins with the third row consisting of Salvadori and Trintignant. At the start Behra went into the lead but Musso soon got ahead. Fangio followed in third with Schell giving chase. Came a fast-starting McKay-Fraser. Fangio took Musso for the lead on lap four. BRM suffered a setback when Flockhar