Iwakura Tomomi was a Japanese statesman during the Bakumatsu and Meiji period. He was adopted by the influential Iwakura family, became the single most influential leader of the nobility during Japan's transition from feudalism to modernity. By 1858 he was an advisor to the Emperor, but was exiled from the royal court from 1862 to 1867 for his moderation. After release he became the liaison between the anti-Tokugawa movement, he played a central role in the new Meiji government after 1868. He opposed aggressive policies in Korea in the crisis of 1873, was nearly assassinated by his enemies, he led the 50-member Iwakura Mission for 18 months in Europe and America, studying modern institutions and diplomacy. The Mission promoted many the key reforms that modernized Japan, he promoted a strong imperial system along Western lines, played a central role in creating financial institutions for the new nation. A 500 Yen banknote issued by the Bank of Japan carried his portrait. Iwakura was born in Kyoto as the second son of a low-ranking courtier and nobleman Horikawa Yasuchika.
In 1836 he was adopted by Iwakura Tomoyasu, from whom he received his family name. He was trained by the kampaku Takatsukasa Masamichi and wrote the opinion for the imperial Court reformation. In 1854 he became a chamberlain to his first cousin once removed; as with most other courtiers in Kyoto, Iwakura opposed the Tokugawa shogunate's plans to end Japan's national isolation policy and to open Japan to foreign countries. When Hotta Masayoshi, a Rōjū of the Tokugawa government came to Kyoto to obtain imperial permission to sign the Treaty of Amity and Commerce in 1858, Iwakura gathered courtiers who opposed the treaty and attempted to hinder negotiations between the Shōgun and the Court. After Tairō Ii Naosuke was assassinated in 1860, Iwakura supported the Kobugattai Movement, an alliance of the Court and the Shogunate; the central policy of this alliance was the marriage of the Shōgun Tokugawa Iemochi and Princess Kazu-no-Miya Chikako, the younger sister of the Emperor Kōmei. Samurai and nobles who supported the more radical Sonnō jōi policy saw Iwakura as a supporter of the Shogunate, put pressure on the Court to expel him.
As a result, Iwakura moved to Iwakura, north of Kyoto. In Iwakura he wrote many opinions and sent them to the Court or his political companions in Satsuma Domain. In 1866 when Shōgun Iemochi died, Iwakura attempted to have the Court seize political initiative, he failed. When the Emperor Kōmei died the next year, there was a rumor Iwakura had plotted to murder the emperor with poison, but he escaped arrest. With Ōkubo Toshimichi and Saigō Takamori, on January 3, 1868, he engineered the seizure of the Kyoto Imperial Palace by forces loyal to Satsuma and Chōshū, thus initiating the Meiji Restoration, he commissioned Imperial banners with the sun and moon on a red field, which helped ensure that the encounters of the Meiji Restoration were bloodless affairs. After the establishment of the Meiji government, Iwakura played an important role due to the influence and trust he had with Emperor Meiji, he was responsible for the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath of 1868, the subject abolition of the han system.
Soon after his appointment as Minister of the Right in 1871, he led the two-year around-the-world journey known as the Iwakura mission, visiting the United States and several countries in Europe with the purpose of renegotiating the unequal treaties and gathering information to help effect the modernization of Japan. A celebration was held in Manchester and Liverpool in 1997 to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the Iwakura Mission. On his return to Japan in 1873, he was just in time to prevent an invasion of Korea. Realizing that Japan was not in any position to challenge the western powers in its present state, he advocated strengthening the imperial institution, which he felt could be accomplished through a written constitution and a limited form of parliamentary democracy, he ordered Inoue Kowashi to begin work on a constitution in 1881, ordered Itō Hirobumi to Europe to study various European systems. Although in poor health by early 1883, Iwakura went to Kyoto in May to direct efforts to restore and preserve the imperial palace and the buildings of the old city, many of, falling into disrepair since the transfer of the capital to Tokyo.
Soon however, he became ill and was confined to his bed. The Meiji Emperor sent Erwin Bälz, to examine Iwakura; the emperor visited his cousin and old friend on July 19, was moved to tears at his condition. Iwakura died the following day, was given a state funeral, the first given by the imperial government. From the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum Junior fifth rank Fifth rank Senior fifth rank Fourth rank Senior fourth rank Third rank Senior second rank First rank Senior first rank Beasley, Willia
Mary Valentine is a politician from the U. S. state of Michigan. She is former member of the Michigan State House of Representatives, she represented the 91st State House District, which includes most of Muskegon County, except for the city of Muskegon and surrounding areas. It includes a small portion of Ottawa County. In 2010 she was defeated in a landslide by her Republican opponent. Mary Valentine grew up in Bay City, she received a bachelor's degree from Central Michigan University in speech therapy and a master's degree from Northern Michigan University in education. She spent over thirty years working as a Speech Pathologist in the Muskegon area Public Schools until retiring in 2006 to run for the State House. Valentine started her campaign for the Michigan House of Representatives in June 2006, she was unopposed in the Democratic Party primary election. In the general election, she faced incumbent Representative David Farhat. Farhat was a two-term incumbent; the 91st district is a urban district and is one of the most competitive in the State.
Valentine won the election by a margin of 56-44 to gain her first elective office. In the House, she was the vice-chair of the Education Committee, she served on the Commerce, Great Lakes and Environment, Health Policy, Retiree Health Care Reforms Committees. In 2010 she was a candidate for the open 34th State Senate seat, being vacated by Republican Gerald Van Woerkom; because of this, Valentine did not seek a third term in the State House of Representatives. She went on to lose the state senate election in a landslide to Goeff Hansen and her house seat fell to the Republicans as well. Valentine lives in Norton Shores with her husband Phil, she has Shawn Valentine. She has taught Sunday School for the past 16 years. Valentine's Official Website Valentine's House Democrat's Website Valentine's Campaign Site
Franz Schubert's compositions of 1823 are in the Deutsch catalogue range D 768–798, include: Instrumental works: Piano Sonata in E minor, D 769A Piano Sonata in A minor, D 784 Moments musicaux, D 780 Valses Sentimentales, D 779 Vocal music: Die Verschworenen, D 787 Fierabras, D 796 Rosamunde, D 797 Die schöne Müllerin, D 795 "Auf dem Wasser zu singen", D 774 "Du bist die Ruh", D 776 "Lachen und Weinen", D 777 Multi-volume editions and catalogues Alte Gesamt-Ausgabe = Franz Schubert's Works: Schubert, Franz.. Franz Schubert's Werke: Kritisch durchgesehene Gesammtausgabe. Edited by Johannes Brahms, Ignaz Brüll, Anton Door, Julius Epstein, Johann Nepomuk Fuchs, Josef Gänsbacher, Joseph Hellmesberger Sr. and Eusebius Mandyczewski. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel. Reprints of several volumes by Kalmus and Dover Publications. Schubert: Thematic Catalogue of all his Works in Chronological Order. London: Dent. 1995 reprint, with errata correction: Deutsch, Otto Erich. The Schubert Thematic Catalogue. Mineola, N.
Y.: Dover Publications. ISBN 0486286851. Deutsch, Otto Erich. Franz Schubert: Thematisches Verzeichnis seiner Werke in chronologischer Folge. New Schubert Edition. Series VIII, Vol. 4. Kassel: Bärenreiter. ISBN 9783761805718. ISMN 9790006305148. Hoboken catalogue: "Joseph Haydn: Werke sortiert nach Hob". Kaiserslautern: Klassika. Retrieved 3 September 2017. Köchel catalogue: "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Werke sortiert nach KV6". Kaiserslautern: Klassika. Retrieved 3 September 2017. Neue Schubert-Ausgabe = New Schubert Edition: NSA scores: Schubert, Franz.. Franz Schubert: New Edition of the Complete Works. Edited by International Schubert Association. Kassel: Bärenreiter. Jahrmärker, Manuela. Sacontala. New Schubert Edition. Series II, Vol. 15. Kassel: Bärenreiter. ISMN 9790006497294. NSA VIII, 4: See above Deutsch NSA website: "New Schubert Edition". Tübingen: International Schubert Association. Retrieved 2 September 2017. Schubert Online: "www.schubert-online.at: Schubert music manuscripts and early editions online".
Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 1 September 2017; the LiederNet Archive: Ezust, Emily. "Composer: Franz Peter Schubert". Ontario: LiederNet Corporation. Retrieved 1 September 2017. Other Badura-Skoda, Eva. Schubert Studies: Problems of Style and Chronology. Contributions by Walther Dürr, Rufus Hallmark, Elaine Brody, Marius Flothuis, Elizabeth Norman McKay, Peter Branscombe, Christoph Wolff, Peter Gülke, Paul Badura-Skoda, Robert Winter, Eva Badura-Skoda, Reinhard Van Hoorickx, Arnold Feil and Alexander Weinmann. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521088720. Elsholz, Gunter. Vogel, Reimut. Franz Schubert: Sinfonie in E-Dur 1825. Stuttgart: Goldoni. ISBN 3922044050. OCLC 987719669. Hilmar, Ernst. Schubert-Enzyklopädie. 1. Introduction by Alfred Brendel. Tutzing: Hans Schneider. ISBN 3795211557. Keefe, Simon P. ed.. Mozart Studies. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521851025. Kube, Michael. "Franz Schuberts Deutsche Trauermesse als Problem der Text- und Stilkritik". In Mitterauer, Gertraud. Was ist Textkritik?: Zur Geschichte und Relevanz eines Zentralbegriffs der Editionswissenschaft.
Walter de Gruyter. Pp. 129–140. ISBN 3484970782. Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Kircher, Armin. Chorbuch Mozart • Haydn VII: Kanonsammlung. Stuttgart: Carus-Verlag. OCLC 274222567. Newbould, Brian. Schubert: The Music and the Man. University of California Press. ISBN 0520219570. Reed, John; the Schubert Song Companion. Manchester University Press. ISBN 1901341003. Van Hoorickx, Reinhard. "Franz Schubert List of the Dances in Chronological Order". Revue belge de Musicologie / Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Muziekwetenschap. Belgian Musicological Society. 25: 68–97. Doi:10.2307/3686180. ISSN 0771-6788. JSTOR 3686180. Van Hoorickx, Reinhard. "Thematic Catalogue of Schubert's Works: New Additions and Notes". R