SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ixcateopan de Cuauhtémoc

Ixcateopan de Cuauhtémoc is a town in Ixcateopan de Cuauhtémoc Municipality located in isolated, rugged mountains in the northern part of Guerrero state, Mexico. According to tradition, it is the final resting place of Aztec Emperor Cuauhtémoc, whose alleged remains were found under the parish church here in the mid-20th century; this church has been converted into a museum with displays a number of pre-Hispanic artifacts, offerings left in honor of the emperor and the alleged remains of Cuauhtémoc himself. This has been refuted by research and by a Judging Commission of the Mexican government in 1976. Ixcateopan de Cuauhtémoc is located 36 km west of famous silver town of Taxco de Alarcón, traveling on the state highway. Unlike its neighbor, the vegetation surrounding Ixcateopan is forested with pine and white cedar, walnut trees. Along the highway, there is a waterfall by the name of Cascada de Cacalotenango, which has a small chapel at the top; the distance between Ixcateopan and Chilpancingo, the capital of the state of Guerrero, is 180 km.

The explored archeological remains are located at the Ixcateopan. The name Ixcateopan from the Nahuatl words “ichcacates” and “moteopan,” “teopan,” or “teopancalli.” Most interpret the first word as meaning cotton and the second temple, leading to a translation of temple of cotton. However, some sources claim the real name of the area is Zompancuahuithli, the name was changed to Ixcateopan after the arrival of Cuauhtemoc's body and means; the glyph in the Mendoncino Codex for Ixcateopan reflects both interpretations, a cotton flower, a depiction of Cuauhtémoc and a pyramid. “De Cuauhtémoc” was added to Ixcateopan’s name by the Congress of the State of Guerrero in 1950. Some of the inhabitants of this area before the Conquest were the Chontals; the indigenous community located at what is now the southern edge of the town dates back to at least 350 C. E; this community was an important regional ceremonial center as well as the headquarters for the guardian soldiers. It was closely associated with the production of cotton and cotton products, a valuable commodity at the time.

Ixcateopan was one of the last cities to be subjugated by the Aztec Empire. The location served as a point to gather and distribute tribute from surrounding areas. Mexica from other parts of the Aztec Empire, including soldiers, came here due to the wars between them and the Purépecha Empire; because of this, Ixcateopan a purely Chontal city, became multicultural. Fray Torbio de Benavente, the local evangelist, Fray Bernardino de Sahagún wrote texts about the death and burial of Cuauhtémoc which were kept at the Church of San Hipólito in Mexico City but somehow wound up in the hands of the family of Salvador Rodriguez Juárez, the doctor of Ixcateopan in the first half of the 20th century; the documents had been passed down in his family for generations. They told of how Cuauhtémoc’s body had been recovered and brought to Ixcateopan and buried at the palace of his maternal grandparents in 1525. In 1529, Fray Toribio de Benavente had the body moved to a spot in front of the destroyed pagan temple, where the Church of Santa María de la Asunción would be built over him.

The documents indicated. After Rodríguez Juárez showed the documents to elders at the parish church, the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia was contacted, which sent archeologist Eulalia Guzmán to investigate the authenticity of the documents. After examining the documents, investigating the oral traditions of the area and other archeological and historical evidence, it was decided to excavate in the place where the documents indicated; the authenticity of the find was challenged, so the INAH sent other teams to investigate the find. Results of the corroborative efforts were mixed with researchers casting doubt on the age of the bones found, the documents that led to their discovery and the authenticity of the artifacts found at the site. In 1976, a Judging Commission determined: First; that the skeletal remains belong to eight individuals and come from different epochs and different forms of burial. Second; that the young adult mestizo whose remains face and teeth are part of Ichcateopan finding could not have been buried in 1529 Fourth.

That oral tradition does not start until the 16th century and in its current form is known only since 1949. Fifth; that all documents-both those that gave rise to the finding as presented later-are apocryphal and were developed after 1917 There is no scientific basis for claiming that the remains found on September 26, 1949 in the church of St. Mary of the Assumption, Guerrero, are the remains of Cuauhtemoc, the last lord of the Mexica and heroic defender of Mexico-Tenochtitlan Recent investigations determined that the remains are judged not to be of Cuauhtémoc, but instead corresponding to eight different bodies and the skull is female. Early research reports by Eulalia Guzmán, distorted the facts. Today the burial is considered a forgery by archeologists, although many locals and cultural activists still consider it to be genuine; the town of Ixcateopan has about 2,400 residents, over a third of the municipality’s inhabitants. One thing that stands out about this town is that streets are paved in unpolished white marble and many of the walls around properties contain it as well.

The town of Ixcateopan has similar colonial architecture as the larger Taxco: white houses topped with peaked roofs with red clay tile roofs. However, they are not as well-maintained as those in Taxco; because of the discovery of Cuauhtémoc’s tomb here, Ixcateopa

Benedikt, Benedikt

Benedikt is the central settlement in the Municipality of Benedikt in northeastern Slovenia. Before 1998, it was part of the Municipality of Lenart, it lies in the Slovene Hills. The area was part of the traditional region of Styria, it is now included in the Drava Statistical Region. The name of the settlement was changed from Sveti Benedikt v Slovenskih Goricah to Benedikt v Slovenskih Goricah in 1952; the name was changed on the basis of the 1948 Law on Names of Settlements and Designations of Squares and Buildings as part of efforts by Slovenia's postwar communist government to remove religious elements from toponyms. In 2003, it was changed to Benedikt; the local parish church from which the village gets its name is dedicated to Saint Benedict and belongs to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Maribor. It is a Gothic church dating to the second quarter of the 14th century, it was extensively rebuilt in the 19th centuries. Benedikt. A map and basic data. Geopedia.si. Retrieved 13 March 2012. Media related to Benedikt at Wikimedia Commons

Timeline of LGBT history, 21st century

The following is a timeline of lesbian, gay and transgender history in the 21st century. 2001 Same-sex marriages laws: Came into effect: The Netherlands Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws: Came into effect: Germany Passed: Finland Limited Partnership laws: Passed and Came into effect: Portugal Came into effect: Swiss canton of Geneva Anti-discrimination legislation: US states of Rhode Island and Maryland Equalization of age of consent: Albania, Estonia and United Kingdom. Repeal of Sodomy laws: US state of Arizona Decriminalisation of homosexuality: the rest of the United Kingdom's territories Homosexuality no longer an illness: China Marches and Prides: Protesters disrupt the first Pride march in the Serbian capital city of Belgrade The first memorial in the United States honoring LGBT veterans was dedicated in Desert Memorial Park, Cathedral City, California. Helene Faasen and Anne-Marie Thus, from the Netherlands, became the first two women to marry. Pink Triangle Park was dedicated.

Equalization of age of consent: Austria, Cyprus, Moldova and the Australian state of Western Australia Repeal of Sodomy laws: Romania, Costa Rica and the US States of Arkansas and Massachusetts Other: gay Dutch politician Pim Fortuyn is assassinated by Volkert van der Graaf Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays established its Transgender Network known as TNET, as its first official "Special Affiliate," recognized with the same privileges and responsibilities as its regular chapters. At the Reform seminary Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion in New York, the Reform rabbi Margaret Wenig organized the first school-wide seminar at any rabbinical school which addressed the psychological and religious issues affecting people who are intersex or transsexual.2003 Same-sex marriage laws: Passed and Came into effect: Belgium and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and British Columbia Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws: Came into effect: Argentinian city of Buenos Aires Passed:: Australian state of Tasmania Limited Partnerships laws: Came into effect: Austria and Croatia Anti-discrimination legislation:Bulgaria, United Kingdom, US states of Arizona, Michigan, New Mexico and Pennsylvania End to ban on gay people in the military: Russia Equalization of age of consent: Australian state and territory of New South Wales and Northern Territory Repeal of Sodomy laws: Armenia Repeal of the concept of Buggery in law: United Kingdom Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Iraq and United States Recriminalisation of homosexuality: Belize Section 28 was repealed in England and Wales and Northern Ireland.

Gene Robinson became the first gay Bishop in the Episcopal church in the USA. Reuben Zellman became the first transgender person accepted to the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, where he was ordained in 2010. In 2003, the Committee on Jewish Law and Standards approved a rabbinic ruling that concluded that sex reassignment surgery is permissible as a treatment of gender dysphoria, that a transgender person's sex status under Jewish law is changed by SRS. Legal recognition of indeterminate gender: Alex MacFarlane became the first person reported to obtain a birth certificate and passport, in Australia, showing indeterminate gender. In 2003 the Reform rabbi Margaret Wenig organized the first school-wide seminar at the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College which addressed the psychological and religious issues affecting people who are intersex or transsexual. Jennifer Finney Boylan's autobiography, She's Not There: A Life in Two Genders, was the first book by an transgender American to become a bestseller.

Buffy the Vampire Slayer showed girlfriends Willow Rosenberg and Tara Maclay in bed together, which though not a sex scene was considered the first scene of its kind for a broadcast network series. The first lesbian sex scene in broadcast TV history occurred, on Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Patrick Harvie became the first b