An elizate, is an early form of local government in the Basque Country, common in Biscay but existed in the other provinces. The terms elizate and elexate translate as "church door"; the Spanish term anteiglesia translates as "before church" or "parvise". The peculiar name derives from the Basque custom where the family heads of a settlement connected to a particular parish would gather after mass at the entrance or portico of the church to make decisions regarding issues affecting their community, their medieval history is linked to the emergence of the Batzar Nagusiak or "Grand Meetings" those of Biscay and Gipuzkoa and the establishment of parochial churches. Each elizate would elect a representative who would represent the elizate at a Batzar Nagusia, so the elizate represents an early form of local democracy; these enjoyed considerable autonomy in decision-making from the higher administrative authorities. An elizate was steered by a fiel sindiko, who would organise meetings and bear a makila as a sign of authority.
A fiel was chosen for one year through a number of methods. Some were nominated by the outgoing fiel, in some places the position of fiel would rotate through all farmholders of the elizate and in others the most married farmholder would be named fiel; each elizate was subdivided into smaller units called kofradiak which corresponded to the individual boroughs of an elizate. A group of elizates was a merindad. Through time elizates became municipalities. In Biscay, during the time of the Lordship of Biscay, the territory of all anteiglesias were referred to as Plain Land, as opposed to the more stratified cities, it was further incorporated into the administration. They became subject to the fueros which at the same time re-affirmed the status of nobility to all farmholders; this meant that unlike in most of feudal Europe, the farmers owned their land. After centuries of political change few elizate remain today, two of the most notable in Iurreta and Derio. In 1962, in Francoist Spain, the name of the elizates was changed to auzo and they were merged into municipalities.
The current term, auzo, is undistinguishable from the subdivisions of a city, which are called by the same term. The Water Tribunal of Valencia, Spain is unrelated to elizates, but holds sessions at the church door. Kasper, M. Baskische Geschichte Primus: 1997 Trask, L; the History of Basque Routledge: 1997 Anteiglesia in the Spanish-language Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Barakaldo is a municipality located in the Biscay province in the Basque Country. Located on the Left Bank of the Estuary of Bilbao, the city is part of Greater Bilbao with a population as of the 2011 census at 100,061. Barakaldo has an industrial river-port heritage and has undergone significant redevelopment with new commercial and residential areas replacing the once active industrial zones; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica original entry on the town stated: "Pop.: 15,013. Few Spanish towns have developed more than Baracaldo, which nearly doubled its population between 1880 and 1900. During this period many immigrant labourers settled here; the low flat country round Baracaldo is covered with maize, pod fruit and vines". Iron mining formed a large part of Barakaldo's industry; the steel industry, led by Altos Hornos de Vizcaya, had an important presence during the 20th century, until the industrial recession hit the region's economy in the 1980s. In recent decades, the industrial zones surrounding Barakaldo have become less prominent, which can be owed to the shuttering of large companies such as Babcock & Wilcox.
Although several factories remain, areas that were once industrial have been redeveloped into residential properties such as malls and parks. A large exhibition centre; the Bilbao Exhibition Centre has been built on the outskirts of the town. Barakaldo is connected to the rest of the Greater Bilbao metropolitan area by Line 2 of the Metro Bilbao. Four stations are in the city: Gurutzeta/Cruces, Ansio and Bagatza); the Cercanías Bilbao train line has two stations in Barakaldo. BizkaiBus company provides a bus service, with connections to the rest of Biscay. Locally, an urban bus system named. A tram line has been proposed to connect local districts; the main motorway is the A-8 motorway, which goes between Bilbao. It serves as the rest of Spain. A boat ferry service connects Barakaldo to the other side of the Estuary of Bilbao in Erandio. Barakaldo is located 15 kilometres from Bilbao Airport. Population peaked in the 1990s to over 100,300; the decline of local industry decreased the population, in 2002, 95,000 people lived in Barakaldo.
However, a recent increase has sent the population to 100,502 residents. Tourists visit sites in Barakaldo such as the Botanic Garden, the Bilbao Exhibition Centre, the medieval Bridge of Castrexana, some of the city's street sculptures. In July, the town celebrates "Las Fiestas del Carmen," which includes open-air concerts and large fairs. Barakaldo is represented by the Barakaldo Club de Fútbol in Spain's Segunda División B, they play home games at the Estadio Nuevo Lasesarre. A second team, SD Retuerto Sport, plays in Tercera División. Local league teams include Gurutzeta KFT, UD Burtzeña, Pauldarrak FKT, Zuazo C. F. and S. C. D. Dosa-Salesianos. Handball has played a part in Barakaldo's tradition. Now, two teams are present in competitions: Club Balonmano Zuazo Femenino, playing in División de Honor Femenina de Balonmano, Club Balonmano Barakaldo who plays in the Liga ASOBAL. Bizkaia Arena is an indoor arena with a capacity of 18,640, it hosted some games of the 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup. Asier del Horno, footballer Carlos Sobera, actor David López, cyclist Iñaki Lafuente, footballer Javier Clemente, football manager Javier González Gómez, footballer Javier Otxoa, cyclist Josep Lluís Núñez, president of FC Barcelona between 1978 and 2000 Unai Expósito, footballer Antonio Iturmendi Bañales, politician Barakaldo D.
F. A Mägo de Oz concert DVD filmed in Barakaldo Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Baracaldo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. P. 379. Www.i-barakaldo.com La comunidad virtual de Barakaldo Official website BARAKALDO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Mañaria is an elizate and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, Spain. Mañaria is part of the comarca of Durangaldea and has a population of 459 inhabitants as of 2006 according to the Spanish National Statistics Institute; as happens with most of the elizates, little is known about the early history of the town and its foundation. Prehistoric deposits of Magdalenian and Neolithic origin have been found in the caves of Silibranka and Atxuri, among others. A Visigoth liturgical vase of the 7th Century has been found. Mañaria was part of the merindad of Durango, it had voice and right to vote in the Juntas of Guerendiaga, where it occupied the seat number four. On the 18th Century the construction of the Royal Road connecting the city of Vitoria with the coast of Biscay going through Urkiola meant the realignment of the town's location, making it the central axis of the municipality. Since mid 18th Century and during the entire 19th Century, Mañaria lived a period of splendor because of the exploitation of its quarries.
The church is extended, the school, the Basque pelota fronton, the tower of the clock and the cemetery are built. Mañaria is located in the southeastern part of the province of Biscay, located in northern Spain, it limits at north with the municipalities of Izurtza and Durango, at west with Dima and at east and south with Abadiño. Mañaria is surrounded by mountains. Other important mountains that surround the municipality are the Saibi; the road BI-623 that connects Durango with Vitoria-Gasteiz crosses the city from north to south before ascending to Urkiola. More than 70% of the territory of the municipality is part of the Urkiola Natural Park; the valley is formed by the Mañaria River that originates in the hillsides of the mountains that surround it. This river joins the Ibaizabal river; the economy of the municipality is based on industry. The primary sector is based on the exploitation of resources as limestone and marble in quarries, being this the main economical activity of the municipality.
Some small farming activities are present. The secondary sector is based on the metallurgical transformation. Most of the industries are located in the deeper area of the valley, it is non-existent due the proximity of bigger cities, as Durango or Bilbao, where most of the services are located. The transportation is based on road transportation by the BI-623 road, which connects the town with Durango, the capital city of the comarca of Durangaldea and 5 km away; the same road by south connects the town with Urkiola and from there to Otxandio and the province of Álava. In Durango, the road is connected to the National Road N-634 and the highway AP-8 to Bilbao and Donostia-San Sebastián. Durango, Biscay Durangaldea MAÑARIA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Amorebieta-Etxano known as Zornotza, is a town and municipality located in Biscay in the Basque Country, an Autonomous Community in northern Spain. At the time of the 2014 census, the population of the municipality was 18,579, with 16,907 inhabitants living in Amorebieta; the mayor is Andoni Agirrebeitia. Amorebieta-Etxano is an inland town in the comarca of Duranguesado in the province of Biscay in northern Spain, it is about 25 km east of Bilbao and close to the European route E70 which runs along the north coast of Spain. It is located in the valley of the River Ibaizabal. Amorebieta-Etxano has a rich historical heritage; the municipality of Amorebieta-Etxano came into being on 26 January 1951 as the result of a merger between Amorebieta and Etxano, two communities in the historic administrative district of Merindad de Zornotza. The other parts of the district were merged into the neighbouring municipality of Muxika; the new coat of arms shows the union between Etxano. In the 2014 census, Amorebieta had a population of 16,907 while that of Etxano was 221.
The town is divided into several districts. The church of Santa María de la Asunción is in the centre of Amorebieta on the banks of the Ibaizaba, it is a large Renaissance building started in 1555 and opened for worship in 1608 and is noted for its altarpiece. Another Renaissance church is the Parroquia de San Juan Bautista de Larrea; this dates back to 1647, in 1704 it was given to the Carmelite Order to found a convent. In San Antonio is the hermitage of San Miguel de Dudea, nearby is the Neoclassical López Palace. A branch of the international company Tecnalia Research & Innovation is located here in the Parque Empresarial Boroa where the firm employs 1500 people. Xabier Etxeita Jon Aurtenetxe Beñat Intxausti, a professional cyclist. Amorebieta Etxano, Official web page Amorebieta-Etxano in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Álava or Araba Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see. Its capital city, Vitoria-Gasteiz, is the seat of the political main institutions of the autonomous community, it borders the Basque provinces of Biscay and Gipuzkoa to the north, the community of La Rioja to the south, the province of Burgos to the west and the community of Navarre to the east. The Enclave of Treviño, surrounded by Alavese territory, is however part of the province of Burgos, thus belonging to the autonomous community of Castile and León, not Álava, it is the largest of the three provinces in the Basque Autonomous Community in geographical terms, with 2,963 km2, but the least populated with 328,868 inhabitants. Built around the Roman mansion Alba located on the road ab Asturica Burdigalam, it has sometimes been argued the name may stem from that landmark. However, according to the Royal Academy of the Basque Language, the origin may be another: The name is first found on Muslim chronicles of the 8th century referring to the Alavese Plains, laua in old Basque with the Arab article added, developing into Spanish Álava and Basque Araba.
The province numbers 51 municipalities, a population of 315,525 inhabitants in an area of 3,037 km2, with an average of 104.50 inhabitants/km2. The vast majority of the population clusters in the capital city of Álava, Vitoria-Gasteiz, which serves as the capital of the Autonomous Community, but the remainder of the territory is sparsely inhabited with population nuclei distributed into seven counties: Añana. Álava is an inland territory and features a transitional climate between the humid, Atlantic neighbouring northern provinces and the dry and warmer lands south of the Ebro River. According to the relief and landscape characteristics, the territory is divided into five main zones: The Gorbea Foothills: Green hilly landscape; the Valleys: Low valleys, sparsely populated. The Plains: Heartland of Álava comprising Vitoria and Salvatierra-Agurain, with a central urban area and crop landscape prevailing around and bounded south and north by the Basque Mountains; the Alavese Mountains: Higher forest lands.
The Alavese Rioja: Oriented to the south on the left bank of the Ebro River, perfect for vineyards. Ayala: The area clustering around the Nervión River, with Amurrio and Laudio as its major towns; the region shows close bonds with an industrial landscape. Unlike Biscay and Gipuzkoa, but for Ayala and Aramaio, the waters of Álava pour into the Ebro and hence to the Mediterranean by means of two main waterways, i.e. the Zadorra and Bayas Rivers. In addition, the Zadorra Reservoir System harvests a big quantity of waters that supply not only the capital city but other major Basque towns and cities too, like Bilbao. While in 1950 agriculture and farming shaped the landscape of the territory, the trend shifted during the 60s and 70s on the grounds of a growing industrial activity in the Alavese Plains, with the main focus lying on the industrial estates of Vitoria-Gasteiz and, to a lesser extent, Salvatierra-Agurain and Araia. At the turn of the century, only 2% of the working Alavese people was in agriculture, while 60% was in the tertiary sector and 32% in manufacturing.
Industry associated with iron and metal developed earlier in the Atlantic area much in tune with Bilbao's economic dynamics, with droves of people flocking to and clustering in Amurrio and Laudio, which have since become the third and second main towns of Álava. List of rulers: Eylo, up to 866 Rodrigo c. 867–870, count of Castile Vela Jiménez 870–c. 887 Munio Velaz c. 887–c. 921 Álvaro Herraméliz c. 921–931 count of Cerezo and Lantarón Fernán González 931–970 count of Castile, Álava feudatary of Castile until 1030 García Fernández 970–995 Munio González 1030–1043 Fortunio Íñiguez 1043–1046 Munio Muñoz 1046–1060, Álava feudatary of Navarre, 1046–1085 Sancho Maceratiz 1046–1060 Ramiro 1060–1075 Marcelo 1075–1085 Lope Íñiguez 1085–?, Álava feudatary of Castile until 1123 Lope Díaz the White?–1093 Lope González 1093–1099 Lope Sánchez 1099–1114 Diego López I 1114–1123 Ladrón Íñiguez 1123–1158, Álava feudatary of Navarre until 1199 Vela Ladrón 1158–1175 Juan Velaz 1175–1181 Diego López II 1181–1187 Íñigo de Oriz 1187–1199 Diego López de Haro I 1199–1214, Álava feudatary of Castile until personal union of 1332 Lope Diaz de Haro I 1214–1240 Nuño González de Lara 1240–1252 Diego López de Haro II 1252–1274 Fernando de la Cerda 1274–1280 Lope Díaz II de Haro 1280–1288 Juan Alonso de Haro 1288–1310 Diego López de Salcedo 1310–1332The title is attributed to the Castilian kings after 1332.
The Arab invasion of the Ebro valley in the 8th century, many Christians of the Diocese of Calahorra sought refuge in areas further north free of Arab rule. The diocese called Álava or Armentaria was established in 870 on terrirory split off from the Diocese of Calahorra. From until the 11th century the names of several bishops of this see are recorded, the best known being the last, Fortún, who in 1072 went to Rome to argue before Pope Alexander II in defence of the Mozarabic Rite, which King Alfonso VI of León and Castile had decree
Untxillaitz, Untxillaitx, or Untzillatx, is a mountain of Biscay, Basque Country, 934 m. high. Its name may mean. Part of the Urkiola range, although it does not belong to the same crest of the Anboto, it is part of the same limestone range, it forms the pass of Atxarte with the neighnouring Aitz Txiki and it is located in the valleys of Mendiola and Mañaria. Quarries have been created in both sides of the mountain. Mañaria is the starting point of the Urkiola pass. An outstanding feature is the rock prominence in the north face, called Urresti; this prominence has many rock climbing ways and vulture nests. From Atxarte. From the neighbourhood of Zelaieta in Abadiano the road goes to the Atxarte pass there the river is crossed and a path turns to the right and there is a steep ascension beside the Urresti prominence. At the top of Urresti there is a difficult rock climb. At the end of the prominence, the crest is followed until the summit. From Mañaria by Elosua. From the quarry at this side of the mountain, there is a path that leads to the col of Elosua, from where the summit is reached following the crest.
Untzillatx at wikineos Mendikat Las montañas