Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries. These dates, are not absolute, since written Old Norse is found well into the 15th century, Old Norse was divided into three dialects, Old West Norse, Old East Norse and Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them. For example, Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway, although Old Norwegian is classified as Old West Norse, most speakers spoke Old East Norse in what is present day Denmark and Sweden. Old Gutnish, the more obscure dialectal branch, is included in the Old East Norse dialect due to geographical associations. It developed its own features and shared in changes to both other branches. The 12th century Icelandic Gray Goose Laws state that Swedes, Norwegians and Danes spoke the same language, another term used, used especially commonly with reference to West Norse, was norrœnt mál.
In some instances the term Old Norse refers specifically to Old West Norse, the Old East Norse dialect was spoken in Denmark, settlements in Kievan Rus, eastern England, and Danish settlements in Normandy. The Old Gutnish dialect was spoken in Gotland and in settlements in the East. In the 11th century, Old Norse was the most widely spoken European language, in Kievan Rus, it survived the longest in Veliky Novgorod, probably lasting into the 13th century there. Norwegian is descended from Old West Norse, but over the centuries it has heavily influenced by East Norse. Old Norse had an influence on English dialects and Lowland Scots and it influenced the development of the Norman language, and through it and to a smaller extent, that of modern French. Various other languages, which are not closely related, have heavily influenced by Norse, particularly the Norman dialects, Scottish Gaelic. The current Finnish and Estonian words for Sweden are Ruotsi and Rootsi, of the modern languages, Icelandic is the closest to Old Norse.
Written modern Icelandic derives from the Old Norse phonemic writing system, contemporary Icelandic-speakers can read Old Norse, which varies slightly in spelling as well as semantics and word order. However, particularly of the phonemes, has changed at least as much as in the other North Germanic languages. Faroese retains many similarities but is influenced by Danish, although Swedish and the Norwegian languages have diverged the most, they still retain asymmetric mutual intelligibility. Speakers of modern Swedish and Danish can mostly understand each other without studying their neighboring languages, the languages are sufficiently similar in writing that they can mostly be understood across borders
Sogn og Fjordane
Sogn og Fjordane is a county in western Norway, bordering Møre og Romsdal, Oppland and Hordaland. The county administration is in the village of Hermansverk in Leikanger municipality, the largest town in the county is Førde. Although Sogn og Fjordane has some industry, predominantly hydroelectricity and aluminium, Sogn og Fjordane is home to the Urnes Stave Church and the Nærøyfjord, which are both listed by UNESCO as world heritage sites. The Sogn og Fjordane University College has campuses in Sogndal, the name Sogn og Fjordane was created in 1919, a literal translation is, Sogn and the fjords. The first element is the name of the region of Sogn, the last element is the plural definite form of fjord, which refers to the two regions in the county called Nordfjord and Sunnfjord in the northern and central parts of the county. Prior to 1919, the name of the county was Nordre Bergenhus amt which meant northern Bergenhus amt, the coat of arms of Sogn og Fjordane was granted on 23 September 1983.
The arms show the layout of the county, three large blue fjords protruding into the white colored land. The three fjords represent the three regions of the county, Nordfjord and Sogn, nearly all villages and towns are situated along one of these fjords and the name of the county is based on the fjords. The county is divided into three traditional districts. These are Sogn and Nordfjord, Sogn surrounds Sognefjorden from Solund on the offshore island of Sula in the North Sea to the village of Skjolden in Luster along Lustrafjorden, a branch of the Sognefjord. The total length is 204 kilometres, the middle district of Sunnfjord actually has two main fjords, Førdefjorden and Dalsfjorden. Sogn og Fjordane is the county in Norway in which all municipalities have declared Nynorsk to be their official written form of the Norwegian language. The county currently consists of the two counties and Sygnafylke. These both were formed in the Middle Ages under the Gulating government and they were merged with Hordafylke and Sunnmørafylke to form the Bergenhus len in the late Middle Ages.
The Bergenhus len was one of four len in Norway and it was administered from the Bergenhus Fortress in the city of Bergen. On 19 February 1662, a decree changed the name to Bergenhus amt. The Sunnmøre region was moved to Romsdalen amt in 1689, later, in 1763, the amt was divided in half creating, Nordre Bergenhus and Søndre Bergenhus. Later, on 1 January 1919, Nordre Bergenhus amt was renamed Sogn og Fjordane fylke during a period of time when many location names in Norway were changed, a county is the chief local administrative area in Norway
A parish is a church territorial unit constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates. Historically, a parish often covered the same area as a manor. By extension the term refers not only to the territorial unit. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ex-officio, the eighth Archbishop of Canterbury Theodore of Tarsus appended the parish structure to the Anglo-Saxon township unit, where it existed, and where minsters catered to the surrounding district. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a parish comprises a division of a diocese or see, parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a deanery or vicariate forane, overseen by a dean or vicar forane, or in some cases by an archpriest. Some churches of the Anglican Communion have deaneries as units of an archdeaconry, in the Roman Catholic Church, each parish normally has its own parish priest, who has responsibility and canonical authority over the parish.
These are called assistant priests, parochial vicars, curates, or, in the United States, associate pastors, each diocese is divided into parishes, each with their own central church called the parish church, where religious services take place. An example is that of personal parishes established in accordance with the 7 July 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum for those attached to the form of the Roman Rite. Most Catholic parishes are part of Latin Rite dioceses, which cover the whole territory of a country. There can be overlapping parishes of eparchies of Eastern Catholic Churches, the Church of England geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the Reformation with the Anglican Churchs secession from Rome remaining largely untouched, Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of Canterbury,30 and York,14. A chapelry was a subdivision of a parish in England. It had a status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church.
In England civil parishes and their parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities. Thus their boundaries began to diverge, the word parish acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a council elected by public vote or a parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a district council. The parish is the level of church administration in the Church of Scotland
Jostedal Glacier is the largest glacier in continental Europe. It is situated in Sogn og Fjordane county in Western Norway, Jostedalsbreen lies in the municipalities of Luster, Sogndal, Jølster, and Stryn. The highest peak in the area is Lodalskåpa at a height of 2,083 metres, in 1906 work was being done on footpaths that could accommodate tourists. Jostedal Glacier has an area of 487 square kilometres. The highest point is Høgste Breakulen at 1,957 metres above sea level. Branches of the glacier reach down into the valleys, for instance Bøyabreen in Fjærland and Nigardsbreen, the thickest part of the glacier is 600 metres. Jostedalsbreen has a length of a more than 60 kilometres and it is a part of the 1, 310-square-kilometre Jostedalsbreen National Park. The glacier covers over half of the national park, the glacier is maintained by the high snowfall rates in the region, not the cold temperatures. This means the glacier has high melting rates in its snouts, in 2012, the glacier arm Briksdalsbreen lost 50 metres of ice in a few months.
More recent measurements now show that Briksdalsbreen retreated 146 metres in 2006, ice climbing has now been terminated because of this event. List of glaciers List of glaciers in Norway Dyer, Robertson, Ian H. Baddeley, Norway, J. W. Cappelens Forlag AS. Jostedalsbreen National Park Centre Jostedal Glacier National Park Directorate for Nature Management - National Parks
It is located about 8 kilometres north-east of the village of Vassenden. The castle was built in sometime between 1276 to 1286, probably by English craftsmen working out of Bergen. The rectangular building was 22 by 13 metres and is thought to have had three stories, a room in the ground floor, living quarters on the next floor. It had large windows and arches, the building itself had water on three sides and was thus easy to defend. It is thought that a moat or castle wall was part of the fortifications, recent research claims that Audun himself spent little time in his castle as his activities kept him either in Bergen, in the east of the country or abroad. As a baron, Audun Hugleiksson was allowed to keep a hird a right reserved for the king. This hird would defend him on his travels and when he was at home in Audunborg, stories about Audun remain in local folklore and one story includes him burying all his money and sinking a silver table into the Jølstravatn before departing for his last trip to Bergen.
Today, only the ruins remain of the castle stood at the tip of Hegreneset by Jølstravatn in Sunnfjord. It was first excavated by Gerhard Fischer in 1934 and is modelled after Håkonshallen in Bergen which was twice as long. A memorial to Audun, carved by Jørgen P. Solheimsnes from Jølster was erected on the site of the castle in 1960 and its motive is the barons seal. There is an outdoor play performed at Ålhus called Hugleikssonspelet. Written by Edvard Hoem and based on a book by Anne Cecilie Kapstad, illustrated by Ludvig Eikaas, the play commemorates the life of Audun Hugleiksson
Nynorsk, literally New Norwegian or New Norse, is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål. From 1885, when the parliament declared them official and equal, until new voting in 1929, the official standard of Nynorsk has since been significantly altered. A minor purist fraction of the Nynorsk populace has stayed firm with the Aasen norm, in local communities, one-fourth of Norwegian municipalities have declared Nynorsk as their official language form, and these municipalities account for about 12% of the Norwegian populace. Of the remaining municipalities, half are neutral and half have adopted Bokmål as their official language form, four of Norways nineteen counties, Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane and Møre og Romsdal, have Nynorsk as their official language form. These four together comprise the region of Western Norway, the word Nynorsk has another meaning. Nynorsk was the written Norwegian in use until it died out in the early 1600s during the period of Danish rule, a major source of old written material is Diplomatarium Norvegicum in 22 printed volumes.
Written Nynorsk is found in all the types of places. Bokmål has, however, a larger basis in the cities. Most Norwegians do not speak either Nynorsk or Bokmål as written, Nynorsk shares many of the problems that minority languages face. In Norway, each municipality and county can choose to one of the two languages as its official language, or it can remain language neutral. As of 2015, 26% of the 428 municipalities have declared Nynorsk as their language, while 36% have chosen Bokmål and another 36% are neutral. At least 128 of the municipalities are in areas where Bokmål is the prevailing form. As for counties, three have declared Nynorsk, Sogn og Fjordane and Møre og Romsdal, two have declared Bokmål, Østfold and Vestfold. The remaining fourteen are officially language neutral, there are few municipalities in language neutral counties that use nynorsk. The main language used in schools is decided by referendum within the local school district. The number of districts and pupils using primarily Nynorsk has decreased from its height in the 1940s.
As of 2016,12. 2% of pupils in school are taught Nynorsk as their primary language. The prevailing regions for Nynorsk are the areas of the western counties of Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane and Møre og Romsdal
Myklebustbreen or Snønipbreen is the seventh largest glacier in mainland Norway. It is located in the municipalities of Jølster and its highest point is located just below the nunatak Snønipa, with an altitude of 1,827 metres. The lowest point on the glacier is at an elevation of 890 metres above sea level, the villages of Byrkjelo and Egge both lie on the European route E39 highway which runs north and south, about 7 kilometres east of Myklebustbreen. The Oldedalen valley lies to the east of the glacier, the glacier lies northwest of the large Jostedalsbreen glacier, and both are part of Jostedalsbreen National Park. Jostedalsbreen and Myklebustbreen are separated by the Stardalen valley, list of glaciers in Norway The largest glaciers in Norway
Breim is a former municipality in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway. It is part of the district of Nordfjord in the eastern part of the present-day Gloppen Municipality. The municipality existed from 1886 until 1964 and the center was the village of Reed. Breim municipality was located to the east of Gloppen, south of Stryn and the Utvik mountains, west of the Jostedalsbreen glacier, the municipality was centered on the lake Breimsvatn. A lot of the inhabitants of Breim lived on the shores of the lake or in the river valley extending east from the lake. The main church for the municipality was Breim Church, located in Reed, the areas original name comes from the Old Norse word Breiðefni. The first element of that comes from the old word Breiðr which means broad. The current spelling of the name was settled upon by the 1800s, on 1 January 1886, Gloppen Municipality was split into two municipalities and Breim. On 1 January 1964, the small Førde farm at the end of the lake Breimsvatnet was administratively transferred to Jølster municipality to the south.
On the same date, the rest of Breim was merged into Gloppen municipality, the area of Breim is divided into two school districts, with the Byrkjelo school and Reed with the Reed school. After 8th grade students have to travel to the Gloppen ungdomskule in Sandane, sognefjorden travel guide from Wikivoyage Weather information for Breim
Centre Party (Norway)
The Centre Party is an agrarian centrist political party in Norway. From its founding until 2000, the party joined only governments not led by the Labour Party, governments headed by prime ministers from the party include the short-lived Kolstad and Hundseids Cabinet between 1931 and 1933, and the longer-lasting Bortens Cabinet from 1965 until 1971. The party was founded at the convention of the Norsk Landmandsforbund during 17 to 19 June 1920. In 1922 the association was renamed to the Norwegian Agrarian Association, during the eight decades since the Centre Party was created as a political faction of a Norwegian agrarian organisation, the party has changed a great deal. The 1930s have in the post-war era been seen as a time in the partys history. This is partly because Vidkun Quisling, who became leader of Nasjonal Samling, was Minister of Defence in the Farmers Party Kolstad. Quisling was however not a member of the Farmers Party, while there were fascist sympaties among parts of the Farmers Partys electorate, the Farmers Party itself never supported fascism.
It was after all the Farmers Party that enabled the first stable Labour cabinet in Norway, in 1935, they reached a compromise with the Labour Party, which led to the Nygaardsvold Cabinet. In addition, the Farmers Party was represented in the cabinet by Anders Fjeldstad. Political scientist Trond Nordby in 2009 said that the Farmers Party has been given a bad reputation from this time. In 1959 the party changed their name to the Norwegian Democratic Party — Democrats, in June 1959 the name was changed to the current Centre Party. This happened out of the need to attract an additional electorate with the decline of the agrarian share of the population. The partys membership peaked at 70,000 in 1971. In local elections, the party enjoys strong support in small municipalities. After the 2007 elections,83 of the mayors in Norway represent the Centre Party, only the Labour Party has more mayors, and relative to party size, the Centre Party has more mayors than any other. The Centre Party had been a part of only non-socialist coalition governments from 1930 to 2000, in seven governments and these negotiations succeeded and the Centre Party entered the Second Stoltenberg Cabinet on 17 October 2005 with four ministers.
The Red-Greens were re-elected to government in the 2009 election and it has been argued that the partys ideology has moved more towards social democracy in recent years. This included increased duties of 429% on lamb, 344% on beef, the party is known in Norway for their support of high toll tariffs on foreign cheese and meat, called toll protection, and their proposal to shoot all wolves in Norway
The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, until 1814, the kingdom included the Faroe Islands and Iceland. It included Isle of Man until 1266, Shetland and Orkney until 1468, Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres and a population of 5,258,317. The country shares a long border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway, erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013, replacing Jens Stoltenberg. A constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the Cabinet and the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution, the kingdom is established as a merger of several petty kingdoms. By the traditional count from the year 872, the kingdom has existed continuously for 1,144 years, Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels and municipalities.
The Sámi people have an amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament. Norway maintains close ties with the European Union and the United States, the country maintains a combination of market economy and a Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system. Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber, the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the countrys gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the worlds largest producer of oil, the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. On the CIAs GDP per capita list which includes territories and some regions, from 2001 to 2006, and again from 2009 to 2017, Norway had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world. It has the highest inequality-adjusted ranking, Norway ranks first on the World Happiness Report, the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity and the Democracy Index.
Norway has two names, Noreg in Nynorsk and Norge in Bokmål. The name Norway comes from the Old English word Norðrveg mentioned in 880, meaning way or way leading to the north. In contrasting with suðrvegar southern way for Germany, and austrvegr eastern way for the Baltic, the Anglo-Saxon of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. This was the area of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway, and because of him
Counties of Norway
Norway is divided into 19 administrative regions, called counties, until 1918, they were known as amter. The counties form the first-level subdivisions of Norway and are divided into 428 municipalities. Svalbard and Jan Mayen are outside the county division and ruled directly on national level, the capital Oslo is considered both a county and a municipality. In 2017 the government decided to abolish the current counties and to them with fewer, larger administrative regions. Below is a list of the Norwegian counties as they have been since 1919, note that the counties are administered both by appointees of the national government and to a lesser extent by their own elected bodies. The county numbers are from the numbering system ISO 3166-2, NO. The number 13 was dropped from the system when the city of Bergen was merged into Hordaland in 1972, from the consolidation to a single kingdom, Norway was divided into a number of geographic regions that had its own legislative assembly or Thing, such as Gulating and Frostating.
The second-order subdivision of these regions was into fylker, such as Egdafylke and Hordafylke, in 1914, the historical term fylke was brought into use again to replace the term amt introduced during the union with Denmark. Current day counties often, but not necessarily, correspond to the historical areas. Finnmark, the Faroe Islands, the Orkney Islands, the Hebrides, Isle of Man and Greenland were Norwegian skattland, from the end of the 12th century, Norway was divided into several syssel. The head of the various syssel was the syslemann, who represented the king locally, the following shows a reconstruction of the different syssel in Norway c. 1300, including sub-syssel where these seem established, from 1308, the term len in Norway signified an administrative region roughly equivalent to todays counties. The historic len was an important administrative entity during the period of Dano-Norwegian unification after their amalgamation as one state, which lasted for the period 1536–1814. At the beginning of the 16th century the political divisions were variable, up to 1660 the four principal len were headquartered at the major fortresses Bohus Fortress, Akershus Fortress, Bergenhus Fortress and the fortified city of Trondheim.
The sub-regions corresponded to the districts for the Lutheran church in Norway. Båhus len Akershus len Trondheim len Bergenhus len These four principal len were in the 1530s divided into approximately 30 smaller regions. From that point forward through the beginning of the 17th century the number of subsidiary len was reduced, from 1660 Norway had nine principal len comprising 17 subsidiary len, Len written as län continues to be used as the administrative equivalent of county in Sweden to this day. Each len was governed by a lenman, with the royal decree of February 19,1662, each len was designated an amt and the lenmann was titled amtmann, from German Amt, reflecting the bias of the Danish court of that period