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J. Edgar Hoover

John Edgar Hoover was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States and an American law enforcement administrator. He was appointed as the director of the Bureau of Investigation – the FBI's predecessor – in 1924 and was instrumental in founding the FBI in 1935, where he remained director for another 37 years until his death in 1972 at the age of 77. Hoover has been credited with building the FBI into a larger crime-fighting agency than it was at its inception and with instituting a number of modernizations to police technology, such as a centralized fingerprint file and forensic laboratories. In life and after his death, Hoover became a controversial figure as evidence of his secretive abuses of power began to surface, he was found to have exceeded the jurisdiction of the FBI, to have used the FBI to harass political dissenters and activists, to amass secret files on political leaders, to collect evidence using illegal methods. Hoover amassed a great deal of power and was in a position to intimidate and threaten others, including sitting presidents of the United States.

John Edgar Hoover was born on New Year's Day 1895 in Washington, D. C. to Anna Marie, of Swiss-German descent, Dickerson Naylor Hoover Sr. chief of the printing division of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey a plate maker for the same organization. Dickerson Hoover was of German ancestry. Hoover's maternal great-uncle, John Hitz, was a Swiss honorary consul general to the United States. Among his family, he was the closest to his mother, their moral guide and disciplinarian. Hoover was born in a house on the present site of Capitol Hill United Methodist Church, located on Seward Square near Eastern Market in Washington's Capitol Hill neighborhood. A stained glass window in the church is dedicated to him. Hoover did not have a birth certificate filed upon his birth, although it was required in 1895 in Washington. Two of his siblings did have certificates, but Hoover's was not filed until 1938 when he was 43. Hoover lived in Washington, D. C. his entire life. He attended Central High School, where he sang in the school choir, participated in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps program, competed on the debate team.

During debates, he argued against women getting the right to vote and against the abolition of the death penalty. The school newspaper applauded his "cool, relentless logic." Hoover stuttered as a boy, which he overcame by teaching himself to talk quickly—a style that he carried through his adult career. He spoke with such ferocious speed that stenographers had a hard time following him. Hoover was 18 years old when he accepted his first job, an entry-level position as messenger in the orders department, at the Library of Congress; the library was a half mile from his house. The experience shaped the creation of the FBI profiles, it gave me an excellent foundation for my work in the FBI where it has been necessary to collate information and evidence."Hoover obtained a Bachelor of Laws from The George Washington University Law School in 1916, where he was a member of the Alpha Nu Chapter of the Kappa Alpha Order, an LL. M. in 1917 from the same university. While a law student, Hoover became interested in the career of Anthony Comstock, the New York City U.

S. Postal Inspector, who waged prolonged campaigns against fraud, vice and birth control. After getting his LL. M. degree, Hoover was hired by the Justice Department to work in the War Emergency Division. He accepted the clerkship on July 1917, when he was just 22 years old; the job was exempt from the draft. In 1920, Edgar Hoover was initiated at D. C.'s Federal Lodge No. 1 in Washington D. C. becoming a Master Mason by age 25 and a 33rd Degree Inspector General Honorary in 1955. He soon became the head of the Division's Alien Enemy Bureau, authorized by President Woodrow Wilson at the beginning of World War I to arrest and jail disloyal foreigners without trial, he received additional authority from the 1917 Espionage Act. Out of a list of 1,400 suspicious Germans living in the U. S. the Bureau designated 1,172 as arrestable. In August 1919, the 24-year-old Hoover became head of the Bureau of Investigation's new General Intelligence Division known as the Radical Division because its goal was to monitor and disrupt the work of domestic radicals.

America's First Red Scare was beginning, one of Hoover's first assignments was to carry out the Palmer Raids. Hoover and his chosen assistant, George Ruch, monitored a variety of U. S. radicals with the intent to punish, arrest, or deport those whose politics they decided were dangerous. Targets during this period included Marcus Garvey. In 1921, Hoover rose in the Bureau of Investigation to deputy head and, in 1924, the Attorney General made him the acting director. On May 10, 1924, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Hoover as the fifth Director of the Bureau of Investigation in response to allegations that the prior director, William J. Burns, was involved in the Teapot Dome scandal; when Hoover took over the Bureau of Investigation, it had 650 employees, including 441 Special Agents. Hoover banned the future hiring of them. Hoover was sometimes unpredictable in his leadership, he fired Bureau agents, singling out those he thought "looked stupid like truck driver

Black Box (game)

Black Box is an abstract board game for one or two players, which simulates shooting rays into a black box to deduce the locations of "atoms" hidden inside. It was created by Eric Solomon; the board game was published by Waddingtons from the mid-1970s and by Parker Brothers in the late 1970s. The game can be played with pen and paper, there are numerous computer implementations for many different platforms, including one which can be run from the Emacs text editor. Black Box was inspired by the work of Godfrey Hounsfield, awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his invention of the CAT scanner. Black Box is played on a two-dimensional grid; the object of the game is to discover the location of objects hidden within the grid, by the use of the minimum number of probes. The atoms are hidden by a person in a two-player game. In a solitaire game, they are either hidden by a computer or they are pre-hidden; the seeker designates where the ray enters the hider announces the result. This result is marked by the seeker, who uses these to deduce the position of the atoms in the black box.

The most common configuration for novice players is four atoms in an 8×8 grid. At left is a sample black box in this configuration. There are 32 input positions in an 8×8 grid, eight each at the top, bottom and left. A beam is "fired" into one of these positions and the result is used to help deduce the location of a known number of hidden atoms. Atoms interact with rays in three ways. A direct impact on an atom by a ray is a "hit". Thus, ray 1 fired into the box configuration at left strikes an atom directly, generating a "hit", designated by an "H". A ray which hits an atom does not emerge from the box; the interaction resulting from a ray which does not hit an atom, but which passes directly to one side of the ball is called a "deflection". The angle of deflection for this ray/atom interaction is 90 degrees. Ray 2 is deflected by the atom at left; the final type of interaction of a ray with an atom is a "reflection", designated by an "R". This occurs in two circumstances. If an atom is at the edge of the grid, any ray, aimed into the grid directly beside it causes a reflection.

Rays 3 and 4 at left would each generate a reflection, due to the atom at the edge. Ray 5 would be a hit on the atom; the other circumstance leading to a reflection is. In the grid at left, ray 6 results in a reflection due to its interaction with the atoms in the grid. There are misses. Ray 7 at left, for instance, interacts with no atoms in the grid. Rays that don't result in hits or reflections are called "detours"; these misses. A detour has an entry and an exit location, while hits and reflections only have an entry location for a hit, a single entry/exit location for a reflection. Of course, more complex situations result. Ray 8 results in two deflections, as does ray 9; some rays travel a twisted course, like ray 1 at left. Notice that this complex set of five deflections above looks like a single deflection, as shown by ray 2 at left. Things are not always as simple. Reflections and hits can be more complex, too. Ray 2 gets deflected by the first atom, reflected by the next two atoms and again deflected by the original atom, yielding a reflection.

Ray 3 below gets deflected by the first atom by the second atom, hits the third atom, yielding a hit. The complete set of interactions of rays with the original sample black box is shown at left. Note that for detours, the input and output locations are interchangeable - it does not matter if ray 2 below enters the box from the left side, or the top; each entry and exit location counts as a point. Hits and reflections therefore cost one point; when the seeker guesses the location of the atoms in the grid, each misidentified atom position costs penalty points: ten in the original Waddingtons rules, five in the Parker Brothers version and most computer editions. Different atom positions lead to different average scores - a easy four-ball game might average eight or nine points to solve, while a hard game might average 18 points; the most common variant of Black Box is played on an 8×8 grid with five atoms. Five-atom configurations allow for positions; the grid at left shows an example of this. If the fifth atom is in any of the four positions marked by the X, no ray can determine where it is located, because it is shielded from all directions by the surrounding atoms.

The addition of more atoms allows for more complex indeterminate configurations, but allows for more intriguing interactions. It is possible to "hide" a ball with this four-atom configuration, it is not ambiguous, however. Black Box can be played with different-sized grids, such as 10×10 or 12×12 grids. A related class of computer puzzle games feature different types of obstacles concealed in the box, which affect rays in varying ways — such as mirrors which reflect only a direct-hit ray, or prisms which split one ray into two; the GNOME game GFingerPoken and one section of the Macintosh game System's Twilight fall into this class. Black Box: Rules and Solitaire Games, Parker Brothers, 1978 F. Thomas May, blackbox.el - Lisp source code for GNU Emacs implementation of Black Box, 1985 Pritchard, D. B.. "Black Box". Brain Games. Penguin Books Ltd. pp. 30–37. ISB

Le Havre tramway

Le Havre tramway is a modern two-line tram system in the city of Le Havre in Normandy, France. The modern tramway opened on 12 December 2012. Le Havre had a first-generation tramway, operated by Compagnie des Tramways Électriques du Havre, which opened in 1894; this historical tramway closed in 1957, was replaced by trolleybuses as the main mode of public transport in Le Havre. It is in 1832. An omnibus service between the Musée and the Octroi de Rouen. By 1860, the town was served by two lines. In 1872, a Belgian businessman presented a tramway project to the municipal council. After authorisation was given, construction began with the first horse-drawn tramway opening on 1 February 1874 between Musée and the Barrière d’Or. A second line opened on the 15th of the same month between the Rond-Point. Le Havre was the fourth city in France to possess a tramway network after Paris and Nancy; the network of lines spread over the city of its neighbouring suburbs. The tramway lines all led to the town hall.

The company operated a fleet of single car trams. Operations were disrupted after the bombardments of 1944, but the 7 lines were reopened as soon as the end of 1946. On 1 August 1947, line 8 closed to let trolleybus takeover. On 5 May 1951, line 6 on 14 August 1957 line 5 were converted to trolleybus operation. Secondhand Vétra CS60 and new VBRh formed the bulk of the trolleybus network. In 1960, four Chausson-Vétra APV trolleybuses were introduced. In the following years, the CGFT acquired more rolling stock from other networks, in Marseille and Strasbourg. In Le Havre as well as in cities across France, increase in car transport encouraged Le Havre city council to set up one-way streets; the tramway and trolleybus operator was faced with a large bill to extend its network further into the suburbs and so decided to replace all its overhead vehicles with motor buses on 28 December 1970. From mid-November 2006 to the end of the March 2007, a survey of inhabitants living in the Le Havre metropolitan area was conducted about a proposal to construct a new bus lane.

Following this survey, an information campaign was launched. On 13 March 2007, the deliberations of elected representatives from CODAH lead to a consensus on a certain number of key points. Concerning the infrastructure, the construction of a new tunnel was earmarked to the east of the existing road Tunnel Jenner to guarantee a link between the upper and lower parts of the city; the layout of the route was designed in a'Y' shape, with the possibility of moving the terminus of the line in the upper part of the city. Following the various inquiries, it was apparent that residents wanted a mode of transport, frequent, comfortable and of a large size. On the 2nd May, CODAH launched a call for tenders to construct the new network. On 10 July, the railway option was selected; the layout is designed to encompass a large population base. It connects hubs like the beach, the city hall, railway station and major population areas of Caucriauville and Mont Gaillard in the upper city; the introduction of the tramway to the suburbs in the upper city coincides with a major redevelopment scheme to deprived areas of the city.

In October 2004 the National Agency for Urban Renewal signed with the municipality of Le Havre the first agreement to finance the rehabilitation of these areas. This finance agreement provides more than 340 million euros for the housing estates in the northern districts, where about 41,000 people reside; this development extends the budget for the Grand Projet de Ville. It allows the rebuilding of more than 1,700 homes; the tram plays an important role in linking the upper town with the lower town and offers an alternative form of urban transport. Nearly 90,000 inhabitants live less than 5 minutes from a station, of which 16,000 are pupils and students; the entire line has been designed in a logical manner, so that there is interconnection with other modes of transport such as the train station or the park and ride at Octeville, as well as with the all of the existing bus lines run by CODAH, the railway lines to other parts of the Haute-Normandie region such as Yvetot and Rouen, beyond that, to the capital Paris.

The entire route is lined with 17,000 shrubs and 50,000 various plants. Surveying of the ground began on 1 September 2008. In February 2009, the definitive route of the new tramway was known, as well as the plans for the proposed layout. In 2010, the first preparatory works began, diverting water pipes; the estimated date that the tramway would start operating was December 2012. Meanwhile, the bus network was restructured to offer a better service to the areas not provided by the new tramway. In October, a new website was launched, providing updates on the progress of the project, included a virtual journey. A team of 8 tramway ambassadors was put together in order to reassure and update residents and shopkeepers on the progress of the construction. In order to ensure the best circulation of traffic during the construction of the tramway lines, changes were made between June and September 2009 to the layout of the route from the Boulevard Francois I to the Chaussée Georges Pompidou; the changes included: the installation of traffic lights.

In addition, cycle lanes and pedestrian c