SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

JPEG

JPEG is a used method of lossy compression for digital images for those images produced by digital photography. The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size and image quality. JPEG achieves 10:1 compression with little perceptible loss in image quality. Since its introduction in 1992, JPEG has been the most used image compression standard in the world, the most used digital image format, with several billion JPEG images produced every day as of 2015; the term "JPEG" is an initialism/acronym for the Joint Photographic Experts Group, which created the standard in 1992. The basis for JPEG is the discrete cosine transform, a lossy image compression technique, first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972. JPEG was responsible for the proliferation of digital images and digital photos across the Internet, social media. JPEG compression is used in a number of image file formats. JPEG/Exif is the most common image format used by digital cameras and other photographic image capture devices.

These format variations are not distinguished, are called JPEG. The MIME media type for JPEG is image/jpeg, except in older Internet Explorer versions, which provides a MIME type of image/pjpeg when uploading JPEG images. JPEG files have a filename extension of.jpg or.jpeg. JPEG/JFIF supports a maximum image size of 65,535×65,535 pixels, hence up to 4 gigapixels for an aspect ratio of 1:1. In 2000, the JPEG group introduced a format intended to be a successor, JPEG 2000, but it was unable to replace the original JPEG as the dominant image standard; the original JPEG specification published in 1992 implements processes from various earlier research papers and patents cited by the CCITT and Joint Photographic Experts Group. The main basis for JPEG's lossy compression algorithm is the discrete cosine transform, first proposed by Nasir Ahmed as an image compression technique in 1972. Ahmed developed a practical DCT algorithm with T. Natarajan of Kansas State University and K. R. Rao of the University of Texas in 1973.

Their seminal 1974 paper is cited in the JPEG specification, along with several research papers that did further work on DCT, including a 1977 paper by Wen-Hsiung Chen, C. H. Smith and S. C. Fralick that described a fast DCT algorithm, as well as a 1978 paper by N. J. Narasinha and S. C. Fralick, a 1984 paper by B. G. Lee; the specification cites a 1984 paper by Wen-Hsiung Chen and W. K. Pratt as an influence on its quantization algorithm, David A. Huffman's 1952 paper for its Huffman coding algorithm; the JPEG specification cites patents from several companies. The following patents provided the basis for its arithmetic coding algorithm. IBM U. S. Patent 4,652,856 – February 4, 1986 – Kottappuram M. A. Mohiuddin and Jorma J. Rissanen – Multiplication-free multi-alphabet arithmetic code U. S. Patent 4,905,297 – February 27, 1990 – G. Langdon, J. L. Mitchell, W. B. Pennebaker, Jorma J. Rissanen – Arithmetic coding encoder and decoder system U. S. Patent 4,935,882 – June 19, 1990 – W. B. Pennebaker and J. L. Mitchell – Probability adaptation for arithmetic coders Mitsubishi Electric JP H02202267 – January 21, 1989 – Toshihiro Kimura, Shigenori Kino, Fumitaka Ono, Masayuki Yoshida – Coding system JP H03247123 – February 26, 1990 – Fumitaka Ono, Tomohiro Kimura, Masayuki Yoshida, Shigenori Kino – Coding apparatus and coding methodThe JPEG specification cites three other patents from IBM.

Other companies cited as patent holders include Canon Inc.. Absent from the list is U. S. Patent 4,698,672, filed by Compression Labs' Wen-Hsiung Chen and Daniel J. Klenke in October 1986; the patent describes a DCT-based image compression algorithm, would be a cause of controversy in 2002. However, the JPEG specification did cite two earlier research papers by Wen-Hsiung Chen, published in 1977 and 1984. "JPEG" stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the name of the committee that created the JPEG standard and other still picture coding standards. The "Joint" stood for ISO TC97 WG8 and CCITT SGVIII. Founded in 1986, the group developed the JPEG standard during the late 1980s. Among several transform coding techniques they examined, they selected the discrete cosine transform, as it was by far the most efficient practical compression technique; the group published the JPEG standard in 1992. In 1987, ISO TC 97 became ISO/IEC JTC1 and, in 1992, CCITT became ITU-T. On the JTC1 side, JPEG is one of two sub-groups of ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 – titled as Coding of still pictures.

On the ITU-T side, ITU-T SG16 is the respective body. The original JPEG Group was organized in 1986, issuing the first JPEG standard in 1992, approved in September 1992 as ITU-T Recommendation T.81 and, in 1994, as ISO/IEC 10918-1. The JPEG standard specifies the codec, which defines how an image is compressed into a stream of bytes and decompressed back into an image, but not the file format used to contain that stream; the Exif and JFIF standards define the used file formats for interchange of JPEG-compressed images. JPEG standards are formally named as Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images. ISO/IEC 10918 consists of the following parts: Ecma International TR/98 specifies the JPEG File Interchange Format. In 2002, Forgent Networks asserted that it owned and would enforce patent rights on the JPEG technology, arising from a pate

Giving Up

"Giving Up" is a popular song written by Van McCoy, introduced by Gladys Knight & the Pips with an April 1964 single release. It reached No. 6 on the Billboard R&B singles chart and No. 38 on the Billboard Hot 100. In the UK, where the Gladys Knight & the Pips original of "Giving Up" failed to chart in its June 1964 release, a belated cover of the song was recorded in 1965 by Julie Grant with her regular producer Tony Hatch and released that March without evident result. Bill Kenwright had a UK single release of "Giving Up" in August 1968, the track being the B-side of the non-charting single "Love's Black and White"; the song's composer Van McCoy produced a 1969 cover of the song by the Ad Libs that peaked at No. 34 on the US R&B chart. Donny Hathaway remade "Giving Up" for his 1971 self-titled album for which it served as lead single reaching No. 21 R&B in the summer of 1972. Hathaway's version crossed over to the pop chart, peaking at No. 81 on the Billboard Hot 100. The American sax player Kirk Whalum recorded "Giving Up" for his 2010 tribute album Everything Is Everything: The Music of Donny Hathaway.

"Giving Up" has been recorded by The Hassles, Jennifer Holliday, Denise LaSalle, Kenny Lattimore and Aaliyah. The song is featured in Sparkle, sung by Lonette McKee, though the track was not featured on the accompanying soundtrack

Mary Jean Simpson

Mary Jean Simpson was the first woman to be appointed a position as bill clerk in the Office of the Secretary of the United States Senate and she was the Dean of Women at the University of Vermont. She was a public servant. Mary Jean Simpson, the daughter of George Simpson, was born in East Craftsbury, Vermont on July 18, 1888, she was brought up in the East Craftsbury Prebyterian Church. Simpson graduated from St. Johnsbury Academy in 1908. After she graduated she went to Wheaton Seminary because she didn't have enough credits to go to her top school, Mt. Holyoke; when she got to Wheaton Seminary there was a scarlet fever epidemic. Once she got out of quarantine she was asked to take over grades 5-9 at the Village School for their Spring Term, she took the job though she had never taught before. Simpson said she had never felt so rich because she got paid $7.00 a week for teaching at the Village School. On she went back to St. Johnsbury Academy to get the credits for Mt. Holyoke. During this time, her father got sick, so she went to the University of Vermont instead of Mt. Holyoke to be closer to home.

She graduated in 1913 as a Phi Beta Kappa. After graduating Simpson got multiple jobs teaching, she started at Peoples Academy for three years for two years she went to Montpelier High School, during World War I she went back as the principle to Peoples Academy. In 1924, Mary Jean Simpson was elected for Town Representative, she was the first woman to be elected from Orleans County. In 1925, she was appointed by Senator Dale to be bill clerk of the United States Senate in Washington, she served under Presidents Calvin Herbert Hoover. While she worked there she had a big roll-top desk, she kept a record of each bill in a big record book. In this ledger, she recorded the course of each bill up to the bill's signature or veto by the president. In 1933, during the Great Depression, Franklin D. Roosevelt became president, Simpson lost her position. However, during the Depression she was appointed to the Women’s Division of the Civil Works Administration and traveled through the United States as Director of Women’s Production Projects for the Works Progress Administration.

Mary Jean Simpson became the Dean of Women at the University of Vermont in 1937. During her time there, she recruited students for the schools first nursing program and established a scholarship program for returning veterans. Simpson wrote letters to the parents of the daughters; these letters showed the high standards she had set for women students at UVM. The letters said women "should not let her work pile up, nor sacrifice regular study hours to pleasant social demands, nor give more time than she can afford to ‘dates,’ sports, or other extra-curricular activities." Thirteen years after becoming the Dean of Women at the University of Vermont, a women’s dormitory was named Simpson Hall in her honor. She retired as Dean of Women in 1954; the university presents the Mary Jean Simpson Award to a female student every year at graduation. The award goes to a woman who best exemplifies Mary Jean Simpsons character and scholarship; when Simpson retired in 1954, she got involved in new responsibilities including the Vermont Board of Managers of the National Council of Church Women, the Vermont Council on Adult Education, Secretary of the Board of Trustees of Vermont Colleges, Chairman of the State Commission on Alcohol Education, Steering Committee Chairman of the Vermont legislative Council and the Citizens Advisory Committee to National Prohibition and Parole Survey.

She worked to promote the Japan International Christian University. Mary Jean Simpson passed away in 1977 at the age of 89 in Vermont, she was an accomplished scholar and a public servant