Cardinal Vaughan Memorial School
Cardinal Vaughan Memorial School is a Roman Catholic day secondary school in Holland Park, with 950 students. The school does not select first year pupils on academic ability, but accepts pupils who are practising Catholics. After the 1903 death of the third Archbishop of Westminster, Cardinal Vaughan, an appeal was made to raise funds to found a boys' school to be named as a memorial to him; the school was founded in 1914. The Vaughan School opened its doors in the Victorian building now known as Addison Hall, as a private school, to twenty-nine boys on 21 September 1914, appointing Canon Driscoll as the first headmaster. In the 1920s, the school expanded and it was decided to seek recognition by the Board of Education for the grant as an independent day school; the first Higher Certificates with Distinction were achieved in 1926, the first classical scholarship, the first ordination of Vaughan boys to the priesthood. A piece of land, some 6 acres in North Wembley, was purchased for playing fields.
In 1937, this plot was exchanged for the present site at Twickenham, adjacent to the international Rugby Football Union ground. Enrollment had grown to 220 by 1928, neared 300 by 1938; the school was evacuated to Beaumont College, during the course of the Second World War. Despite the difficulties of the war, academics flourished, with more scholarships and awards won in 1941 than any previous year. In the summer of 1945, a party of fifth and sixth-form students helped move the school back to its home in London, only one of them having been inside the school building before. Thirty-nine old boys who were killed in the War are named in the School's Roll of Honour, including the first Victoria Cross of the war in the Royal Air Force, Flying Officer Donald Edward Garland. School fees were abolished after the war, as the Vaughan School transitioned from a public school to a state-funded grammar school under the 1944 Education Act. However, there were concerns about the low standards of new admissions, whose primary education had suffered during the evacuation.
In the early and mid-1950s, the curriculum shifted from the Classics to include Advanced A-Level subjects. A new building was opened in 1964 to accommodate the growing enrollment. In the 1970s, the Inner London Education Authority and board of governors considered various reorganization proposals in the amalgamation of schools; the school became an all-ability school. Girls were first admitted to the sixth form in 1977; the school became a voluntary-aided public school and drew pupils chiefly, but not from Inner London. The school saw expansions in 2000, 2005 and 2014. With its high academic performance, the school was granted specialist status for mathematics and science. Pupils in Years 7–11 dress in the black Vaughan suit with the Vaughan Lower School Tie, a tie that bears the school colours. During this time they have the option to be awarded a number of sporting ties and prefect ties. In sixth form, pupils are required to wear the grey Vaughan suit and sixth form tie, bearing an extra white stripe, and/or any sporting ties.
Girls who join the school at this time are required to wear the Vaughan maroon blazer and grey skirt. Upper sixth pupils can be awarded a number of commendation ties including the Senior Music Prefect Tie, Senior Prefect Tie, Head Boy Tie and Sporting Ties marking games played. Girls are awarded brooches in a similar way to mark their achievements. In addition, it is commonplace to see pupils wearing the Vaughan Robe; the robe is worn by teachers at all times. The Head Boy and Head Girl will wear Maroon Robe. At various times of the year, including the Vaughan Speech Night, teachers are required to wear full academic dress. Hired at a salary of £200 per year, Canon Driscoll was appointed as the first headmaster, he confessed to having spent the summer months anxiously worrying about how many boys would face him on opening day. Two classes were held in the top rooms. Driscoll took Father W. Horgan the other. Driscoll was sparing with praise but bestowed it with such simplicity and sincerity that the recipient always felt he meant much more than he said.
His absorption into the life of the school was so intense that he was unhappy when the boys had let for their holidays, leaving him to the quiet, deserted classrooms. Under Driscoll's guidance, the school found its feet during the Great War. Academic standards were high leading to the School and Higher Certificates of the Oxford and Cambridge Joint Board. Enrollment enabled Driscol to build a young and energetic teaching staff. In the autumn of 1927 Canon Driscoll's health began to fail and he died 29 December, at the age of 57. Dr Vance was well known as a writer when he succeeded Driscoll as headmaster, he ran a tight ship: strict punctuality was expected, students were not permitted to write left-handed without a medical certificate documenting a necessary deviation, teachers were instructed on a prescribed manner of blackboard writing. He took an intense pride in all things English, instilling a sense of patriotism in the student body. While the school was evacuated to Windsor for the course of the Second World War, Vance was concerned about the standards of behaviour of the boys under wartime conditions.
It was made clear to the boys:.
Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government
The Ministry of Housing and Local Government is the UK Government department for housing and local government in England. It was established in May 2006 and is the successor to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, established in 2001, its headquarters is located at 2 Marsham Street in London, occupation of which it shares with the Home Office. It was renamed to add Housing to its title and changed to a ministry in January 2018. There are corresponding departments in the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive, responsible for communities and local government in their respective jurisdictions; the MHCLG's ministers are as follows: The Permanent Secretary is Melanie Dawes who took up her post on 1 March 2015. Henry Smith was appointed Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government on 26 May 2015. MHCLG was formed in July 2001 as part of the Cabinet Office with the title Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, headed by the Deputy Prime Minister, John Prescott.
In May 2002 the ODPM became a separate department after absorbing the local government and regions portfolios from the defunct Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions. The ODPM was criticised in some quarters for adding little value and the Environmental Audit Committee had reported negatively on the department in the past. During the 5 May 2006 reshuffle of Tony Blair's government, it was renamed and Ruth Kelly succeeded David Miliband to become the first Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government at the Department for Communities and Local Government. In January 2018, as part of Theresa May’s Cabinet Reshuffle, the department was renamed the Ministry of Housing and Local Government; the Ministry is responsible for UK Government policy in the following areas in England: building regulations community cohesion decentralisation fire services and community resilience housing local government planning race equality the Thames Gateway urban regenerationOn its creation it assumed the community policy function of the Home Office.
Ministers have since established the Commission on Integration and Cohesion, the now separate Government Equalities Office, now part of the Department for Education. Planning Inspectorate Queen Elizabeth II Conference CentreThe department was responsible for two other agencies. On 18 July 2011 Ordnance Survey was transferred to the Department for Business and Skills and on 28 February 2013 the Fire Service College was sold to Capita. In January 2007, Ruth Kelly announced proposals to bring together the delivery functions of the Housing Corporation, English Partnerships and parts of the Department for Housing and Local Government to form a new unified housing and regeneration agency, the Homes and Communities Agency. Announced as Communities England, it became operational in December 2008; this includes the Academy for Sustainable Communities. 2008 was the year that the department along with the Local Government Association produced the National Improvement and Efficiency Strategy which led to the creation of nine Regional Improvement and Efficiency Partnerships with devolved funding of £185m to drive sector-led improvement for councils.
Its main counterparts in the devolved nations of the UK are as follows. Scotland Communities Directorates Learning and Justice DirectoratesNorthern Ireland Office of the First Minister and deputy First Minister Department of the Environment Department of Finance and Personnel Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety Department for Social Development Wales Welsh Government Department for Local Government and Public Services Budget of the United Kingdom Council house Energy efficiency in British housing Flag protocol Homes and Communities Agency Local Resilience Forum English Partnerships Housing Corporation Housing estate Social Exclusion Task Force Local Government Association Regional Improvement and Efficiency Partnership Official website Local Government Channel Communities UK YouTube channel
A trade union called a labour union or labor union, is an association of workers in a particular trade, industry, or company created for the purpose of securing improvement in pay, working conditions or social and political status through collective bargaining and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by creation of a monopoly of the workers. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers; the most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment". This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring and promotion of workers, workplace safety and policies. Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers, a cross-section of workers from various trades, or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry; the agreements negotiated by a union are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers.
Trade unions traditionally have a constitution which details the governance of their bargaining unit and have governance at various levels of government depending on the industry that binds them to their negotiations and functioning. Originating in Great Britain, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Trade unions may be composed of individual workers, past workers, apprentices or the unemployed. Trade union density, or the percentage of workers belonging to a trade union, is highest in the Nordic countries. Since the publication of the History of Trade Unionism by Sidney and Beatrice Webb, the predominant historical view is that a trade union "is a continuous association on wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment." Karl Marx described trade unions thus: "The value of labour-power constitutes the conscious and explicit foundation of the trade unions, whose importance for the working class can scarcely be overestimated.
The trade unions aim at nothing less than to prevent the reduction of wages below the level, traditionally maintained in the various branches of industry. That is to say, they wish to prevent the price of labour-power from falling below its value". A modern definition by the Australian Bureau of Statistics states that a trade union is "an organization consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which include the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members."Yet historian R. A. Leeson, in United we Stand, said: Two conflicting views of the trade-union movement strove for ascendancy in the nineteenth century: one the defensive-restrictive guild-craft tradition passed down through journeymen's clubs and friendly societies... the other the aggressive-expansionist drive to unite all'labouring men and women' for a'different order of things'. Recent historical research by Bob James in Craft, Trade or Mystery puts forward the view that trade unions are part of a broader movement of benefit societies, which includes medieval guilds, Oddfellows, friendly societies, other fraternal organizations.
The 18th century economist Adam Smith noted the imbalance in the rights of workers in regards to owners. In The Wealth of Nations, Book I, chapter 8, Smith wrote: We hear, it has been said, of the combination of masters, though of those of workmen, but whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raise the wages of labor above their actual rate When workers combine, masters... never cease to call aloud for the assistance of the civil magistrate, the rigorous execution of those laws which have been enacted with so much severity against the combination of servants and journeymen. As Smith noted, unions were illegal for many years in most countries, although Smith argued that it should remain illegal to fix wages or prices by employees or employers. There were severe penalties for including execution. Despite this, unions were formed and began to acquire political power resulting in a body of labour law that not only legalized organizing efforts, but codified the relationship between employers and those employees organized into unions.
The origins of trade unions can be traced back to 18th century Britain, where the rapid expansion of industrial society taking place drew women, rural workers and immigrants into the work force in large numbers and in new roles. They encountered a large hostility in their early existence from employers and government groups; this pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour spontaneously organized in fits and starts throughout its beginnings, would be an important arena for the development of trade unions. Trade unions have sometimes been seen as successors to the guilds of medieval Europe, though the relationship between the two is disputed, as the masters of the guilds employed workers who were not allowed to organize. Trade unions and collective bargaining were outlawed from no than the middle of the 14th century when the Ordinance of Labourers was enacted in the Kingdom of England but their way of thinking was the one that endured dur
Edward Samuel Miliband is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Doncaster North since 2005, being re-elected in 2010, 2015, 2017. He was Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition between 2010 and 2015, he served in the Cabinet from 2007–10 under Prime Minister Gordon Brown. Miliband was born in the Fitzrovia district of Central London to Polish Jewish immigrants Marion Kozak and Ralph Miliband, a Marxist intellectual, a native of Brussels and fled Belgium during World War II, he graduated from Corpus Christi College and from the London School of Economics. Miliband became first a television journalist a Labour Party researcher and a visiting scholar at Harvard University, before rising to become one of Chancellor Gordon Brown's confidants and Chairman of HM Treasury's Council of Economic Advisers. Miliband was elected to the House of Commons in 2005. Prime Minister Tony Blair made Miliband Parliamentary Secretary to the Cabinet Office in May 2006; when Gordon Brown became Prime Minister in 2007, he appointed Miliband Minister for the Cabinet Office and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.
Miliband was subsequently promoted to the new post of Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change, a position he held from 2008-10. After the Labour Party was defeated at the 2010 general election, Brown resigned as Leader of the Labour Party, his tenure as Labour leader was characterised by a leftward shift in his party's policies, by opposition to the Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition government's cuts to the public sector. He led his party including the 2014 European Parliament election. Following Labour's defeat by the Conservative Party at the 2015 general election, Miliband announced his resignation as leader on 8 May 2015, he was succeeded in the ensuing leadership election by Jeremy Corbyn. Born in University College Hospital in Fitzrovia, Miliband is the younger son of immigrant parents, his mother, Marion Kozak, a human rights campaigner and early CND member, is a Polish Jew who survived the Holocaust thanks to being protected by Catholic Poles. His father, Ralph Miliband, was a Belgian-born Polish Jewish Marxist academic whose father fled with him to England during World War II.
The family lived on Edis Street in London. His elder brother, David Miliband, still owns the house today. Ralph Miliband left his academic post at the London School of Economics in 1972 to take up a chair at the University of Leeds as a Professor of Politics, his family moved to Leeds with him in 1973. Owing to his father's employment as a roving teacher, Miliband spent two spells living in Boston, one year when he was seven and one middle school term when he was twelve. Miliband remembered his time in the US as some of his happiest, during which he became a fan of American culture, watching Dallas and following the Boston Red Sox and the New England Patriots. Between 1978 and 1981, Ed Miliband attended Primrose Hill Primary School, near Primrose Hill, in Camden and from 1981 to 1989, Haverstock Comprehensive School in Chalk Farm, he learned to play the violin while at school, as a teenager, he reviewed films and plays on LBC Radio's Young London programme as one of its fortnightly "Three O'Clock Reviewers".
After completing his O-levels, he worked as an intern to family friend Tony Benn, the MP for Chesterfield. In 1989, Miliband gained four A Levels—in Mathematics, Further Mathematics and Physics —and read Philosophy and Economics at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. In his first year, he was elected JCR President, leading a student campaign against a rise in rent charges. In his second year he dropped philosophy, was awarded an upper second class Bachelor of Arts degree, he went on to graduate from the London School of Economics with a Master of Science in Economics. In 1992, after graduating from the University of Oxford, Miliband began his working career in the media as a researcher to co-presenter Andrew Rawnsley in the Channel 4 show A Week in Politics. In 1993, Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury Harriet Harman approached Rawnsley to recruit Miliband as her policy researcher and speechwriter. At the time, Yvette Cooper worked for Harman as part of Labour's Shadow Treasury team. In 1994, when Harriet Harman was moved by the newly elected Labour Leader Tony Blair to become Shadow Secretary of State for Employment, Miliband stayed on in the Shadow Treasury team and was promoted to work for Shadow Chancellor Gordon Brown.
In 1995, with encouragement from Gordon Brown, Miliband took time out from his job to study at the London School of Economics, where he obtained a Masters in Economics. After Labour's 1997 landslide victory, Miliband was appointed as a special adviser to Chancellor Gordon Brown from 1997 to 2002. On 25 July 2002, it was announced that Miliband would take a 12-month unpaid sabbatical from HM Treasury to be a visiting scholar at the Center for European Studies of Harvard University for two semesters, he spent his time at Harvard teaching economics, stayed there after September 2003 for an additional semester teaching a course titled "What's Left? The Politics of Social Justice". During this time, he was granted "access" to Senator John Kerry and reported to Brown on the presidential hopeful's progress. After Miliband returned to the UK in January 2004 Gordon Brown appointed him Chairman of HM Treasury's Council of Economic Advisers as a replacement for Ed Balls, with specific responsibility for directing the UK's long-term economic planning.
In early 2005, Miliband resigned
Siôn Llewelyn Simon is a British Labour Party politician, a Member of the European Parliament for the West Midlands since 2014. He served as the Member of Parliament for Birmingham Erdington from 2001 to 2010. Simon was the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Further Education from 2008 to 2009 and Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Creative Industries from 2009 to 2010, he stood down at the 2010 general election to campaign for a directly elected Mayor of Birmingham, with the intent of running in the first election. In 2014 Simon was elected a Member of the European Parliament for the West Midlands. In 2016 he was selected as Labour's candidate for West Midlands Mayor but was defeated in the 2017 election by 50.4% to 49.6% of the vote in the final round. Siôn Simon was born in Doncaster to Welsh-speaking parents, was raised in Birmingham, where he lived in Great Barr and Handsworth Wood, his parents were both teachers in Birmingham. He attended Handsworth Grammar School, where he joined the Labour Party at the age of 16.
Simon enrolled at Magdalen College, Oxford in 1987, where he read Philosophy and Economics. He was elected President of the college Junior Common Room in his second year. After university, he was a research assistant for George Robertson MP for three years, he worked for two years in the Guinness management team at Diageo a FTSE top 20 company. He freelanced at speechwriting and advice, his clients included Tony Blair while in opposition, Microsoft UK, the International Duty Free Confederation and various charities and communication companies. He became a journalist, working for The Daily Telegraph, the Daily Express and the News of the World, he was an associate editor at The Spectator. His columns varied from restaurant reviews to politics. In the 1992 election campaign, Simon ran the European desk for the Labour Party and during the 1997 election campaign, the foreign press department at Labour Party headquarters. Simon was first elected in the 2001 general election for Birmingham Erdington with a majority of 9,962.
He retained the seat in 2005 with a reduced majority of 9,575. As a backbencher he served on the Public Accounts Committee, Treasury Select Committee, chaired the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Private Equity and Venture Capital and the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Business Services. Shortly after Gordon Brown became Prime Minister in July 2007, Simon became Vice-Chair of the Labour Party, with special responsibility to draft the "Law and Order" manifesto for the upcoming 2010 general election. Following the October 2008 reshuffle, Simon was appointed Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Further Education in the Department for Innovation and Skills. In June 2009 he became Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Creative Industries in the Department for Culture and Sport. On 3 February 2010 he announced he would not stand for re-election in order to campaign for a directly elected Mayor of Birmingham, stand in a subsequent election. A referendum was held in Birmingham on 3 May 2012, but the proposal was defeated with 57.8% of the vote.
After leaving parliament, Simon founded the website Labour Uncut in May 2010. In 2011 Simon wrote the cover story for Newsweek about the August riot disturbances, he supported HS2 in an article for Progress. He wrote a chapter in What Next for Labour? Ideas for a new generation entitled Why Mayors Why Labour Should Support them. Placed second on Labour's candidate list, Simon was elected as a Member of the European Parliament for the West Midlands in the 2014 European Parliament elections alongside Neena Gill. In 2014 he joined the European Parliament Committee on Social Affairs. During 2016 EU membership referendum vote, Simon participated in Labour in for Britain pro-EU campaign. In 2016 Simon was selected as the Labour candidate for Mayor of the West Midlands, he was defeated in the 2017 mayoral election by Conservative candidate Andy Street by 50.4% of the vote to 49.6% in the final round. On 5 September 2006 he and Chris Bryant co-ordinated a letter, signed by 17 Labour backbenchers calling for Tony Blair to resign.
The MPs failed to force Blair out of office, but Blair publicly pledged to stand down within 12 months. On 12 October 2006 Simon created a YouTube spoof of David Cameron's video blog, in which, pretending to be Cameron, he offered viewers one of his children and the opportunity to sleep with his wife; this led to expressions of disgust from both parties with the stunt being called "tasteless". In an interview on Sky News that same day, Simon described Cameron's attempts to reach out to the youth culture as "shallow" and "pathetic" and told his interviewer to "be quiet"; the video was removed on 13 October by his friend Tom Watson MP, who he described as a "proppa blogga". At the time of the Labour Party Conference in September 2007, Simon wrote an article for the New Statesman in which he wrongly predicted that "Shortly there will be an election, in which Labour will increase its majority". In 2009 it was revealed that Simon had breached parliamentary rules by renting his "second home" in London from his sister, Ceri Erskine and paying her more than £40,000 in taxpayer-funded expenses.
Simon claimed that he had inadvertently broken the rules and agreed to repay £21,000. He apologised "unreservedly". Six weeks Simon announced that he would resign from the Government and stand down as MP for Birmingham Erdington. Simon suffers from the rare genetic disorder choroideremia, a condition that leads to progressive deterioration in eyesight and in its stage, blindness, he co-founded, works as a trustee for, the Choroideremia Research Foundation. Simon lives in Birmingham is a member of th
South London is the southern part of London, England. Situated south of the River Thames, it includes the historic districts of Southwark, Lambeth and Greenwich. South London emerged from Southwark, first recorded as Suthriganaweorc, meaning "fort of the men of Surrey". From Southwark, London extended further down into northern Surrey and western Kent. South London consists of 11 whole boroughs, plus Richmond which includes land on both sides of the river, with part of its Twickenham district lying north of the river. South London began at Southwark at the southern end of London Bridge, the first permanent crossing over the river, with the initial development of the area being a direct result of the existence and location of the bridge. In 1720, John Strype’s ‘Survey of London’ described Southwark as one of the four distinct areas of London; the area now referred to as North London developed later. As late as the mid 18th century, there were no other bridges crossing the river and as a result urban growth was slower in the south than in areas north of the Thames.
The opening of Westminster Bridge and other subsequent bridges to the west encouraged growth in the south-west, but only Tower Bridge was built to the east of London Bridge, so south-east London grew more at least until the Surrey Commercial Docks were built. The development of a dense network of railway lines in the mid nineteenth century accelerated growth. A significant feature of south London’s economic geography is that while there are more than thirty bridges linking the area with West London and the City, there is only one, Tower Bridge, linking the area with East London. Little of London’s underground rail network lies south of the river due to the challenging geology, however 21st century technology makes tunnelling much cheaper than before and this may well lead to an improved underground provision in south London with the Crossrail 2 line proposed alongside extensions to the Northern and Bakerloo Lines. South London contains a extensive overground rail network and all of London’s trams operate within the area.
The 12 boroughs included, in whole or part are: The term ‘south London' has been used for a variety of formal purposes with the boundaries defined according to the purposes of the designation. In 2013 the government asked the Boundary Commission for England to reconsider the boundaries of parliamentary constituencies; the Commission's study, was to start with existing regions of England and group the local authorities within that area into sub-regions for further sub-division. The south London sub-region included all 12 boroughs which lay in part south of the river; the recommendations of the report were not adopted, the 2017 study has taken a different approach. For the purposes of progress reporting on the London Plan, there was a south London sub-region in operation from 2004 to 2008 consisting of Bromley, Kingston, Merton and Sutton. In 2001 this area had a population of 1,329,000; this definition is used by organisations such as Connexions. Between 2008 and 2011 it was replaced with a South East sub-region consisting of Southwark, Greenwich and Bromley and a South West sub-region consisting of Croydon, Lambeth, Sutton and Wandsworth.
In 2011 a new south London region was created consisting of Bromley, the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, Richmond upon Thames, Sutton, Bexley and Lewisham. South London is, like other parts of London and the UK in general, a temperate maritime climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Three Met Office weather stations collect climate data south of the river. Long term climate observations dating back to 1763 are available for Greenwich, although observations ceased here in 2003. Temperatures increase towards the Thames, firstly because of the urban warming effect of the surrounding area, but secondly due to altitude decreasing towards the river, meaning the southern margins of south London are a couple of degrees cooler than those areas adjacent to the Thames. Snow can be seen to lie on the North Downs near Croydon when central London is snow free; the record high temperature at Greenwich is 37.5 °C recorded during August 2003. Sunshine is notably lower than other London area weather stations, suggesting Greenwich may be a fog trap in winter, that the hillier land to the south may obscure early morning and late evening sunshine.
The highest temperature recorded across south London was 38.1 °C on the same occasion at Kew Gardens. Although the Met Office accepts a higher reading from Brogdale in Kent, many have questioned the accuracy of this and regard the Kew reading as the most reliable highest UK temperature reading. South Bank Time Out editors. "North London v South London – The debate". Time Out London. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Alan Rutter and Peter Watts. "North London v South London – The debate". Time Out London
Trades Union Congress
The Trades Union Congress is a national trade union centre, a federation of trade unions in England and Wales, representing the majority of trade unions. There are fifty affiliated unions, with a total of about 5.6 million members. The current General Secretary is Frances O'Grady; the TUC’s mission is to support trade unions to grow and thrive, to stand up for everyone who works for a living. They campaign for more and better jobs, a more equal, more prosperous country; the TUC's decision-making body is the Annual Congress. Between congresses decisions are made by the General Council. An Executive Committee is elected by the Council from its members. Affiliated unions can send delegates to Congress, with the number of delegates they can send proportionate to their size; each year Congress elects a President of the Trades Union Congress, who carries out the office for the remainder of the year and presides over the following year's conference. The TUC is not affiliated to the Labour Party. At election time the TUC cannot endorse a particular party by name.
However it can point to policies that it believes would be positive for workers’ rights, or to social cohesion and community welfare. It can politically campaign against policies that it believes would be injurious to workers; the TUC runs the Tolpuddle Martyrs Museum and annual Tolpuddle Martyrs' Festival and Rally commemorating the Tolpuddle Martyrs and their impact on trade unionism. The TUC Library preserves documents related to labour history in other lands, it now focuses on expanding the online and digital collections. The TUC archives are held at the Modern Records Centre at the University of Warwick Library; the archive contains files from c1920 – 2000 consisting of correspondence and external documents, reports, printed material and press statements. The TUC campaigns on a wide range of issues relating to the experience of people at work. Notably, the TUC succeeded in forcing Sports Direct to undergo an independent review into their treatment of workers in September 2016. In October 2016, the TUC's campaign against the Trade Union Bill won'Best Public Affairs Campaign' at the PR Week Awards.
The TUC's Campaign Priorities for 2017–18 are: 1. An economy that works for working people 2. Great jobs for everyone 3. A thriving movement that delivers for younger workers In 1970 the Equal Pay Act made it illegal for employers to give a woman worker different pay and conditions to a male one doing work of equal value. In 1999 the National Minimum Wage was established to protect low-paid workers. In 1999 a limit was placed on working hours as a health and safety measure; this was followed by a minimum holiday entitlement. In 2007 the no-smoking ban was introduced in public areas in response to union arguments that workers were risking their health. In October 2011 agency workers gained the right to receive the same treatment as permanent staff carrying out the same work; the TUC was founded in the 1860s. The United Kingdom Alliance of Organised Trades, founded in Sheffield, Yorkshire, in 1866, was the immediate forerunner of the TUC, although efforts to expand local unions into regional or national organisations date back at least forty years earlier.
The first TUC meeting was held in 1868 when the Manchester and Salford Trades Council convened the founding meeting in the Manchester Mechanics' Institute. The fact that the TUC was formed by Northern Trades Councils was not coincidental. One of the issues which prompted this initiative was the perception that the London Trades Council was taking a dominant role in speaking for the Trade Union Movement as a whole; the second TUC meeting took place in 1869 at the Oddfellows Hall, Temple Street, Birmingham where delegates discussed the eight-hour working day, election of working people to Parliament and the issue of free education. Arising out of the 1897 Congress, a decision was taken to form a more centralised trade union structure that would enable a more militant approach to be taken to fighting the employer and achieving the socialist transformation of society; the result was the General Federation of Trade Unions, formed in 1899. For some years it was unclear which body would emerge as the national trade union centre for the UK and for a while both were recognised as such by different fraternal organisations in other countries.
However, it was soon agreed among the major unions that the TUC should take the leading role and that this would be the central body of the organised Labour Movement in the UK. The GFTU continued in existence and remains to this day as a federation of trade unions providing common services and facilities to its members; as the TUC expanded and formalised its role as the "General Staff of the Labour Movement" it incorporated the Trades Councils who had given birth to it becoming the body which authorised these local arms of the TUC to speak on behalf of the wider Trade Union Movement at local and County level. As the TUC became bureaucratised, the Trades Councils found themselves being subject to political restrictions and purges and to having their role downplayed and marginalised. In some areas (especially in London and the South East