Gruppenführer was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party, first created in 1925 as a senior rank of the SA. Since the term Gruppenführer is used for leaders of groups/teams of the police, fire departments and several other organizations. In 1930, Gruppenführer became an SS rank and was bestowed upon those officers who commanded SS-Gruppen and upon senior officers of the SS command staff. In 1932, the SS was reorganized and the SS-Gruppen were reformed into SS-Abschnitte. A Gruppenführer commanded an SS-Abschnitt while a new rank, that of Obergruppenführer, oversaw the SS-Oberabschnitte which were the largest SS units in Germany. In the SA, NSKK, SS, the rank of Gruppenführer was considered equivalent to a full general, but became regarded as equivalent to Generalleutnant after 1934. During the Second World War, when the Waffen-SS began using the rank, an SS-Gruppenführer was considered equal to a Generalleutnant in the Wehrmacht and was referred to as SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS.

Waffen-SS Gruppenführer displayed the shoulder boards of a Wehrmacht Generalleutnant. The insignia for SS-Gruppenführer consisted of three oak leaves centred on both collars of an SS uniform. From 1930 to 1942, the SS insignia was the same as the SA badge of rank. In the SA, a Gruppenführer was in charge of a number of regiments which were formed into SA-Gruppen; the rank of Gruppenführer was used in several other Nazi paramilitary groups, among them the National Socialist Motor Corps and the National Socialist Flyers Corps. In October 1944, the rank of Gruppenführer was adopted by the Volkssturm as a low level non-commissioned officer position in charge of squad sized formations of Volkssturm soldiers; the term is a generic term for the function of a leader of a squad of infantry in the German Army, Waffen-SS, or Luftwaffe ground troops. Corps colours List SS-Gruppenführer Table of ranks and insignia of the Waffen-SS

John Baker (baseball)

John David Baker is an American former professional baseball catcher. He played for San Diego Padres and Chicago Cubs of Major League Baseball. In December 2015, Baker was hired as a Baseball Operations Assistant by the Chicago Cubs Baker graduated from De La Salle High School in 1999 before attending the University of California, Berkeley. In 2000 and 2001, he played collegiate summer baseball in the Cape Cod Baseball League for the Yarmouth-Dennis Red Sox, receiving the league's 10th Player award in 2000; as a junior in 2002, he led the Pac-10 Conference with a.383 batting average and was selected to the All-Pac-10 team. Baker was drafted in 2002 by the Oakland Athletics in the 4th round of the amateur draft, he was mentioned several times in Michael Lewis' 2003 book Moneyball. In March 2007, Baker was traded to the Florida Marlins for minor league first-baseman Jason Stokes. Baker was called up to the majors on July 2008, after Matt Treanor went on the disabled list, his first major league hit was a solo home run off Chan Ho Park of the Los Angeles Dodgers on July 10.

In 2009 to 2010 Baker platooned with teammate Ronny Paulino. Baker went on the disabled list in May 2010 with a strained flexor tendon in his right arm. At the end of the 2010 season, he had Tommy John surgery, he spent most of 2011 rehabbing and rejoined the Marlins that September, serving as a pinch hitter. On November 22, 2011, Baker was traded to the San Diego Padres for Wade LeBlanc. Baker served as backup to Nick Hundley and Yasmani Grandal in 2012, starting 52 games and batting.238 while throwing out 16% of base runners. In 2013, he began the year as the backup to Hundley, he started 12 games for the Padres in April and May, was optioned to the Triple-A Tucson Padres when Grandal returned from his 50-game suspension. He was designated for assignment on June 10, 2013. Baker was claimed off waivers by the Los Angeles Dodgers on June 15, 2013 and optioned to AAA Albuquerque, he was outrighted off the 40 man roster on August 5. In 40 games with the Isotopes, he hit.203. He became a free agent on October 1.

On December 13, 2013, Baker signed a minor league deal with an invitation to spring training with the Chicago Cubs. Baker won the backup catcher job out of spring training. On July 29, 2014, Baker pitched a scoreless top of the 16th inning with a popout and double play, as the Cubs had exhausted their bullpen in a game against the Colorado Rockies. In the bottom half of the inning, he walked from a full count reached third with the bases loaded and one out, he scored the winning run on a lineout by Starlin Castro, earning him the win in the longest game, by time, in Cubs history. Baker became the fourth position player to earn a win since 1968, first since Chris Davis did so in 2012. John is the only Cubs position player to be credited with a pitching win in the history of the franchise. Baker signed a minor league deal with the Seattle Mariners on January 29, 2015, he was released on May 20, 2015. During the offseason, Baker has taught Physical Education at St. Isidore School in Danville, where his wife, used to teach.

Baker enjoys broadcasting. He had a stint as a co-host with Rick Tittle on the SportsByline USA radio network. Baker is a philanthropist, nominated for the Roberto Clemente Award, he helped victims of the earthquake in Haiti. After leaving Berkeley to begin his baseball career, Baker chose to not finish his degree at Berkeley completing an online Bachelor's through Arizona State. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference John Baker on Twitter