Ferrara is a city and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital city of the Province of Ferrara. It is situated 50 kilometres north-northeast of Bologna, on the Po di Volano, the town has broad streets and numerous palaces dating from the 14th and 15th centuries, when it hosted the court of the House of Este. For its beauty and cultural importance it has qualified by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Modern times have brought a renewal of industrial activity, Ferrara is on the main rail line from Bologna to Padua and Venice, and has branches to Ravenna, Poggio Rusco and Codigoro. Ferrara appears first in a document of the Lombard king Desiderius of 753 AD, Desiderius pledged a Lombard ducatus ferrariae in 757 to Pope Stephen II. Obizzo II dEste was proclaimed ruler of Ferrara five hundred years later. He became seignior of nearby Modena in 1288 and of Reggio in 1289, in 1452 the Este rulers were created Dukes of Modena and Reggio, and in 1471 Ferrara became a duchy. In 1597, when Alfonso II died without heirs, the House of Este lost Ferrara to the Papal States.
Ferrara remained a part of the Papal States from 1598 to 1859, with an interruption during the Napoleonic period, in 1859 it became part of the Kingdom of Italy. A fortress was constructed by Pope Paul V on the site of the castle called Castel Tedaldo, at the south-west angle of the town, all of the fortress was dismantled following the birth of the Kingdom of Italy and the bricks used for new constructions all over the town. On August 23,1944, the Ferrara synthetic rubber plant was a target of Strategic bombing during World War II, the town is still surrounded by more than 9 kilometres of ancient walls, mainly built in the 15th and 16th-centuries. Along with those of Lucca, they are the best preserved Renaissance walls in Italy, the imposing brick Castello Estense sited in the very centre of the town is iconic of Ferrara. The castle, erected in 1385, is surrounded by a moat, the pavilions on the top of the towers date from the 16th-century refurbishment. The City Hall, renovated in the 18th century, was the residence of the Este family.
Close by it is the former Cathedral of San Giorgio, The Romanesque lower part of the main façade, according to a now lost inscription the church had been commissioned by Guglielmo I of Adelardi. The sculpture of the portal was signed by a Nicholaus. The upper part of the main façade, with arcades of pointed arches, dates from the 13th century, the recumbent lions guarding the entrance are copies of the originals, now in the narthex of the church. An elaborate 13th-century relief depicting the Last Judgement is found in the story of the porch
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital of the Province of Lucca and it is famous for its intact Renaissance-era city walls. Lucca was founded by the Etruscans and became a Roman colony in 180 BC, the rectangular grid of its historical centre preserves the Roman street plan, and the Piazza San Michele occupies the site of the ancient forum. Traces of the amphitheatre still may be seen in the Piazza dellAnfiteatro, at the Lucca Conference, in 56 BC, Julius Caesar and Crassus reaffirmed their political alliance known as the First Triumvirate. Frediano, an Irish monk, was bishop of Lucca in the sixth century. At one point, Lucca was plundered by Odoacer, the first Germanic King of Italy, Lucca was an important city and fortress even in the sixth century, when Narses besieged it for several months in 553. Under the Lombards, it was the seat of a duke who minted his own coins, the Holy Face of Lucca, a major relic supposedly carved by Nicodemus, arrived in 742.
During the eighth-tenth centuries Lucca was a center of Jewish life, Lucca became prosperous through the silk trade that began in the eleventh century, and came to rival the silks of Byzantium. During the tenth–eleventh centuries Lucca was the capital of the margraviate of Tuscany, more or less independent. After the death of Matilda of Tuscany, the city began to constitute itself an independent commune, for almost 500 years, Lucca remained an independent republic. There were many minor provinces in the region between southern Liguria and northern Tuscany dominated by the Malaspina, Tuscany in this time was a part of feudal Europe, dante’s Divine Comedy includes many references to the great feudal families who had huge jurisdictions with administrative and judicial rights. Dante spent some of his exile in Lucca, in 1273 and again in 1277, Lucca was ruled by a Guelph capitano del popolo named Luchetto Gattilusio. In 1314, internal discord allowed Uguccione della Faggiuola of Pisa to make himself lord of Lucca, the Lucchesi expelled him two years later, and handed over the city to another condottiero, Castruccio Castracani, under whose rule it became a leading state in central Italy.
Lucca rivalled Florence until Castracanis death in 1328, on 22 and 23 September 1325, in the battle of Altopascio, Castracani defeated Florences Guelphs. For this he was nominated by Louis IV the Bavarian to become duke of Lucca, Castracanis tomb is in the church of San Francesco. His biography is Machiavellis third famous book on political rule, in 1408, Lucca hosted the convocation intended to end the schism in the papacy. Occupied by the troops of Louis of Bavaria, the city was sold to a rich Genoese, Gherardino Spinola, seized by John, Lucca had been the second largest Italian city state with a republican constitution to remain independent over the centuries. In 1805, Lucca was conquered by Napoleon, who installed his sister Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi as Princess of Lucca, from 1815 to 1847 it was a Bourbon-Parma duchy
A putto is a figure in a work of art depicted as a chubby male child, usually naked and sometimes winged. However, in the Baroque period of art, the putto came to represent the omnipresence of God, a putto representing a cupid is called an amorino. The more commonly found form putti is the plural of the Italian word putto, the Italian word comes from the Latin word putus, meaning boy or child. Today, in Italian, putto means either toddler winged angel or, toddler boy. It may have derived from the same Indo-European root as the Sanskrit word putra, Avestan puθra-, Old Persian puça-, Pahlavi pus and pusar, all meaning son. Putti, in the ancient classical world of art, were winged infants that were believed to influence human lives. Putti are a motif found primarily on child sarcophagi of the 2nd century. Since then, Donatello has been called the originator of the putto because of the contribution to art he made in restoring the form of putto. He gave putto a distinct character by infusing the form with Christian meanings, putti began to feature in works showing figures from classical mythology, which became popular in the same period.
Most Renaissance putti are essentially decorative and they ornament both religious and secular works, without taking any actual part in the events depicted in narrative paintings. There are two forms of the putto as the main subject of a work of art in 16th-century Italian Renaissance art, the sleeping putto. So many artists have depicted them that a list would be pointless, but among the best-known are the sculptor Donatello, the two relaxed and curious putti who appear at the foot of Raphaels Sistine Madonna are often reproduced. They experienced a revival in the 19th century, where they gamboled through paintings by French academic painters. The iconography of putti is deliberately unfixed, so that it is difficult to tell the difference between putti and various forms of angels and they have no unique, immediately identifiable attributes, so that putti may have many meanings and roles in the context of art. In popular culture, putto is used as a decorative art found on buildings, gardens, a putto smoking a cigarette served as the cover art for Van Halens album 1984.
A putto is the protagonist of the 2000 third person shooter Messiah, in the British TV series Doctor Who, infants of the species Weeping Angels appear as putti. In the 1st-person shooter Team Fortress 2, the Meet the Pyro video has the BLU Team appear as putti in Pyroland, in the 2003 video game Drakengard, a group of malevolent god-like figures known as the Watchers appear as putti. The historiography of this matter is very short
Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi, better known as Donatello, was an early Renaissance sculptor from Florence. He worked with stone, wood, clay and wax, and had several assistants, with four perhaps being a typical number. Though his best-known works were mostly statues in the round, he developed a new, very shallow, type of bas-relief for small works, and a good deal of his output was larger architectural reliefs. Donatello was the son of Niccolò di Betto Bardi, who was a member of the Florentine Arte della Lana, Donatello was educated in the house of the Martelli family. He apparently received his artistic training in a goldsmiths workshop. While undertaking study and excavations with Filippo Brunelleschi in Rome, work that gained the two men the reputation of treasure seekers, Donatello made a living by working at goldsmiths shops. In 1409–1411 he executed the colossal seated figure of Saint John the Evangelist, which until 1588 occupied a niche of the old cathedral façade and this work marks a decisive step forward from late Gothic Mannerism in the search for naturalism and the rendering of human feelings.
The face, the shoulders and the bust are still idealized, while the hands, in 1411–13, Donatello worked on a statue of St. Mark for the guild church of Orsanmichele. In 1417 he completed the Saint George for the Confraternity of the Cuirass-makers, the elegant St. George and the Dragon relief on the statues base, executed in schiacciato is one of the first examples of central-point perspective in sculpture. From 1423 is the Saint Louis of Toulouse for the Orsanmichele, Donatello had sculpted the classical frame for this work, which remains, while the statue was moved in 1460 and replaced by Incredulity of Saint Thomas by Verrocchio. Between 1415 and 1426, Donatello created five statues for the campanile of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, known as the Duomo. These works are the Beardless Prophet, Bearded Prophet, the Sacrifice of Isaac and Jeremiah, from the late teens is the Pazzi Madonna relief in Berlin. In 1425, he executed the notable Crucifix for Santa Croce, this work portrays Christ in a moment of the agony and mouth partially opened, the body contracted in an ungraceful posture.
From 1425 to 1427, Donatello collaborated with Michelozzo on the monument of the Antipope John XXIII for the Battistero in Florence. Donatello made the recumbent bronze figure of the deceased, under a shell, in 1427, he completed in Pisa a marble relief for the funerary monument of Cardinal Rainaldo Brancacci at the church of SantAngelo a Nilo in Naples. In the same period, he executed the relief of the Feast of Herod, the relief is mostly in stiacciato, with the foreground figures are done in bas-relief. Around 1430, Cosimo de Medici, the foremost art patron of his era and this is now Donatellos most famous work, and the first known free-standing nude statue produced since antiquity. Also from this period is the disquietingly small Love-Atys, housed in the Bargello, some have perceived the David as having homo-erotic qualities, and have argued that this reflected the artists own orientation
Nicola Pisano was an Italian sculptor whose work is noted for its classical Roman sculptural style. Pisano is sometimes considered to be the founder of modern sculpture and his birth date or origins are uncertain. He was born in Apulia, as the son of Petrus de Apulia, Nicola Pisano was probably trained in the local workshops of the emperor Frederick II, and he attended his coronation. Here he was trained to give to the traditional representations more movement and emotions, intertwining Classical and his only remaining works from this period are two griffon heads with a soft chiaroscuro effect. Around 1245 he moved to Tuscany to work at the Prato Castle, the lions on the portal of this castle are probably by his hand. The head of a girl, cut in hardstone of Elba, is ascribed to Nicola Pisano in the same period. He moved to Lucca, working at façade of the Cathedral of Saint Martin, resulting in the relief Deposition from the Cross and he moved to Pisa between 1245 and 1250, where his son Giovanni Pisano was born.
Around 1255 he received a commission for the pulpit in the baptistery of Pisa and he finished this work in 1260 and signed with Nicola Pisanus. He was aided by several assistants, among which were Arnolfo di Cambio, Vasari relates that Nicola Pisano constantly studied these Roman remains and the Roman sculptures from Augustan times seem to have marked a deep impression on him. In the panel Representation the Madonna reminds us of the bearing of goddesses in late Roman sculpture. The pulpit rests on a column, raised on an octagonal pedestal. This central column rests on sculptures of animals and telamons and is surrounded by six columns of different height, the columns came from remains at Ostia. The Corinthian capitals support trefoil Gothic arches, richly decorated with Prophets and Evangelists in the spandrels and these arches are separated by sculptures of St. John the Baptist, St. Michael and the Virtues and, surprisingly, a nude Hercules. The backgrounds of scenes were originally painted and enamelled, while the eyes of the figures were coloured.
This contributed to a depiction of these religious scenes. All these scenes, except the last two, reflect his knowledge of the style on the sarcophagi, the figures wear tunics in a Roman fashion. The Virgin wears a pallium over her head in the manner as a Roman matron. The scene The Last Judgement was probably based on a Byzantine ivory and he must have found his inspiration for this pulpit in the triumphal arches he had seen in Rome when travelling to Ostia
Santa Maria della Scala
Santa Maria della Scala is a titular church in Rome, located in the Trastevere rione. Cardinal Ernest Simoni will take possession of the church on February 11,2017. The church was built between 1593 and 1610 to honor a miraculous icon of the Madonna, tradition holds that the icon, when placed on the landing of a staircase of a neighboring house of a mother who prayed before it, had cured her deformed child. Consecrated to Mary, mother of Jesus, it enshrines that icon in the north transept and it was sited adjacent to a monastery famous for containing the Papal courts 17th century pharmacy. In 1650, nearly fifty years after the completion, Carlo Rainaldi designed for the church a tempietto-shaped baldachino with 16 slender jasper Corinthian columns. The church contains The Beheading of St. John the Baptist by the Dutch painter Gerrit van Honthorst, the latter replaces Caravaggios earlier, and more controversial version. Rumors held Caravaggio had used a prostitute as a model for the dead virgin, san Giuseppe Hall houses a collection by Tito Sarrocchi.
Biblioteca Communale Media related to Santa Maria della Scala at Wikimedia Commons
An effigy is a representation of a specific person in the form of sculpture or some other three-dimensional medium. The use of the term is restricted to certain contexts in a somewhat arbitrary way, recumbent effigies on tombs are so called. Likenesses of religious figures in sculpture are not normally called effigies and it is common to burn an effigy of a person as an act of protest. The word first appeared in 1539 and comes, perhaps via French, from the Latin effigies and this spelling was originally used in English for singular senses, even a single image was the effigies of. In effigie was probably understood as a Latin phrase until the 18th century, the word occurs in Shakespeares As You Like It of 1600, where scansion suggests that the second syllable is to be emphasized, as in the Latin pronunciation. The best known British example of a caricature effigy is the figure of the 1605 Gunpowder Plotter Guy Fawkes, found in charge of gunpowder to blow up the King in the House of Lords. On November 5, Guy Fawkes Night or Bonfire Night, his effigy, typically made of straw, in many parts of the world, there are traditions of large caricature effigies of political or other figures carried on floats in parades at festivals.
Political effigies serve a similar purpose in political demonstrations and annual community rituals such as that held in Lewes. In Lewes, models of important or unpopular figures in current affairs are burned on Guy Fawkes Night, in Oriental Orthodox Christianity, populace used to burn an effigy of Judas, just before Easter. Now it is considered a custom and there are currently no attempts at revival. Caricature effigies, in Greek skiachtro, are still in use to prevent birds from eating mature fruit and they were shown lying on the coffin at the funeral, and often displayed beside or over the tomb. The figures were dressed in the clothes of the deceased, only the face, from the time of the funeral of Charles II in 1680, effigies were no longer placed on the coffin but were still made for display. The effigy of Charles II was displayed over his tomb until the early 19th century, nelsons effigy was a tourist attraction, commissioned the year after his death and his burial in St Pauls Cathedral in 1805.
The government had decided that public figures with State funerals should in future be buried at St Pauls. Concerned for their revenue from visitors, the Abbey decided it needed an attraction for admirers of Nelson. In the field of numismatics, effigy has been used to describe the image or portrait on the obverse of a coin. A practice evident in literature of the 19th century, the obverse of a coin was said to depict “the ruler’s effigy”. It can be the case that the monarchs reign becomes long enough to merit issuing a succession of effigies so that their appearance continues to be current, in the past, criminals sentenced to death in absentia might be officially executed in effigy as a symbolic act
Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena, the historic centre of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. It is one of the nations most visited tourist attractions, with over 163,000 international arrivals in 2008, Siena is famous for its cuisine, museums, medieval cityscape and the Palio, a horse race held twice a year. Siena, like other Tuscan hill towns, was first settled in the time of the Etruscans when it was inhabited by a called the Saina. A Roman town called Saena Julia was founded at the site in the time of the Emperor Augustus, the first document mentioning it dates from AD70. Some archaeologists assert that Siena was controlled for a period by a Gaulish tribe called the Senones, according to local legend, Siena was founded by Senius and Aschius, two sons of Remus and thus nephews of Romulus, after whom Rome was named. Supposedly after their fathers murder by Romulus, they fled Rome, taking them the statue of the she-wolf suckling the infants.
Additionally they rode white and black horses, giving rise to the Balzana, some claim the name Siena derives from Senius. Other etymologies derive the name from the Etruscan family name Saina, Siena did not prosper under Roman rule. It was not sited near any major roads and lacked opportunities for trade and its insular status meant that Christianity did not penetrate until the 4th century AD, and it was not until the Lombards invaded Siena and the surrounding territory that it knew prosperity. Siena prospered as a trading post, and the constant streams of pilgrims passing to, the oldest aristocratic families in Siena date their line to the Lombards surrender in 774 to Charlemagne. This ultimately resulted in the creation of the Republic of Siena, the Republic existed for over four hundred years, from the late 11th century until the year 1555. During the golden age of Siena before the Black Death in 1348, in the Italian War of 1551–59, the republic was defeated by the rival Duchy of Florence in alliance with the Spanish crown.
After 18 months of resistance, Siena surrendered to Spain on 17 April 1555, the new Spanish King Felipe II, owing huge sums to the Medici, ceded it to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, to which it belonged until the unification of Italy in the 19th century. A Republican government of 700 Sienese families in Montalcino resisted until 1559, the picturesque city remains an important cultural centre, especially for humanist disciplines. The city lies at 322 m above sea level, the Siena Cathedral, begun in the 12th century, is a masterpiece of Italian Romanesque-Gothic architecture. Its main façade was completed in 1380, the original plan called for an ambitiously massive basilica, the largest in the world, with, as was customary, an east-west nave. However, the scarcity of funds, in due to war and plague, truncated the project
San Petronio Basilica
The Basilica of San Petronio is the main church of Bologna, Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. It is the tenth-largest church in the world by volume,132 metres long and 66 metres wide, with its volume of 258,000 m³, it is the largest church built of bricks of the world. The basilica is dedicated to the saint of the city, Saint Petronius. It has been the seat of the relics of Bolognas patron saint only since 2000, following a council decree of 1388, the first stone of construction was laid June 7,1390, when the town council entrusted Antonio di Vincenzo with raising a Gothic cathedral. Works lasted for centuries, after the completion of the first version of the facade. The series were completed only in 1479, according to tradition, Pope Pius IV halted such a majestic project. The facing of the facade remains unfinished, many architects were commissioned to propose solutions for it. The heroic nudes of Adam and other figures in the rectangular panels were an inspiration to artists of the Renaissance.
The 65-metre-tall campanile was built at the end of the 1400s, the interior houses a Madonna with Saints by Lorenzo Costa the Younger and a Pietà by Amico Aspertini. Also the colours of the walls and the glass windows are noteworthy. The choir was made in the 15th century by Agostino de Marchi, Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola was chief architect of the fabbrica, his is the design of the ciborium over the altar. The vaulting and decoration of the nave is by Girolamo Rainaldi. The twenty-two chapels are the following, I, Chapel of St. Abbondio, formerly of the Dieci di Balia - restored in neo-Gothic style in 1865. In this chapel, in the year 1530, Emperor Charles V was crowned by Pope Clement VII, Chapel of St. Petronio, once of the Cospi and Aldrovandi families, designed by Alfonso Torreggiani, designed to contain the relic of the head of San Petronio. On the pillar, two clocks, one of the first made in Italy with the correction of the pendulum. Chapel of the Magi, once of Bolognini family, its marble Gothic balustrade designed by Antonio di Vincenzo, Chapel of St.
Sebastian, once of Vaselli family. Chapel of St. Vincent Ferrer, formerly of the Griffoni, Chapel of St. James, formerly of the Rossi and Baciocchi families, the Madonna Enthroned on the altar was painted by Lorenzo Costa, to the same author attributed the designs of the stain glass. Funeral monument containing the remains of Prince Felix Baciocchi and his wife Elisa Bonaparte, Chapel of St. Rocco, formerly of the Ranuzzi family, it contains a ‘’San Rocco’’ by Parmigianino
Piazza del Campo
Piazza del Campo is the principal public space of the historic center of Siena, Italy and is regarded as one of Europes greatest medieval squares. It is renowned worldwide for its beauty and architectural integrity, the Palazzo Pubblico and its Torre del Mangia, as well as various palazzi signorili surround the shell-shaped piazza. At the northwest edge is the Fonte Gaia, the twice-a-year horse-race, Palio di Siena, is held around the edges of the piazza. Siena may have had earlier Etruscan settlements, but it was not a considerable Roman settlement, the number of divisions is held to be symbolic of the rule of The Nine who laid out the campo and governed Siena at the height of its mediaeval splendour between 1292-1355. The Campo was and remains the point of public life in the City. From the piazza, eleven narrow shaded streets radiate into the city, at the foot of the Palazzo Pubblicos wall is the late Gothic Chapel of the Virgin built as an ex voto by the Sienese, after the terrible Black Death of 1348 had ended.
Under the direction of the Committee of Nine, many miles of tunnels were constructed to bring water in aqueducts to fountains and thence to drain to the surrounding fields. The white marble Fonte Gaia was originally designed and built by Jacopo della Quercia, whose bas-reliefs from the basins sides are conserved in the Ospedale di St. Maria della Scala in Piazza Duomo. When they were set up in 1419, Jacopo della Quercias nude figures were the first two female nudes, who were neither Eve nor a repentant saint, to stand in a place since Antiquity. Two Weeks in Tuscany The Sight in the Piazza ItalyGuides. com, Piazza del Campo Many pictures Siena Piazza del Campo English Video Introduction
In architecture, a lunette is a half-moon shaped space, either filled with recessed masonry or void. A lunette is formed when a horizontal cornice transects a round-headed arch at the level of the imposts, if a door is set within a round-headed arch, the space within the arch above the door, masonry or glass, is a lunette. If the door is an access, and the lunette above is massive and deeply set. The term is employed to describe the section of interior wall between the curves of a vault and its springing line. A system of intersecting vaults produces lunettes on the surfaces above a cornice. The lunettes in the structure of the Sistine Chapel inspired Michelangelo to come up with compositions for the spaces. In neoclassical architecture of Robert Adam and his French contemporaries, like Ange-Jacques Gabriel, the lunettes above lent themselves to radiating motifs, a sunburst of bellflower husks, radiating fluting, a low vase of flowers, etc. A lunette may be segmental, and the arch may be an arc taken from an oval, a lunette is commonly called a half-moon window, when the space is used as a window.
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Collegiate Church of San Gimignano
The church is famous for its fresco cycles which include works by Domenico Ghirlandaio, Benozzo Gozzoli, Taddeo di Bartolo, Lippo Memmi and Bartolo di Fredi. The basilica is located within the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Historic Centre of San Gimignano, the first church on the site was begun in the 10th century. During the early 12th century the importance of San Gimignano, and its church, grew steadily, owing to the towns location on the pilgrimage route to Rome. The present church on site was consecrated on 21 November 1148. The event is commemorated in a plaque on the facade, the power and authority of the city of San Gimignano continued to grow, until it was able to win autonomy from Volterra. The church owned land and enjoyed privileges that were endorsed by papal bulls. It was elevated to collegiate status 20 September 1471, during the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, the church was enriched by the addition of frescos and sculpture. The western end of the building was altered and extended by Giuliano da Maiano between 1466 and 1468, with the work including vestries, the Chapel of Conception and the Chapel of St Fina.
The church was damaged during World War II, and during the subsequent restoration in 1951 the triapsidal eastern end of the church was discovered lying beneath the nave of the present church. The church possesses the relics of St. Geminianus, the beatified Bishop of Modena and patron saint of the town, on 8 May 1300 Dante Alighieri came to San Gimignano as the Ambassador of the Guelph League in Tuscany. Girolamo Savonarola preached from the pulpit of this church in 1497, the Collegiate Church stands on the west side of Piazza del Duomo, so named although the church has never been the seat of a bishop. The church has a facade, and chancel to the west. The architecture is 12th and 13th century Romanesque with the exception of the two chapels in the Renaissance style. The facade, which has little ornament, is approached from the square by a staircase and has a door into each of the side aisles. The doorways are surmounted by stone lintels with recessed arches above them, there is a central ocular window at the end of the nave and a smaller one giving light to each aisle.
The facade, which is stone, was raised higher in brick in 1340, when the ribbed vaulting was constructed, and the two smaller ocular windows set in. To the north side of the church, in the corner of the transept and chancel, stands a severely plain campanile of square plan, with a single arched opening in each face. To the south side of the church is the Loggia of the Baptistry, a 14th-century arcaded cloister with stout octagonal columns, the chancel is a simple rectangle with a single arched window at the terminal end