Caspar Frederik Harsdorff
Caspar Frederik Harsdorff known as C. F. Harsdorff, Danish neoclassical architect is considered to be Denmark’s leading architect in the late 18th century, is referred to as “The Father of Danish Classicism”, he was born Caspar Frederik Harsdørffer in Copenhagen, Denmark to German-born schoolteacher Johan Christopher Harsdørffer from Nürnberg and his Swedish-born wife Anne Marie Eriksdatter. He began his education in mathematics in order to train for the Engineer Corps, but his interest lay in architecture, which he studied enthusiastically; when the Royal Danish Academy of Art opened in 1754 at Charlottenborg Palace he was able to study under French architect Nicolas-Henri Jardin. In 1756 his design for a city gate won the Academy’s large gold medallion, giving him the distinction of being the first Danish architect to win the coveted award; the award included a six-year travel grant. He traveled to Paris 1757, he stayed there four years in the company of painter Jens Pedersen Lund and sculptor Carl Frederik Stanley who resided in Paris at the same time as Harsdorff.
While there he studied diligently under Jacques-François Blondel, an architect to Louis XV of France. In late spring 1762 he traveled to Rome, where he discovered the remains of Ancient Rome, he understood that his education until had been incomplete. While in Italy he drew and measured the antiquities he studied, he returned to Denmark in 1764, was named Building Inspector. That same year he was invited to join the Academy, received the assignment to design "Et kongeligt Palais, liggende paa en smuk Plads", his design was judged successful, he was accepted as member of the Academy in 1765, where he was given a job as Professor in Perspective in 1766. 1766-1769 he built the memorial chapel for former Lord High Steward Count Adam Gottlob Moltke at Karise Church in Faxe, begun by his former teacher and now fellow Professor at the Academy architect Nicolas-Henri Jardin. In 1770 he was named Royal Building Master to the court of King Christian VII. In May 1770 he married Elisabeth Margrethe Fortling, the daughter of former stonemason and Building Master to the royal court Jacob Fortling.
In 1771 Professor Jardin requested that Harsdorff be named his successor as Professor of Architecture at the Academy, which position he filled that year after Jardin vacated the position on 26 March in conjunction with his leaving Denmark to return to France. As professor he played an important role in the classical education of the next generation of architects, his students included Joseph Christian Lillie and Christian Frederik Hansen. Harsdorff became a member of the Main Building Directorate in 1771. In 1773 he designed the pulpit at Our Saviour’s Church in the Christianshavn district of Copenhagen; the neoclassical wood pulpit is painted to look like golden marble, features a frieze attributed to Johannes Wiedewelt and Peder Als. That same year he rebuilt in the King’s Garden, the gardens at Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen, the temple-like Hercules Pavilion for which Johannes Wiedewelt’s studio produced the reliefs of Hercules and Omphale; the pavilion now houses a café. He was commissioned to enlarge the Nicolai Eigtved-designed The Royal Theatre on Kongens Nytorv that year.
In the course of his work on this project he received permission to develop the site between the theatre and Charlottenborg Palace, home of the Art Academy, which he developed 1779-1780 as a home for his family. Rebuilding of the theatre was carried on 1773-1774. 1774-1779 he designed and started building the austere memorial chapels for Christian VI and Frederik V at Roskilde Cathedral. Work on this project, was stopped in 1779 because of lack of money; the work began again many years after his death, was completed by his student Christian Frederik Hansen. Harsdorff acted as the Academy’s Director 1777-1779, was named to the title of Justitsraad in 1778. In 1779-1780 he built his own townhouse at 3-5 Kongens Nytorv, which became the new model for Copenhagen townhouses of the time. Today the building houses the Danish Arts Agency, the Danish Arts Council, the Danish Arts Foundation; the building is shown on a Danish postage stamp, part of series entitled Danish Houses which features significant Danish buildings.
1781-1785 he did the interior design in two large rooms at The Royal Library. In 1781 he was named Head Royal Building Master. 1794-1795 he designed and built the colonnade at Amalienborg Palace to connect the occupied King’s palace, Moltke Palace, with the Crown Prince’s residence, Schack’s Palace. In 1795 he was asked to create plans for Frederik's Church, now known as The Marble Church, work on, halted 1770 after French neoclassical architect Nicolas-Henri Jardin had led the effort. Harsdorff created two plans, made a model of one of them; the project was approved. The work was developed according to plans by Ferdinand Meldahl. May 1799 he became sick at his country home Rosenlund on Gammel Kongevej, he died there on 24 May 1799, he was buried in Copenhagen. He was survived by his wife. In addition to his public assignments Harsdorff had many private commissions, he designed furniture whose simple, clear construction and form contain features that would be characteristic of Danish furniture. Art historian and critic Niels Lauritz Høyen’s Nordic Art Society published in 1871 the book "C. F. Harsdorffs Værker" ("C.
Manon Balletti was the daughter of Italian actors performing in France and lover of the famous womanizer Giacomo Casanova. She was ten years old; the lovers started their relationship when Casanova was thirty-two years old and Manon was seventeen. She wrote forty-two letters full of deep feelings for him. Casanova's sexual passions caused him to be unfaithful, causing their three-year relationship to have numerous ups and downs, yet she continued to share his home, found in Rue du Petit-Lion-St. Sauveur. Manon was at the time engaged to her clavichord teacher, but broke it off at Casanova's request, thus starting a new engagement with him; this did not keep him from having various sexual relations with other women, yet Manon remained faithful to him. His memoirs record his regret for being unkind to her. Once Casanova was imprisoned. Manon sent a pair of diamond earrings. Subsequently she returned his portrait and letters. Manon married the architect Jacques-François Blondel a short while after, disappointing Casanova, who believed that he would one day be able to settle down with her.
Manon died at the age of 36, questionably from pulmonary hypertension. Casanova wrote in his memoirs. Giacomo Casanova Manon A Giacomo Casanova. Lettere d'amoreManon Balletti, Elisa von der Recke, 1997, Archinto, EAN: 9788877682116 Aldo Ravà, Lettere di donne a G. Casanova, Fratelli Treves, 1912. Giacomo Casanova Jacques Casanova de Seingalt - Histoire de ma vie. Texte intégral du manuscrit suivi de textes inédits. Édition présentée et établie par Francis Lacassin.. Ed. Robert Laffont. 1993. Vol. I p. Manon Balletti, l'amour inaccessible. Appendice p. 1099 L'acte de mariage de Manon Balletti Paris 29 juillet 1760. L'intermédiaire des casanovistes, editor Helmut Watzlawick, Genève, n° XI, 39,40. XII, 56. XIII, 48, 52, 59. XV, 79. XVI, 35. XVII, 27. XX 27, 46, 64. XXVII 34. Marco Leeflang, Manon rising star, L’intermédiaire des casanovistes, XXVII, Genève 2010, p. 34
Pierre Patte was a French architect, the assistant of the great French teacher of architecture, Jacques-François Blondel, whose Cours d'architecture which ran to nine volumes by 1777, he saw through the press after Blondel's death in 1774. He has been credited for having been the first to illustrate a city street plan with buildings and sewer system shown in a section view, a reference to a section he produced in 1769, though recent study has shown the irrefutable influence of a similar drawing produced by the Portuguese engineer Eugenio dos Santos in the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. Under the reign of Louis XV Patte theorized in the middle of the 18th century about thinking about the overall structure of the city as an urban organism where changing one aspect would affect the whole thing. A century some of Patte's ideas would help change Paris under the direction of Baron Haussmann. Discours sur l'Architecture Études d'Architecture Monuments érigés en France à la Gloire de Louis XV Cours d'architecture Essai sur l'Architecture Théâtrale "Patte, Pierre" A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture.
James Stevens Curl. Oxford University Press 2006. Retrieved via Oxford Reference Online, 18 February 2007 "The Portuguese Precedent to Pierre Patte's Street Section". Andrew Tallon. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 2004. Retrieved via JSTOR, 06 May 2016
Louise Élisabeth of France
Marie Louise Élisabeth of France was a French princess, the eldest daughter of King Louis XV of France and his Queen consort, Maria Leszczyńska, the elder twin of Anne Henriette de France. She married Infante Philip, younger son of Philip V of Spain, who inherited the Duchy of Parma from his mother in 1748, thereby founding the House of Bourbon-Parma. In secondary sources she is referred to as "Louise Élisabeth of France", she functioned as the de facto ruler of the Duchy of Parma between 1748 and 1759. Marie Louise Élisabeth and her younger twin sister Princess Henriette were born at the Palace of Versailles on 14 August 1727 to Louis XV of France and queen Maria Leszczyńska. Along with her twin, she was baptised at Versailles on 27 April 1737 with the names of her parents; as a legitimate daughter of the king, she was a fille de France, but was known at court as Madame Royale, Madame Première, Madame Élisabeth, as Babette within her family circle. She was put in the care of duchesse de Tallard.
Élisabeth was raised at Versailles with her twin, their younger sisters Marie Louise, Marie Adélaïde, their brother, Dauphin of France. Her younger sisters, Sophie, Marie Thérèse and Louise Marie, were sent to be raised in the Abbey of Fontevraud in June 1738. Élisabeth was not regarded to be as pretty as her twin: her nose was considered too short and too broad, her face too plump, her forehead too high and her complexion too dark and sometimes blotchy. As a person, she was sometimes described as dull and indolent, but as vivacious and decided: it was said of her that she "knew how to exact obedience and to get her own way", she was considered as quite charming and a "pleasing and intelligent personality". In February 1739, when she was eleven years old, her prospective engagement to the Infante Philip of Spain was announced. Philip was the third son of Louis XV's uncle, Philip V d'Anjou, King of Spain, Elizabeth of Parma; this engagement followed a tradition dating back to 1559 of cementing military and political alliances between the Catholic powers of France and Spain with royal marriages.
Despite this and the fact that Philip was her father's first cousin, the announcement of the marriage agreement was not well received at the French court, as there was little chance that Philip would become king of Spain, that only a marriage with a crown prince or a king was deemed worthy of a princess of France. The barrister Barbier wrote in his diary "It seems extraordinary that the eldest Daughter of France is not marrying a crowned head", d'Argenson speculated that the marriage was arranged only because of a plan to make Don Philip king of Naples and Sicily. Élisabeth herself "considered her destiny to be less glorious than she had the right to expect", when she was asked if she would not feel pleased to be called Infanta, her face "contracted into a scornful grimace". The twelve-year-old Élisabeth was married by proxy in Versailles on 26 August 1739, thereafter known as Madame Infanta in France. In September, she left for Spain, the king was so moved that he entered her carriage and accompanied her for the first miles on her journey.
She passed the border and met her nineteen-year-old husband some thirty kilometers northeast of Madrid, at Alcalá de Henares, where the marriage ceremony took place on 25 October 1739. Élisabeth made a personal success upon her arrival in Spain and was soon the "idol of Madrid". She made a favorable impression on her father-in-law, king Philip V, upon her spouse, prince Philip, her relationship with her mother-in-law, the domineering queen Elisabeth of Parma, soon became one of mutual dislike. The queen was displeased over the fact that Élisabeth's dowry was not paid by France, nor did France assist Spain in the war with Britain; as a result, Elisabeth spent most of her time away from the Queen, playing with dolls and wrote of her unhappiness to her father. Élisabeth soon came to dominate Philip. She was not satisfied with her powerless position as the spouse of a prince with not prospects of being queen at the Spanish courts, her twin Henriette, otherwise regarded as habitually apathetic of politics and gentle, was passionately devoted to work for the political ambition of her elder twin Élisabeth, as did her younger sister Adelaide and her sister-in-law Infanta Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spai
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles, the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. In form, neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts; the style is manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, in its architectural formulae as an outgrowth of some classicising features of the Late Baroque architectural tradition. Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism, while the newer revival styles of the 19th century until today are called neoclassical. Intellectually, neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, to the more vague perception of Ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser extent, 16th-century Renaissance Classicism, a source for academic Late Baroque architecture.
Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicolas Ledoux. The many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are Edmund Burke's conception of the sublime. Ledoux addressed the concept of architectural character, maintaining that a building should communicate its function to the viewer: taken such ideas give rise to "architecture parlante". A return to more classical architectural forms as a reaction to the Rococo style can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland; the baroque style had never been to the English taste. Four influential books were published in the first quarter of the 18th century which highlighted the simplicity and purity of classical architecture: Vitruvius Britannicus, Palladio's Four Books of Architecture, De Re Aedificatoria and The Designs of Inigo Jones... with Some Additional Designs.
The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell. The book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings, inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio. At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones, but the tomes contained drawings and plans by Campbell and other 18th-century architects. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain. At the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic "architect earl", Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington; this House was a reinterpretation of Palladio's Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and ornament. This severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of England's finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk; the main block of this house followed Palladio's dictates quite but Palladio's low detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance.
This classicising vein was detectable, to a lesser degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris, such as in Perrault's east range of the Louvre. This shift was visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S. Giovanni in Laterano. By the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece. An early centre of neoclassicism was Italy Naples, where by the 1730s, court architects such as Luigi Vanvitelli and Ferdinando Fuga were recovering classical and Mannierist forms in their Baroque architecture. Following their lead, Giovanni Antonio Medrano began to build the first neoclassical structures in Italy in the 1730s. In the same period, Alessandro Pompei introduced neoclassicism to the Venetian Republic, building one of the first lapidariums in Europe in Verona, in the Doric style. During the same period, neoclassical elements were introduced to Tuscany by architect Jean Nicolas Jadot de Ville-Issey, the court architect of Francis Stephen of Lorraine.
On Jadot's lead, an original neoclassical style was developed by Gaspare Paoletti, transforming Florence into the most important centre of neoclassicism in the peninsula. In the second half of the century, Neoclassicism flourished in Turin and Trieste. In the latter two cities, just as in Tuscany, the sober neoclassical style was linked to the reformism of the ruling Habsburg enlightened monarchs; the Rococo style remained much popular in Italy until the Napoleonic regimes, which brought a new archaeological classicism, embraced as a political statement by young, urban Italians with republican leanings. The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, it first gained influence in France. In France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, was influenced by the writings of
The Louvre Palace is a former royal palace located on the Right Bank of the Seine in Paris, between the Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois. A fortress built in the medieval period, it became a royal palace in the fourteenth century under Charles V and was used from time to time by the kings of France as their main Paris residence, its present structure has evolved in stages since the 16th century. In 1793 part of the Louvre became a public museum, now the Musée du Louvre, which has expanded to occupy most of the building; the present-day Louvre Palace is a vast complex of wings and pavilions on four main levels which, although it looks to be unified, is the result of many phases of building, modification and restoration. The Palace is situated in the right-bank of the River Seine between Rue de Rivoli to the north and the Quai François Mitterrand to the south. To the west is the Jardin des Tuileries and, to the east, the Rue de l'Amiral de Coligny, where its most architecturally famous façade, the Louvre Colonnade, the Place du Louvre are found.
The complex occupies about 40 hectares and forms two main quadrilaterals which enclose two large courtyards: the Cour Carrée, completed under Napoleon I, the larger Cour Napoléon with the Cour du Carrousel to its west, built under Napoleon III. The Cour Napoléon and Cour du Carrousel are separated by the street known as the Place du Carrousel; the Louvre complex may be divided into the "Old Louvre": the medieval and Renaissance pavilions and wings surrounding the Cour Carrée, as well as the Grande Galerie extending west along the bank of the Seine. Some 51,615 sq m in the palace complex are devoted to public exhibition floor space; the Old Louvre occupies the site of the Louvre castle, a 12th-century fortress built by King Philip Augustus called the Louvre. Its foundations are viewable in the basement level as the "Medieval Louvre" department; this structure was razed in 1546 by King Francis I in favour of a larger royal residence, added to by every subsequent French monarch. King Louis XIV, who resided at the Louvre until his departure for Versailles in 1678, completed the Cour Carrée, closed off on the city side by a colonnade.
The Old Louvre is a quadrilateral 160 m on a side consisting of 8 ailes which are articulated by 8 pavillons. Starting at the northwest corner and moving clockwise, the pavillons consist of the following: Pavillon de Beauvais, Pavillon de Marengo, Northeast Pavilion, Central Pavilion, Southeast Pavilion, Pavillon des Arts, Pavillon du Roi, Pavillon Sully. Between the Pavillon du Roi and the Pavillon Sully is the Aile Lescot: built between 1546 and 1551, it is the oldest part of the visible external elevations and was important in setting the mould for French architectural classicism. Between the Pavillon Sully and the Pavillon de Beauvais is the Aile Lemercier: built in 1639 by Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu, it is a symmetrical extension of Lescot's wing in the same Renaissance style. With it, the last external vestiges of the medieval Louvre were demolished; the New Louvre is the name given to the wings and pavilions extending the Palace for about 500 m westwards on the north and on the south sides of the Cour Napoléon and Cour du Carrousel.
It was Napoléon III who connected the north end of the Tuileries Palace with the Louvre in the 1850s, thus achieving the Grand Dessein envisaged by King Henry IV of France in the 16th century. This consummation only lasted a few years, however, as the Tuileries was burned in 1871 and razed in 1883; the northern limb of the new Louvre consists of three great pavilions along the Rue de Rivoli: the Pavillon de la Bibliothèque, Pavillon de Rohan and Pavillon de Marsan. On the inside of the Pavillon de la Bibliothèque are three pavilions; the southern limb of the New Louvre consists of five great pavilions along the Quai François Mitterrand: the Pavillon de la Lesdiguieres, Pavillon des Sessions, Pavillon de la Tremoille, Pavillon des États and Pavillon de Flore. As on the north side, three inside pavilions and their wings define three more subsidiary Courts: Cour du Sphinx, Cour Visconti and Cour Lefuel; the Chinese American architect I. M. Pei was selected in 1983 to design François Mitterrand's Grand Louvre Project.
A vast underground complex of offices, exhibition spaces, storage areas, parking areas, as well as an auditorium, a tourist bus depot, a cafeteria, was constructed underneath the Louvre's central courtyards of the Cour Napoléon and the Cour du Carrousel. The ground-level entrance to this complex was situated in the centre of the Cour Napoléon and is crowned by the prominent steel-and-glass pyramid, the most famous element designed by Pei. In a proposal by Kenneth Carbone, the nomenclature of the wings of the Louvre
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona