Jacques René Chirac was a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007. Chirac was the Prime Minister of France from 1974 to 1976 and from 1986 to 1988, as well as the Mayor of Paris from 1977 to 1995. After completing his degree at Sciences Po, a term at Harvard University, the École nationale d'administration, Chirac began his career as a high-level civil servant, entering politics shortly thereafter. Chirac occupied various senior positions, including Minister of Agriculture and Minister of the Interior. Chirac's internal policies included lower tax rates, the removal of price controls, strong punishment for crime and terrorism, business privatisation. After pursuing these policies in his second term as Prime Minister, he changed his views, he argued for more responsible economic policies and was elected President in the 1995 presidential election with 52.6% of the vote in the second round, beating Socialist Lionel Jospin, after campaigning on a platform of healing the "social rift".
Chirac's economic policies, based on dirigisme, allowing for state-directed investment, stood in opposition to the laissez-faire policies of the United Kingdom under the ministries of Margaret Thatcher and John Major, which Chirac described as "Anglo-Saxon ultraliberalism". He was known for his stand against the American-led assault on Iraq, his recognition of the collaborationist French Government's role in deporting Jews, his reduction of the presidential term from 7 years to 5 through a referendum in 2000. At the 2002 French presidential election, he won 82.2% of the vote in the second round against the far-right candidate, Jean-Marie Le Pen. During his second term, however, he had a low approval rating and was considered one of the least popular presidents in modern French political history. In 2011, the Paris court declared Chirac guilty of diverting public funds and abusing public confidence, giving him a two-year suspended prison sentence. Chirac was born in the 5th arrondissement of Paris.
He was the son of Abel François Marie Chirac, a successful executive for an aircraft company, Marie-Louise Valette, a housewife. His great-grandparents on both sides were peasants in the rural south-western region of the Corrèze, his grandparents were teachers from Sainte-Féréole in Corrèze. According to Chirac, his name "originates from the langue d'oc, that of the troubadours, therefore that of poetry", he was a Roman Catholic. Chirac was an only child, he was educated in Paris at a private school. He attended the Lycée Carnot and the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. After his baccalauréat, he served for three months as a sailor on a coal-transporter. Chirac played rugby union for Brive's youth team, played at university level, he played second row. Inspired by Charles de Gaulle, Chirac started to pursue a civil service career in the 1950s. During this period, he joined the French Communist Party, sold copies of L'Humanité, took part in meetings of a communist cell. In 1950, he signed the Soviet-inspired Stockholm Appeal for the abolition of nuclear weapons – which led him to be questioned when he applied for his first visa to the United States.
In 1953, after graduating from the Sciences Po, he attended a non-credit course at Harvard University's summer school, before entering the École nationale d'administration, which trains France's top civil servants, in 1957. In the United States Chirac worked at Anheuser-Busch in Missouri. Chirac trained as a reserve military officer in armoured cavalry at Saumur, he volunteered to fight in the Algerian War, using personal connections to be sent despite the reservations of his superiors. His superiors did not want to make him an officer. In 1965, he became an auditor in the Court of Auditors. In April 1962, Chirac was appointed head of the personal staff of Prime Minister Georges Pompidou; this appointment launched Chirac's political career. Pompidou considered Chirac his protégé, referred to him as "my bulldozer" for his skill at getting things done; the nickname "Le Bulldozer" caught on in French political circles, where it referred to his abrasive manner. As late as the 1988 presidential election, Chirac maintained this reputation.
At Pompidou's suggestion, Chirac ran as a Gaullist for a seat in the National Assembly in 1967. He was elected deputy for a stronghold of the left; this surprising victory in the context of a Gaullist ebb permitted him to enter the government as Minister of Social Affairs. Although Chirac was well-situated in de Gaulle's entourage, being related by marriage to the general's sole companion at the time of the Appeal of 18 June 1940, he was more of a "Pompidolian" than a "Gaullist"; when student and worker unrest rocked France in May 1968, Chirac played a central role in negotiating a truce. As state secretary of economy, he worked with Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, who headed the ministry of economy and finance. After some months in the ministry for Relations with Parliament, Chirac's first high-level post came in 1972 when he became Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development under Pompidou, elected president in 1969, after de Gaulle retired. Chirac earned a reputation as a champion of French farmers' interests, first attracted international attention when he assailed U.
Marcin II Szyszkowski of Ostoja Coat of Arms was a notable Polish priest who attended the Jesuit school of Kalisz and became bishop of Lutsk, Płock and of Kraków. In the power of the Bishop of Kraków, he became Prince of Siewierz. Szyszkowski was born into a noble family, part of the Clan of Ostoja. After finishing Jesuit school, he furthermore studied in Krakow, Rome and Padova, his great intellect and humanistic view helped. He became chancellor of Piotr Myszkowski, bishop of Krakow at the time, he advanced to the office of Bishop of Luck in 1604, the holy Catholic capital in the area named Christopolis. On 18 November 1607 he became the Bishop of Płock, he translated a lot of work from Italian to Latin, founded a Jesuit school in Płock in the year 1616. He finished the building in Pultusk. Szyszkowki moved to Krakow in October 1616 and became Bishop of Krakow on the 3rd of June 1617. During his time as the Bishop of Krakow he opened several schools and chapels for the Franciscan friars, he was against the reforms and in his battle to preserve the Catholic Church he regained 37 churches for the cause.
In the cathedral on Wawel in Krakow, present confession is in the form of a domed canopy made of black and rose marble, gilt-bronze and wood, created in the years 1626-1629 on Bishop Marcin Szyszkowski’s foundation. The most popular sarcophaguses in the 17th century were in the form of busts of the deceased persons, in a style taking its origins from Rome. Four Baroque statues of the bishops of Cracow including Marcin Szyszkowski were placed around St Stanislaus’ confession standing over the crypt in which the bishops are buried. Clan of Ostoja Ostoja coat of arms Mikołaj Szyszkowski Nowowiejski A. J. Płock. Monografia historyczna.... Płock 1990 Piotr Nitecki, Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965 - 1999, ISBN 83-211-1311-7, Warszawa 2000. Krzysztof Rafał Prokop: Sylwetki biskupów łuckich. Biały Dunajec: Ostróg: "Wołanie z Wołynia", 2001. ISBN 83-911918-7-7
The 2006 United States Senate election in Utah was held November 7, 2006. Incumbent Republican Orrin Hatch won re-election to a sixth term; the filing deadline for major party candidates was March 17, 2006. Pete Ashdown, the founder and CEO of Utah's oldest Internet service provider, XMission. Orrin Hatch, incumbent U. S. Senator first elected in 1976 Hatch won all but one county with 60% to 70% of the vote. Ashdown won only Summit County by 342 votes. Pete Ashdown for United States Senate Scott Bradley for Senate The Official Orrin Hatch campaign site Joe Labonte's website Roger I. Price's website Libertarian Dave Starr Seely's website