The Jagiellonian dynasty was a royal dynasty, founded by Jogaila, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized as Władysław, married Queen regnant Jadwiga of Poland, was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. The dynasty reigned in several Central European countries between the 16th centuries. Members of the dynasty were Kings of Poland, Grand Dukes of Lithuania, Kings of Hungary, Kings of Bohemia; the personal union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages onward. One Jagiellonian ruled both Poland and Hungary, two others ruled both Bohemia and Hungary and continued in the distaff line as a branch of the House of Habsburg; the Polish "Golden Age", the period of the reigns of Sigismund I and Sigismund II, the last two Jagiellonian kings, or more the 16th century, is most identified with the rise of the culture of Polish Renaissance. The cultural flowering had its material base in the prosperity of the elites, both the landed nobility and urban patriciate at such centers as Kraków and Gdańsk.
The name comes from Jogaila. In Polish, the dynasty is known as the patronymic form: Jagiellończyk. Jogaila name etymologically means strong rider, from gailus; the rule of Piasts, the earlier Polish ruling house had ended with the death of King Casimir III the Great. Gediminids, the immediate predecessors of the first Jagiellonian, were rulers of medieval Lithuania with the title of Grand Duke, their realm, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, was chiefly inhabited by Ruthenians. Jogaila, the eponymous first ruler of the Jagiellonin dynasty, started as the Grand Duke of Lithuania; as a result of the Union of Krewo he converted to Christianity and married the 11-year-old Hedwig of Poland. Thereby he founded the dynasty. Angevin rulers were the Jagiellonian third dynasty of Polish Kings. In 1385 the Union of Krewo was signed between Queen Jadwiga of Poland and Jogaila, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, the last pagan state in Europe; the act arranged for Jogaila's baptism and for the couple's marriage and constituted the beginning of the Polish–Lithuanian union.
The Union strengthened both nations in their shared opposition to the Teutonic Knights and the growing threat of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Uniquely in Europe, the union connected two states geographically located on the opposite sides of the great civilizational divide between the Western or Latin, the Eastern or Byzantine worlds; the intention of the Union was to create a common state under Władysław II Jagiełło, but the Polish ruling oligarchy's idea of incorporation of Lithuania into Poland turned out to be unrealistic. There would be territorial disputes and warfare between Lithuanian factions. Geographic consequences of the dynastic union and the preferences of the Jagiellonian kings accelerated the process of reorientation of Polish territorial priorities to the east; the political influence of the Jagiellonian kings was diminishing during this period, accompanied by the ever-increasing role in central government and national affairs of landed nobility. The royal dynasty, had a stabilizing effect on Poland's politics.
The Jagiellonian Era is regarded as a period of maximum political power, great prosperity, in its stage, the Golden Age of Polish culture. The Great War of 1409–1411, precipitated by the Lithuanian uprising in the Order controlled Samogitia, included the Battle of Grunwald, where the Polish and Lithuanian-Rus' armies defeated the Teutonic Knights; the offensive that followed lost its impact with the ineffective siege of Malbork. The failure to take the fortress and eliminate the Teutonic state had for Poland dire historic consequences in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries; the Peace of Thorn had given Poland and Lithuania rather modest territorial adjustments, including Samogitia. Afterwards there were negotiations and peace deals that didn't hold, more military campaigns and arbitrations. One attempted, unresolved arbitration took place at the Council of Constance. During the Hussite Wars, Jagiełło, Vytautas and Sigismund Korybut were involved in political and military maneuvering concerning the Czech crown, offered by the Hussites first to Jagiełło in 1420.
Zbigniew Oleśnicki became known as the leading opponent of a union with the Hussite Czech state. The Jagiellonian dynasty was not entitled to automatic hereditary succession, as each new king had to be approved by nobility consensus. Władysław Jagiełło had two sons late in life from Sophia of Halshany. In 1430 the nobility agreed to the succession of the future Władysław III, only after the King gave in and guaranteed the satisfaction of their new demands. In 1434 the old monarch died and his minor son W
"Say Yes" is a song recorded by American recording artist Michelle Williams, taken from her fourth studio album Journey to Freedom. It features Kelly Rowland; the song was written by Williams, Carmen Reece, Al Sherrod Lambert and Harmony Samuels who produced it. E1 Music released "Say Yes" as the album's third single on June 2, 2014. "Say Yes" marks the third time the trio collaborated as solo artists following the disbandment of their group in 2006. Musically, "Say Yes" is an uptempo pop song, which takes influence from dance music, it copies a popular Nigerian gospel tune titled "When Jesus Says Yes". Upon release, "Say Yes" received favorable reviews from contemporary music critics who called the song infectious and praised its catchiness. Commercially the song performed well on the gospel charts in the US, peaking at number one for seven non-consecutive weeks on the Billboard Hot Gospel Songs, it appeared on charts in the UK, France and Belgium across Europe. "Say Yes" appeared seventh on the 2014 year-end Hot Gospel Songs chart and twenty-three on the 2015 year-end chart.
In 2019, Billboard ranked "Say Yes" number fifty on the decade-end Hot Gospel Songs chart. An accompanying music video for "Say Yes" was directed by Matthew A. Cherry, it was released on June 2014 when Williams appeared on Good Morning America. The clip depicts the three singers at a street party and singing with a crowd, it received positive reviews from critics who accredited it as a reunion of Destiny's Child and praised its feel-good nature. "Say Yes" was written by Williams, Carmen Reece, Al Sherrod Lambert and Harmony Samuels who served as its producer. The song marked the third collaboration of the trio consisting of Williams, Beyoncé and Kelly Rowland, after their group Destiny's Child disbanded in 2006. Williams sent an advanced demo of the album Journey to Freedom to her former bandmates Beyoncé and Rowland which contained the song as a solo track titled "When Jesus Says Yes". Williams received a call from Rowland who said, "We love'When Jesus Says Yes'... There has to be a Destiny's Child mix of the song."
Both Rowland and Beyoncé recorded their respective verses in a studio afterwards. Williams stated. During an interview with Rap-Up, Beyoncé spoke about her decision to be a featured artist on the song, stating, "This song is so inspiring and... not enough music out there like this and I'm proud to be a part of it." Williams talked about "Say Yes" with Fuse, saying, "It's an inspirational song, so I wasn't sure how people would take to it. But it kind of reminds me of praying that it continues to have the impact, does have the impact, of when Kanye West did'Jesus Walks.' I think I got one here." "Say Yes" was leaked onto the Internet on May 21, 2014. Williams revealed on her Twitter account the same day that the leaked track was an unmixed and unmastered version of "Say Yes". In an interview with The Hollywood Reporter, she said that she "hated" the fact that an unfinished version was released although noted that she was not angry and felt "overwhelmed" by the positive support. Prior to the song's debut, several publications reported that Beyoncé's sister, Solange Knowles appeared as a featured artist in "Say Yes".
A final official version of the song premiered on June 2, 2014 and was released to radio and made available for digital download the same day. On the German web show MalcolmMusic, Williams performed a German version of the song with host and journalist Malcolm Ohanwe. "Say Yes" is an uptempo gospel song with elements of pop music. The song was noted for exploring elements of Contemporary Christian as well as electronic dance music. Jeff Benjamin of Fuse felt, its instrumentation includes percussion instruments and horn stabs along with African beats. According to sheet music published on the website Musicnotes.com by Kobalt Music Publishing America, Inc. "Say Yes" is written in the key of D♭ major using common time. It contains a moderately fast tempo with a metronome of 120 beats per minute and the singers' vocal elements range from the low note of A♭3 to the high note of F5; the song samples a popular Nigerian gospel tune titled "When Jesus Says Yes". Chris Payne and Colin Stutz of Billboard magazine described it as a modern dance and contemporary electronic dance reworking of that song.
Stutz found elements of an "upbeat swing" of West African gospel. Regarding the composition of the song, Williams stated, "It is a song that came from Africa more than a hundred years ago. I don't think anyone knows who started singing that chorus; when the song leaked last week, so many people from Africa and Nigeria were trying to let me know where it came from."Williams sings the lead vocals while Beyoncé and Rowland sing their respective solo verses and serve as background vocalists throughout the song. Eric Corpus from The Christian Post interpreted the song's lyrics as a praise of God's sovereignty and "magnetism" of Jesus' love. "Say Yes" opens with a message of faith as Williams sings the first lines, "I'm not worried about a thing/'Cause I know you are guiding me / Where you lead me / Lord I will go / I have not fear /'Cause I know who's in control." The chorus is constructed as a call and response with the trio praising Jesus through the lines "When Jesus say yes, nobody can say no!" while being backed by a choir which repeats the verses.
"Say Yes" received favorable reviews. Coli
Playing the Ponies is a 1937 short subject directed by Charles Lamont starring American slapstick comedy team The Three Stooges. It is the 26th entry in the series released by Columbia Pictures starring the comedians, who released 190 shorts for the studio between 1934 and 1959; the Stooges are plenty sick of it. Two men walk in and order food as they look over a racing form. One man laments the state in which his horse, Thunderbolt, is in, claiming that he is "all run out" and that he wants to dump him off on some unsuspecting sap; this works in his favor when Larry opens a newspaper and reads a story on a horse named Mad Cap who won a race worth $10,000. The Stooges decide to sell their restaurant to Thunderbolt's owners and get into the horse racing industry. Upon arriving at Thunderbolt's stable, Curly races the horse around the track. Curly misunderstands and runs alongside Thunderbolt. Feeling hungry, Curly pulls out a handful of pepperino snacks that he swiped from the restaurant, thinking them to be salted peanuts.
However, Thunderbolt eats them first and, with his mouth burning "runs like lightning" towards the nearest water trough. Moe demands to know what Curly gave the horse. To be sure, Moe eats a handful and suffers the same heated mouth as Thunderbolt and runs to the trough. Curly follows suit, blazes to the trough as well; the Stooges discover that the pepperinos caused Thunderbolt's sudden burst of speed and believe it to be their ace in the hole for future races. Larry laughs at the Stooges for this, in which Moe gives those pepperinos in his mouth, causing him to drink a bottle of kerosene by accident. Once the race starts, Thunderbolt starts running in the opposite direction. Larry stops him and feeds him the hot peppers, but the effect is too much for Thunderbolt and he is too disoriented to run. Moe and Curly grab a bucket of water, hop on a parked motorcycle and drive alongside of Thunderbolt with the bucket hanging from a pole in front of the horse. Thunderbolt wins the race, the Stooges enjoy the good life as they each eat their own turkey and Thunderbolt eats peanuts out of a large bowl in celebration.
Playing the Ponies was filmed on May 12–19, 1937. The film title is a straightforward slang expression meaning "betting on racehorses." It is the final Stooges film directed by veteran director Charles Lamont. A colorized version of this film was released in 2004 as part of the DVD collection entitled "Goofs on the Loose."Nick Copeland and Lew Davis reprise their roles from the last short and Carry as two con men who once again try to swindle the Stooges. Playing the Ponies on IMDb Playing the Ponies at AllMovie