The SS 1, the top of its radiator says SS One, is a British two-door sports saloon and tourer built by Swallow Coachbuilding Company in Foleshill, England. It was first presented to the public at the 1931 London Motor Show. Modified it was manufactured between 1932 and 1936, during which time 148 cars were built. Walmsley Lyons and Co as SS Cars Limited purchased Swallow at the end of July 1934. In 1945 SS Cars changed its name to Jaguar Cars Limited; the SS 1 was noted for its apparent value-for-money and its attractive appearance rather than its performance. It used a 15hp six-cylinder side-valve Standard engine of 2054 cc 48 bhp or 20hp 2552 cc 62 bhp from 1932 until 1934, enlarged to 2143 cc 53 bhp or 2663 cc 68 bhp for the 1934 to 1936 models; the chassis was made by Standard and changed to underslung suspension in 1933. With a top speed of 75 mph, the cars were remarkable for their styling and low cost rather than performance. In 1932 the basic coupe cost £310. Just over 4200 cars were made.
The car was supplied as a four-seater fixed head coupé. In 1933 a tourer was launched. For 1934 the chassis was modified to give better front footwells; the gearbox gained synchromesh. In 1934 a saloon version and in 1935 an Airline coupé and drophead coupé were added to the range; the car was 15 feet 6 inches long and 5 feet 3.5 inches wide and weighed 2300 pounds. SS 1 fixed head coupé sales brochure instruction leaflet for the R. A. G. Carburetter as used on all SS cars with the original sidevalve Standard engines
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng
The Jaguar XK150 is a sports car produced by Jaguar between 1957 and 1961 as the successor to the XK140. It was only available in fixed head coupé and drophead coupé versions; the roadster without full weather equipment which had begun the XK line was launched as the XK150 OTS in 1958. Minimal rear seats were fitted in the coupés; the open two-seater was fitted for the first time with wind-up windows in taller high-silled doors, but retained the simple folding roof of its predecessors. Announced in its home market in May 1957 the XK150 bore a family resemblance to the XK120 and XK140 but was radically revised. Most visibly, a one-piece windscreen replaced the split screen, the wing line carried higher and more streamlined at the doors; the widened bonnet opened down to the wings, on the coupés the windscreen frame was moved forward 4 inches to make passenger access easier. The car was available at various times in Red, Pearl Grey, Indigo Blue, Cotswold Blue, Mist Grey, Sherwood Green, Carmen Red, British Racing Green, Cornish Grey, Imperial Maroon.
The XK140's walnut dashboard was replaced by one trimmed in leather. On the early drophead coupés, the aluminium centre dash panel, discontinued after June 1958, had an X pattern engraving similar to the early 3.8 E-Type. Thinner doors gave more interior space. A little red light reminded the driver that the front parking lights, located atop the wings, were on. Suspension and chassis were similar to the XK140, with manual-only rack and pinion steering; the 3.4 litre DOHC straight-6 XK engine was similar to the XK140's, but a new "B" type cylinder head raised power to 180 SAE bhp at 5750 rpm. The first closed and convertible XK150s were slower than their predecessors. After a twelve month delay caused by the February 1957 factory fire, this deficit was corrected in the spring of 1958 with the March release of special equipment models fitted with disc brakes and more powerful SE engine. Twin 1.75-inch SU HD6 carburettors and a modified B type cylinder head with larger exhaust valves improved performance to 210 SAE bhp at 5500 rpm.
While most export cars were SE models, a third option for the open two-seater featured an "S" engine with three 2-inch SU HD8 carburettors and a straight-port cylinder head boosting power to a claimed 250 SAE bhp. In 1960 the 220 hp 3.8 litre engine fitted in the full-sized luxury Mark IX saloon since October 1958 became available. It was tuned to produce 265 hp and propel an XK150 to 135 mph and from 0–60 mph in around 7.0 seconds. Fuel economy was 18mpg. Four-wheel Dunlop 12 in disc brakes appeared for the first time as an option. Factory specification 6.00 × 16 inch Dunlop Road Speed tyres or optional 185VR16 Pirelli Cinturato CA67 radials could be fitted on either 16 × 5K½ solid wheels or optional 16 × 5K wire wheels. Production ended in October 1960, totalled 2,265 roadsters, 4,445 fixed head coupés and 2,672 drophead coupés; the E-Type replacement was announced in the middle of March 1961. A 250 bhp 3.4 litre XK150S fixed-head coupé with limited slip differential was tested by The Motor in 1959.
It could accelerate from 0 -- 60 mph in 7.8 seconds. Fuel consumption of 22.0 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £2110 including taxes of £623, it was at the time the fastest closed car the magazine had subjected to a full road test. The bhp figures quoted are SAE gross and not SAE net horsepower ratings. In comparison, the 3.4 L 1954 Jaguar larger 1.875 in. Inlet valves, 3 dual-choke Weber carburettors was rated at 246bhp. Porter, Philip. Original Jaguar XK. Bay View Books. ISBN 1-901432-02-5. XKData.com volunteer maintained online registry with thousands of cars
SS Jaguar 100
The SS Jaguar 100 is a British 2-seat sports car built between 1936 and 1941 by SS Cars Ltd of Coventry, England. The manufacturer's name'SS Cars' used from 1934 maintained a link to the previous owner, Swallow Sidecar, founded in 1922 by Walmsley and Lyons to build motorcycle sidecars. In March 1945 the S. S. Cars shareholders agreed to change the name to Jaguar Cars Limited. In common with many products of the thirties the adoption of an animal name was deemed appropriate and the model name "Jaguar" was given to a new SS saloon car in 1935, to all new SS models. The'100' was for the theoretical 100 mph maximum speed of the vehicle; the chassis had a wheelbase of 8 feet 8 inches, was a shortened version of the one designed for the 2.5-litre saloon, a car produced in much greater numbers, first seen in the SS 90 of 1935. When leaving the factory it fitted 5.50 or 5.25 × 18 inch tyres on 18 inch wire wheels. Suspension was on half-elliptical springs all round with rigid axles; the engine was a development of the old 2.5-litre Standard pushrod unit converted from side valve to overhead valve with a new cylinder head designed by William Heynes and Harry Weslake.
The power output was increased from 70 bhp to 100 bhp. Twin SU carburettors were bolted directly to the cylinder head. In 1938 the engine was further enlarged to the power increased to 125 bhp; the four-speed gearbox had synchromesh on the top 3 ratios. Brakes were by Girling; the complete car weighed just over 23 cwt. On test by the Autocar magazine in 1937 the 2.5-litre car was found, with the windscreen lowered, to have a maximum speed of 95 mph and a 0–60 mph time of 13.5 seconds. With the 3.5-litre the top speed reached the magic 100 mph with a best of 101 mph over the quarter mile and the 0–60 mph coming down to 10.4 seconds. In 1937 the 2.5-litre car cost £395 and in 1938 the 3.5-litre £445. The fixed head coupé, of which only one was made, was listed at £595. A few examples were supplied as chassis-only to external coachbuilders. Considered one of the most aesthetically pleasing sporting cars of the 1930s the SS100 is very rare, with only 198 2.5-litre and 116 3.5-litre models made. While most stayed on the home market, 49 were exported.
Cars in good condition will now fetch in excess of £300,000. A near concours example was auctioned by Bonhams at the 2007 Goodwood Festival of Speed for £199,500. Due to its rarity, auction prices for the SS100 have since risen strongly. More a beautifully restored former Pebble Beach concours winning 1937 S. S. Jaguar 100 3½ Litre Roadster - was sold by Gooding & Co. at their August 2010 Pebble Beach auction. It fetched a noteworthy £666,270, it was on an SS100 that the famous Jaguar'leaper', the marque's signature feline hood ornament, was first displayed. In mid 1936 the first version of the Jaguar mascot was reputedly described by Sir William Lyons, founder of the company, as "looking like a cat shot off a fence". A publicity photograph of the new Model 100 "Jaguar" parked outside the offices of SS Cars Ltd in early 1937 shows a revised Jaguar'leaper' mounted on the radiator cap, it is this more stylised'leaper' that became the trade mark for Jaguar Cars, Ltd. remaining in use to this day. The unnamed owner of the Belgravia vintage car dealer in James Leasor's'Aristo Autos' novels,'They Don't Make Them Like That Any More','Never Had a Spanner on Her' and'Host of Extras', drives an SS100, the car features prominently in the books.
The late Alan Clark MP owned an SS Jaguar 100, during his time in Margaret Thatcher's government was to be seen piloting his SS100 away from the House of Commons after late Parliamentary sittings. Of the 49 exported models, one notable example, CNP 947, was driven and raced by pioneering American television host Dave Garroway, his white 3 1/2 Litre car still bears the alligator hide trim on its instrument panel, seat surfaces and steering wheel from his ownership. Jaguar Motorcars provided Garroway the first XK 3.8 litre engine sold a race prepared unit which remains with the car. At Gooding's January 2017 auction in Scottsdale, the Garroway SS100, with both the XK engine and a correct 3 1/2 litre Standard engine, sold for £493,000. A number of Jaguar SS100 replicas and recreations of varying material quality and execution have been manufactured since the 1960s. Significant makers include the Birchfield Motor Company, the Steadman Motor Company, Suffolk Sportscars and the Finch Motor Company.
In recent years these replicas bring in excess of £50,000. In 1982, the first Birchfield Sports was produced. A company called Shapecraft in Northampton, UK developed the concept further as a production-run vehicle using Jaguar XJ6 mechanicals, with the looks of the SS Jaguar. Due to the complexity of the design, the advanced degree of engineering knowledge needed to deal with the Jaguar parts, the car was not successful as a kit car. For this reason, only 18 were produced in the UK. After production ceased in the UK, a Shapecraft employee emigrated to Australia taking with him the Birchfield drawings and the last production car to use as a pattern. By 2004, at least two cars had been completed in Australia and two more were in production; the Steadman TS100 manufactured during the late 1980s and early 1990s by Ottercraft Ltd in Hayle, United Kingdom, is described as a'reproduction' of the SS100. The actual build numbers for this car are unknown, but it is thought that a maximum of twenty-eight of these vehicles were assembled, were
Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout. In automotive design, a front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one that places the engine in the front, with the rear wheels of vehicle being driven. In contrast to the front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, the engine is pushed back far enough that its center of mass is to the rear of the front axle; this aids in weight distribution and reduces the moment of inertia, improving the vehicle's handling. The mechanical layout of an FMR is the same as an FR car; some models of the same vehicle can be classified as either FR or FMR depending on the length of the installed engine and its centre of mass in relation to the front axle. FMR cars are characterized by a long hood and front wheels that are pushed forward to the corners of the vehicle, close to the front bumper.
Grand tourers have FMR layouts, as a rear engine would not leave much space for the rear seats. FMR should not be confused with a "front midships" location of the engine, referring to the engine being located behind the front axle centerline, in which case a car meeting the above FMR center of mass definition could be classified as a FR layout instead; the v35 Nissan Skyline / Infiniti G35 / Nissan 350Z are FM cars. FMR layout came standard in most pre–World War II, front-engine / rear-wheel-drive cars
The layout of a car is defined by the location of the engine and drive wheels. Layouts can be divided into three categories: front-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive and four-wheel drive. Many different combinations of engine location and driven wheels are found in practice, the location of each is dependent on the application for which the car will be used; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven wheels at the front of the vehicle. This is the most common layout for cars since the late 20th century; some early front-wheel drive cars from the 1930s had the engine located in the middle of the car. A rear-engine, front-wheel-drive layout is one in which the engine is between or behind the rear wheels, drives the front wheels via a driveshaft, the complete reverse of a conventional front-engine, rear-wheel-drive vehicle layout; this layout has only been used on concept cars. The front-engine, rear-wheel drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear.
This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century, remains the most common layout for rear-wheel drive cars. The mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout is one where the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle; this layout is chosen for its low moment of inertia and favorable weight distribution. The rear-engine, rear-wheel drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the MR layout, the center of mass of the engine is between the rear axle and the rear bumper. Although common in transit buses and coaches due to the elimination of the drive shaft with low-floor bus, this layout has become rare in passenger cars; the Porsche 911 is notable for its continuous use of the RR layout since 1963. Car drivetrains where power can be sent to all four wheels are referred to as either four-wheel drive or all-wheel drive.
The front-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine at the front of the vehicle and drives all four roadwheels. This layout is chosen for better control on many surfaces, is an important part of rally racing as well as off-road driving. Most four-wheel-drive layouts are front-engined and are derivatives of earlier front-engine, rear-wheel-drive designs; the mid-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine in the middle of the vehicle, between both axles and drives all four road wheels. Although the term "mid-engine" can mean the engine is placed anywhere in the car such that the centre of gravity of the engine lies between the front and rear axles, it is used for sports cars and racing cars where the engine is behind the passenger compartment; the motive output is sent down a shaft to a differential in the centre of the car, which in the case of an M4 layout, distributes power to both front and rear axles. The rear-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine at the rear of the vehicle, drives all four wheels.
This layout is chosen to improve the traction or the handling of existing vehicle designs using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. For example, the Porsche 911 added all-wheel drive to the existing line-up of rear-wheel drive models in 1989. Automobile handling Car classification Drivetrain layout