Norman Dewis was chief test driver and development engineer for Jaguar Cars from 1952 to 1985. Dewis participated in the development of the following cars: Jaguar XK140 Jaguar XK150 Jaguar C-type Jaguar D-type Jaguar Mark VIII Jaguar Mark IX Jaguar Mark II Jaguar E-type Jaguar XJ13 Jaguar Mark X Jaguar XJ6 Jaguar XJ-S Jaguar XJ40 Dewis drove a Jaguar D-Type in the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans, with Don Beauman; the car failed retiring 106 laps into the race. Dewis was the test driver who, on 20 October 1953 at Jabbeke, drove a Jaguar XK120 to 172.412 mph, a record for production cars. The car had several aerodynamic modifications, including a distinctive bubble-shaped, air-tight canopy from a glider aircraft. After the record run the Jaguar XK120 was sold by the company. On 21 January 1971 at the MIRA high-speed circuit Dewis drove the only Jaguar XJ13 for a film promoting the new V12 Jaguar E-type. Despite a damaged tyre, against the instructions of Jaguar Director, Lofty England, the car was driven by Dewis at high speed.
The tyre failed and the car crashed almost destroying it. Dewis was unharmed; the wreck of the car was put back into storage. In 2014 Dewis was still attending events related to Jaguar and giving talks about his work for the company. In June 2016 he appeared on the BBC's Top Gear TV show with the Jaguar F-type SVR. In the 2015 New Year Honours Dewis was invested as an Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire for services to the Motor Industry. Official website Norman Dewis on Facebook
Jaguar Mark IV
The Jaguar Mark IV is a range of automobiles built by Jaguar Cars from 1945 to 1949. The cars were marketed as the Jaguar 1½ litre, Jaguar 2½ litre and Jaguar 3½ litre with the Mark IV name applied in retrospect to separate this model from the succeeding Mark V range; the range was a return to production of the SS Jaguar 1½ litre, 2½ litre and 3½ litre models produced by SS Cars from 1935 to 1940. Before World War II the model name Jaguar was given to all cars in the range built by SS Cars Ltd with the saloons titled SS Jaguar 1½ litre, 2½ litre or 3½ litre and the two-seater sports cars the SS Jaguar 100 2½ litre or 3½ litre. In March 1945 the company name. All the Mark IVs were built on a separate chassis frame with suspension by semi-elliptic leaf springs on rigid axles front and rear; the smallest model of the range featured a 1608 cc side valve Standard engine but from 1938 this was replaced by a 1776 cc overhead-valve unit still from Standard who supplied the four-speed manual transmission.
Pre-war the car was available as a saloon or drophead coupé but post war only the closed model was made. Up to 1938 body construction on all the models was by the traditional steel on wood method but in that year it changed to all steel. Performance was not a strong point but 70 mph was possible: the car featured the same cabin dimensions and well-appointed interior as its longer-engined brothers. Despite its lack of out-and-out performance, a report of the time, comparing the 4-cylinder 1½-litre with its 6-cylinder siblings, opined that the smallest-engined version of the car was "as is the case... the sweetest running car" with a "big car cruising gait in the sixties". Mechanically operated brakes using a Girling system were fitted. Again the engine had the cylinder head reworked by SS to give 105 bhp. Unlike the 1½ Litre there were some drophead models made post-war; the chassis was of 119 in but grew by an inch in 1938 to 120 in. The extra length over the 1½ Litre was used for the six-cylinder engine and the passenger accommodation was the same size.
The 3½ Litre, introduced in 1938, was the same body and chassis as the 2½ Litre but the larger 125 bhp engine gave better performance but at the expense of economy. The rear axle ratio was 4.25:1 as opposed to the 4.5:1 on the 2½ Litre. Volunteer register with photos of the Mk. IV
Jaguar Mark IX
The Jaguar Mark IX is a four-door luxury saloon car produced by Jaguar Cars between 1959 and 1961. It replaced the previous Mark VIII; the early versions were identical in exterior appearance to the Mark VIII except for the addition of a chrome "Mk IX" badge to the boot lid. Versions had a larger tail-lamp assembly with the addition of an amber section for traffic indication, visually similar to the tail-lights of the smaller Jaguar Mark 2, it was replaced by the lower and more contemporary-styled Mark X in 1961. The Mark IX was popular as a ceremonial car for state dignitaries; when Charles de Gaulle paid a state visit to Canada in 1960, the official cars for the motorcade were Mark IX Jaguars. The British Queen Mother had a Jaguar Mark VII, progressively upgraded to be externally identical to the Mark IX; the Nigerian government bought forty Mark IXs, painted in the Nigerian state colours of green and white. The large Jaguars of the 1950s were sufficiently popular in western Africa that "Jagwah" survives as a colloquialism for "smart man-about-town".
In the luxury car market, the Jaguar Mk IX was competitively priced, selling for ₤1995 with manual gearbox, ₤2063 with overdrive, ₤2163 with automatic transmission, less than half the price of similar competitors. A four-speed manual system transmission was standard. Options included a Borg Warner three-speed automatic box, the most popular choice. Internally, an enlarged-bore 3.8 L, 220 bhp DOHC straight-6 replaced the previous 3.4 L 190 bhp unit. The B-type head of the Mark VIII was retained, but with a chamber at the bottom of the combustion chamber to accommodate the enlarged bore. Twin HD6 1.75" SU carburettors were fitted. A smaller electromagnetically controlled auxiliary carburettor was placed between the main pair of carburettors to act as a choke, it proved troublesome in operation and many were converted to manual switching. Standard compression ratio was 8:1, but a higher performance 9:1 compression ratio was available, as was a 7:1 compression ratio for export markets, such as Africa, where quality of petrol was sometimes a problem.
The Mark IX was the first production Jaguar to offer four-wheel servo-assisted Dunlop disc brakes and recirculating ball power steering, which were now standard equipment. The brake system included a vacuum reserve tank to preserve braking in the event that the engine stalled. On models with automatic transmission, the brakes were equipped with an electromagnetic valve that maintained brake pressure at rest when the brake pedal was released to prevent the car from rolling back on an incline, hence its colloquial name "Hill Holder"; this was disconnected on some cars without ill effect. The power steering was driven by a Hobourn-Eaton pump, it was attached to the back of the generator and allowed the steering to be geared up to 3.5 turns lock-to-lock as against the 4.5 turns for the Mark VII and VIII models. Unlike the early automatic Mark VII predecessor, the Borg Warner DG automatic gearbox started in first gear and had a dash-mounted switch to allow second gear to be held indefinitely. Once in third gear, a series of clutches engaged to allow direct drive rather than through the torque converter.
The torsion bar independent front suspension and leaf-sprung rear live axle were retained from the Mk VIII, which, in turn, was first used in the 1949 Mark V. Final drive was 4.27:1. The sunshine roof became a standard fitting for the UK market; the interior was luxurious, with extensive use of burled walnut and deep pile carpet. A range of single and duo-tone paint schemes was offered. A car with automatic transmission tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1958 had a top speed of 114.4 mph and could accelerate from 0–60 mph in 11.3 seconds. A fuel consumption of 14.3 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £2162 including taxes of £721. In addition, the Mark IX attained 30 mph in 4.2 seconds, 100 mph in 34.8 secs. It covered the standing quarter mile in 18.1 secs. Autocar magazine tested a Mk IX Automatic in its Used Cars on the Road series, number 200, published in the edition dated 14 December 1962; this vehicle at the recorded mileage of around 34,000 achieved acceleration figures of 0-60 mph in 10.1 secs and 0-100 mph in 28.8 secs.
The Standing Quarter-mile was passed in 17.6 secs. The Mark IX's power and good brakes for a vehicle of the era, together with its undoubtedly impressive aesthetic appearance, makes it quite a common choice for classic car circuit racing, such as at the Goodwood Circuit's Revival meetings. Langworth, Richard M.. The Complete Book of Collectable Cars. Publications International, Ltd. ISBN 0-7853-4313-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list www.saloondata.com Volunteer register with records and photos of the Mk. IX
Executive car is a British term for a large car, equivalent to the European E-segment classification. Executive cars are larger than compact executive cars, smaller than luxury saloons / full-size sedans; the term has been adopted by Euro NCAP, a European organization founded to test for car safety. The term was coined in the 1960s to describe cars targeted at successful professionals and middle-to-senior managers, it was used by businesses as an incentive for employees in senior roles and to exploit Britain and Europe's tax schemes as a company owned vehicle. Early executive cars offered engines with displacements of 2.0–3.5 L, compared with 1.6–2.4 L for an equivalent sized— but less luxurious— "large family car". Prior to the 1990s, executive cars were sedans, however in recent years they have been produced in other body styles, such as estates, four-door coupes and fastback sedans. In general, executive cars are 4-door sedans; some manufacturers seek to differentiate their offerings by making them as estate variants, or with 5-door hatchback bodies—in particular Rover, Saab and Citroën have been known to prefer such body styles, with Ford offering such models through the 1990s, Audi and BMW have offered such body styles for their executive cars.
Until the 1990s, some models were available as 2-door coupés. One of the first Chinese-built executive cars was the 2006 Roewe 750, based on the Rover 75. In 2012, the Roewe 950 was introduced, a re-bodied version of the 2010 Buick LaCrosse. Several overseas brands have produced long wheelbase versions of cars for the Chinese market, due to the preference Chinese owners have for being driven by a chauffeur. Examples include the "XF L" version of the 2016 Jaguar XF, the "Li" version of the 2017 BMW 5 Series and other models from Audi, Mercedes-Benz and Volvo. In France, executive cars are known as "Grande Routière", a class of comfortable long distance cars that first emerged on the French market in the 1930s. Peugeot began producing large cars in the early 1900s. Following the Peugeot 601 being discontinued in 1935, Peugeot ceased production of large cars until the Peugeot 604 was introduced in 1975; the 604 was replaced by the Peugeot 605 in 1989, which in turn was replaced by the Peugeot 607 in 1999.
Following the end of the 607's production run in 2010, Peugeot no longer produces any executive cars. Citroën's first large car was the 1934 Citroën Traction Avant. In 1955, the Traction Avant was replaced by the iconic Citroën DS, replaced in 1974 by the Citroën CX and the 1989 Citroën XM; the XM was discontinued in 2000 and for five years Citroën did not produce an executive car. The 2005 Citroën C6 was produced until 2012, Citroën has not produced any executive cars since. Renault entered the executive car segment in 1975 with the Renault 20/30 models, they were replaced, by the Renault 25 which featured a fastback rear end. In 1992, the 25 was replaced by the Renault Safrane; the Safrane was replaced by the Renault Vel Satis hatchback in 2002 and Renault has not produced any executive cars since the Vel Satis ended production in 2009. The equivalent class for cars in Germany is "Obere Mittelklasse" as defined by the German federal authorities. Luxury cars larger than this are referred to as Oberklasse.
Mercedes-Benz has produced large luxury cars since the early 1900s. Following World War II, Mercedes Benz's first all-new models were the Mercedes-Benz W120 executive cars; this lineage continues through to the present and has been marketed as the Mercedes-Benz E-Class since 1993. The Mercedes-Benz CLS-Class four-door fastback was added to the company's model range in 2004, with a shooting brake body style produced from 2012-2017. BMW's first large luxury car was the 1936-1941 BMW 326. After a hiatus of 21 years, BMW's next executive car models were the 1962 New Class Sedans. In 1972, the New Class was replaced by the BMW 5 Series. Over the seven generations of 5 Series, it has been produced in sedan and four-door fastback body styles; the first large luxury car produced by Audi was the Audi 100, released in 1968. The Audi 100 was replaced by the Audi A6 in 1994. In 2010, the Audi A7 four-door fastback model range was added; the Ford Granada is an executive car produced by Ford Europe from 1972-1994.
Fiat's first large luxury car was the Fiat 24-32 HP, introduced in 1903. Other large luxury Fiats produced before World War II include the Fiat 510, Fiat 520, Fiat 527 and Fiat 2800. In 1959, the Fiat 1800 and 2100 executive sedans and station wagons were introduced; these models were replaced by the Fiat 2300 in 1969. FIAT's last executive car was the Fiat 130, produced from 1969-1977. Lancia produced several large luxury cars prior to World War II, including the Lancia Lambda, Lancia Artena and Lancia Aprilia; the Lancia Flavia was an executive car began production in 1961 and was replaced by the Lancia 2000 in 1971. The 2000 was replaced by the Lancia Gamma, released in 1976. In 1984, the Gamma was replaced by the Lancia Thema the Lancia Kappa in 1994; the Lancia Thesis, produced from 2001-2009 is the last executive car produced by Lancia. From 2011-2015, the Chrysler 300 has been sold in Europa as the Lancia Thema. Maserati's first executive is the Maserati Ghibli, in production since 2013. Toyota has been producing large luxury cars.
The Crown remains in production today and is in its fifteenth generation. In 1991, the Toyota Aristo executive car began production and s
The Jaguar XK120 is a sports car manufactured by Jaguar between 1948 and 1954. It was Jaguar's first sports car since the SS 100, which ceased production in 1940; the XK120 was launched in open two-seater or roadster form at the 1948 London Motor Show as a testbed and show car for the new Jaguar XK engine. The display car was the first prototype, chassis number 660001, it looked identical to the production cars except that the straight outer pillars of its windscreen would be curved on the production version. The sports car caused a sensation, which persuaded Jaguar founder and Chairman William Lyons to put it into production. Beginning in 1948, the first 242 cars wore wood-framed open 2-seater bodies with aluminium panels. Production switched to the 1cwt or 112 lb heavier all-steel in early 1950; the "120" in the name referred to the aluminium car's 120 mph top speed, which made it the world's fastest production car at the time of its launch. In 1949 the first production car, chassis number 670003, was delivered to Clark Gable.
The XK120 was available in three versions or body styles, first as an open 2-seater described in the US market as a roadster as a fixed head coupé from 1951 and as a drophead coupé from 1953, all two-seaters and available with Left or Right Hand Drive. A smaller-engined version with a 2-litre 4 cylinder engine, designated the XK100, intended for the UK market was cancelled prior to production. On 30 May 1949, on the empty Ostend-Jabbeke motorway in Belgium, a prototype XK120 timed by the officials of the Royal Automobile Club of Belgium achieved an average of runs in opposing directions of 132.6 mph with the windscreen replaced by just one small aero screen and a catalogued alternative top gear ratio, 135 mph with a passenger-side tonneau cover in place. In 1950 and 1951, at Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry, a banked oval track in France, open XK120s averaged over 100 mph for 24 hours and over 130 mph for an hour. In 1952 a fixed-head coupé took numerous world records for speed and distance when it averaged 100 mph for a week.
XK120s were highly successful in racing and rallying. The first 242 production XK120s, hand-built with aluminium bodies on ash framing mounted on a steel chassis copied from the Jaguar Mark V chassis using many of the same parts, were constructed between late 1948 and early 1950. To meet demand, beginning with the 1950 model year, all subsequent XK120s were mass-produced with pressed-steel bodies. Aluminium doors and boot lid were retained; the DHC and FHC versions, more luxuriously appointed than the exposed open cars, had wind-up windows and wood veneers on the dashboard and interior door caps. With a high-temperature, high-strength aluminum alloy cylinder head, hemispherical combustion chambers, inclined valves and twin side-draft SU carburetors, the dual overhead-cam 3.4 L straight-6 XK engine was advanced for a mass-produced unit of the time. Using 80 octane fuel a standard 8:1 compression ratio developed 160 bhp. Most of the early cars were exported; the Jaguar factory's access to 80 octane fuel allowed it to provide cars with the higher compression ratio to the press, enabling journalists to test the model's optimum performance in Belgium, on a long, straight stretch of road between Jabbeke and Ostend.
The XK engine's basic design modified into 3.8 and 4.2 litre versions, survived until 1992. All XK120s had independent torsion bar front suspension, semi-elliptic leaf springs at the rear, recirculating ball steering, telescopically adjustable steering column, all-round 12-inch drum brakes which were prone to fade; some cars were fitted with Alfin brake drums to help overcome the fade. The open two-seater's lightweight canvas top and detachable sidescreens stowed out of sight behind the seats, its doors had no external handles. There was an interior pull-cord accessed through a flap in the sidescreens when the weather equipment was in place; the windscreen could be removed for aeroscreens to be fitted. The drophead coupé had a padded, lined canvas top, which folded onto the rear deck behind the seats when retracted, roll-up windows with opening quarter lights; the flat glass two-piece windscreen was set in a steel frame, integrated with the body and painted the same colour. Dashboards and door-caps in both the DHC and the closed coupé were wood-veneered, whereas the open cars were leather-trimmed.
All models had removable spats covering the rear wheel arches. On cars fitted with optional centre-lock wire wheels, the spats were omitted as they gave insufficient clearance for the chromed, two-eared Rudge-Whitworth knockoff hubs. Chromium-plated wire wheels were optional from 1953. Factory standard 6.00 × 16 inch cross ply tyres were fitted on 16 × 5K solid wheels, with 185VR16 Pirelli Cinturato radial tyres available as a option. In addition to wire wheels, upgrades on the Special Equipment version included increased power, stiffer suspension and dual exhaust system; the Motor magazine road-tested an XK120 in November 1949. This pre-production car, chassis number 660001, road-registered as HKV 455, was the first prototype built, it was the 1948 London Motor Show display model, had been driven by Prince Bira in the 1949 Silverstone Production Car Race. When tested, it had the 8:1 compression ratio, was fitted with an undertray, ran with h
Jaguar XK6 engine
The Jaguar XK6 is an inline 6-cylinder dual overhead camshaft engine produced by Jaguar Cars between 1949 and 1992. Introduced as a 3.4-litre, it earned fame on both the road and track, being produced in five displacements between 2.4 and 4.2-litres for Jaguar passenger cars, with other sizes being made by Jaguar and privateers for racing. A de-rated version was used in certain military vehicles built by Alvis and Daimler. Prior to World War II, SS Cars used three engines produced by the Standard Motor Company: a 1.5-litre 4-cylinder and 6-cylinder engines of 2.5 and 3.5 litres. Sir William Lyons and his engine designers. Rather than developing prototype engines after the war, it is claimed that Jaguar's wartime engine developments went far beyond mere discussion and design, extending to the construction and testing of several prototype engines as early as 1943; the initial aim was to produce a series of engines of higher than normal output that would be able to stay ahead of the competition without revision for many years and which Sir William insisted had to "look good".
In 1942-43, a range of configurations was considered and it was concluded that, for good breathing and high bmep, the new engines would need vee-opposed valves operating in hemispherical combustion chambers. Two configurations of this type were selected for comparison in 1943 and the prototypes named "XG" and "XF"; the XG 4-cylinder of 1,776 cc, first tested in October 1943, was based on the 1.5-litre Standard block and used its single cam-in-block to operate the opposed valves via a complicated crossover pushrod arrangement, similar to that of the pre-war BMW 328. The XF 4-cylinder of 1,732 cc used the now familiar dual overhead cam configuration and was first tested in November 1944; the XG was found to suffer from excessive pushrod and rocker noise and gas flow figures through its vertical valve ports did not equal those of the horizontal ports on the XF. Therefore, from these two options, the DOHC XF layout was selected. 4-cyl engine development progressed as follows: XG Pushrod engine 73 x 106 x 4 1776 cc May to Nov 1944 XF 75 x 98 x 4 1732 cc Nov 1944 to Jun 1945 XK1 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Oct 1945 to Nov 1946 XK2 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Feb to Sep 1946 XK3 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Dec 1946 to Feb 1947 XK4 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Nov 1946 to Dec 1947 Gardner Engine 1970 cc 1948 XK Number 1 3-bearing crank 1970 cc 1949-1952 XK Number 2 3-bearing crank 1970 cc 1950-1952 XK 5-bearing crank 1970 cc 1953By September 1947 a 3.2-litre 6-cylinder version had been produced, called the "XJ 6-cylinder", intended to replace both Standard-based 6-cylinder units.
Testing showed the need for higher torque at low speeds than this engine could produce and hence it was'stroked' to 3,442 cc to form the "XK 6-cylinder", which saw its debut in an open two-seat XK120 sports car at the 1948 London Motor Show. Following this the XK6 powered a number of other models in subsequent years; the XG prototype soldiered on as a component testbed until 1948. There existed an "XK 4-cylinder" of 1,790 cc first tested in October 1945 and remaining under development alongside the XK 6-cylinder units. At the time of William Heynes' paper presented to the IMechE in February 1953, the XK 4-cylinder was still referred to as being under development, it was only dropped as a possible production engine in 1953, by which time it had been realised that Jaguar's image in the market had moved beyond the need for a replacement for the old 1.5-litre Standard 4-cylinder unit. Because the 6-cylinder XK prototypes were found to be so much more refined than the 4-cylinder versions, in 1951 a 1,986 cc 6-cylinder version of the XK 6-cylinder was built to see if it would suffice as a smaller scale engine.
By 1954 this had grown to 2,483 cc and it was this short-block version of the XK 6-cylinder, fitted to the new compact Jaguar 2.4-litre released in that year. None of the 4-cylinder prototypes advanced to production but Lt. Col. Goldie Gardner's speed record team did fit a 1970 cc version to the MG streamliner EX-135 in 1948 to take the 2,000 cc class record at 177 mph, on the Jabbeke motorway in Belgium. There are some misleading claims of an intervening "XJ" 4-cyl prototype but it seems the only person who referred to them as such was William Heynes in a paper presented to the IMechE in 1953. Heynes stated there were many 4-cyl variants following the XF but it was he alone who loosely grouped them as XJ; the last mention of XF was in July 1945 and the first mention of XK was in October of the same year. This doesn't give much room for a series of XJ engines. There are no mentions of XJ in the archive. If there is a XJ, the first one is to have been referred to as XK1 internally. There were three others of nominally 1790 cc capacity called XK2, XK3 & XK4.
It is these are what Heynes referred to as "XJ". The