Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most automotive engines, by the means of an injector. All diesel engines use fuel injection by design. Petrol engines can use gasoline direct injection, where the fuel is directly delivered into the combustion chamber, or indirect injection where the fuel is mixed with air before the intake stroke. On petrol engines, fuel injection replaced carburetors from the 1980s onward; the primary difference between carburetors and fuel injection is that fuel injection atomizes the fuel through a small nozzle under high pressure, while a carburetor relies on suction created by intake air accelerated through a Venturi tube to draw the fuel into the airstream. The functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All share the central task of supplying fuel to the combustion process, but it is a design decision how a particular system is optimized. There are several competing objectives such as: Power output Fuel efficiency Emissions performance Running on alternative fuels Reliability Driveability and smooth operation Initial cost Maintenance cost Diagnostic capability Range of environmental operation Engine tuningModern digital electronic fuel injection systems optimize these competing objectives more and than earlier fuel delivery systems.
Carburetors have the potential to atomize fuel better. Benefits of fuel injection include smoother and more consistent transient throttle response, such as during quick throttle transitions, easier cold starting, more accurate adjustment to account for extremes of ambient temperatures and changes in air pressure, more stable idling, decreased maintenance needs, better fuel efficiency. Fuel injection dispenses with the need for a separate mechanical choke, which on carburetor-equipped vehicles must be adjusted as the engine warms up to normal temperature. Furthermore, on spark ignition engines, fuel injection has the advantage of being able to facilitate stratified combustion which have not been possible with carburetors, it is only with the advent of multi-point fuel injection certain engine configurations such as inline five cylinder gasoline engines have become more feasible for mass production, as traditional carburetor arrangement with single or twin carburetors could not provide fuel distribution between cylinders, unless a more complicated individual carburetor per cylinder is used.
Fuel injection systems are able to operate regardless of orientation, whereas carburetors with floats are not able to operate upside down or in microgravity, such as encountered on airplanes. Fuel injection increases engine fuel efficiency. With the improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution of multi-point fuel injection, less fuel is needed for the same power output. Exhaust emissions are cleaner because the more precise and accurate fuel metering reduces the concentration of toxic combustion byproducts leaving the engine; the more consistent and predictable composition of the exhaust makes emissions control devices such as catalytic converters more effective and easier to design. Herbert Akroyd Stuart developed the first device with a design similar to modern fuel injection, using a'jerk pump' to meter out fuel oil at high pressure to an injector; this system was used on the hot-bulb engine and was adapted and improved by Bosch and Clessie Cummins for use on diesel engines. Fuel injection was in widespread commercial use in diesel engines by the mid-1920s.
An early use of indirect gasoline injection dates back to 1902, when French aviation engineer Leon Levavasseur installed it on his pioneering Antoinette 8V aircraft powerplant, the first V8 engine of any type produced in any quantity. Another early use of gasoline direct injection was on the Hesselman engine invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925. Hesselman engines use the ultra lean-burn principle, they are started on gasoline and switched to diesel or kerosene. Direct fuel injection was used in notable World War II aero-engines such as the Junkers Jumo 210, the Daimler-Benz DB 601, the BMW 801, the Shvetsov ASh-82FN. German direct injection petrol engines used injection systems developed by Bosch from their diesel injection systems. Versions of the Rolls-Royce Merlin and Wright R-3350 used single point fuel injection, at the time called "Pressure Carburettor". Due to the wartime relationship between Germany and Japan, Mitsubishi had two radial aircraft engines using fuel injection, the Mitsubishi Kinsei and the Mitsubishi Kasei.
Alfa Romeo tested one of the first electronic injection systems in Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 with "Ala spessa" body in 1940 Mille Miglia. The engine had six electrically operated injectors and were fed by a semi-high-pressure circulating fuel pump system. All diesel engines have fuel injected into the combustion chamber. See Diesel engine; the invention of mechanical injection for gasoline-fueled aviation engines was by the French inventor of the V8 engine configuration, Leon Levavasseur in 1902. Levavasseur designed the original Antoinette firm's series of V-form aircraft engines, starting with the Antoinette 8V to be used by the aircraft the Antoinette firm built that Levavasseur designed, flown from 1906 to the firm's demise in 1910, with t
A V12 engine is a V engine with 12 cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of six cylinders each but not always at a 60° angle to each other, with all 12 pistons driving a common crankshaft. Since each cylinder bank is a straight-six, by itself in both primary and secondary balance, a V12 inherits perfect primary and secondary balance no matter which V angle is used, therefore it needs no balance shafts. A four-stroke 12 cylinder engine has an firing order if cylinders fire every 60° of crankshaft rotation, so a V12 with cylinder banks at a multiples of 60° will have firing intervals without using split crankpins. By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible; the 180° configuration is referred to as a "flat-twelve engine" or a "boxer" although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can and do use shared crankpins. It may be written as "V-12", although this is less common; these engines deliver power pulses more than engines with six or eight cylinders, the power pulses have triple overlap which eliminates gaps between power pulses and allows for greater refinement and smoothness in a luxury car engine, at the expense of much greater cost and friction losses.
In a racing car engine, the rotating parts of a V12 can be made much lighter than a V8 of similar displacement with a crossplane crankshaft because there is no need to use heavy counterweights on the crankshaft and less need for the inertial mass in a flywheel to smooth out the power delivery, each piston can be smaller and with a shorter stroke. Exhaust system tuning is much more difficult on a crossplane V8 than a V12, so racing cars with V8 engines use a complicated "bundle of snakes" exhaust system, or a flat-plane crankshaft which causes severe engine vibration and noise; this is not important in a race car. Since cost and fuel economy are important in luxury and racing cars, the V12 has been phased out in favor of engines with fewer cylinders. Engines are designed around cylinder units of a certain designed size and speed; these are used as the working base of an engine of 6 cylinders. If more power is needed, it is easier to add more cylinders to increase displacement, without having to design a newer, larger cylinder and head for each engine size.
Thus locomotive and marine engines like the EMD 567 come in V6 to V24 versions, all sharing the same 567 cubic inch cylinder displacement and cylinder heads. Engines are limited by the size of the cylinder bore and stroke. While one can increase the size of an engine by increasing the bore and/or stroke of the cylinder, a too-large bore hurts efficient combustion, makes for a heavy reciprocating piston mass, which limits maximum engine speed and thus power output. In a similar vein, increasing the stroke means the piston speed must be increased to match the same revolutions per minute, this limits the maximum size of an engine in a given weight/size range; these factors make it more feasible to build an engine of 12 cylinders and 40 liters displacement than an engine of 6 cylinders and the same size, which would have pistons too large and a stroke too long to meet the same RPM and power requirements. In a large displacement, high-power engine, a 60° V12 fits into a longer and narrower space than a V8 and most other V configurations, a problem in modern cars, but less so in heavy trucks, a problem in large stationary engines.
The V12 is common in locomotive and tank engines, where high power is required, but the width of the engine is constrained by tight railway clearances or street widths, while the length of the vehicle is more flexible. It is used in marine engines where great power is required, the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be narrow enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines. In historic piston-engine fighter and bomber aircraft, the long, narrow V12 configuration used in high-performance aircraft made them more streamlined than other engines the short, wide radial engine. During World War II the power of fighter engines was stepped up to extreme levels using multi-speed superchargers and ultra-high octane gasoline, so the extreme smoothness of the V12 prevented the powerful engines from tearing apart the light airframes of fighters.
After World War II, the compact, more powerful, vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 to a design by Wilhelm Maybach. By 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines. In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose. Known as the "Craig-Dörwald" engine after Putney's founding partners, the engine mounted pairs of L-head cylinders at a 90 degree included angle on an aluminium crankcase, using the same cylinder pairs that powered the company's standard two-cylinder car. A single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly; as in many marine engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams, giving valve timing that reversed the engine's rotation to achieve astern propulsion.
Jaguar XK6 engine
The Jaguar XK6 is an inline 6-cylinder dual overhead camshaft engine produced by Jaguar Cars between 1949 and 1992. Introduced as a 3.4-litre, it earned fame on both the road and track, being produced in five displacements between 2.4 and 4.2-litres for Jaguar passenger cars, with other sizes being made by Jaguar and privateers for racing. A de-rated version was used in certain military vehicles built by Alvis and Daimler. Prior to World War II, SS Cars used three engines produced by the Standard Motor Company: a 1.5-litre 4-cylinder and 6-cylinder engines of 2.5 and 3.5 litres. Sir William Lyons and his engine designers. Rather than developing prototype engines after the war, it is claimed that Jaguar's wartime engine developments went far beyond mere discussion and design, extending to the construction and testing of several prototype engines as early as 1943; the initial aim was to produce a series of engines of higher than normal output that would be able to stay ahead of the competition without revision for many years and which Sir William insisted had to "look good".
In 1942-43, a range of configurations was considered and it was concluded that, for good breathing and high bmep, the new engines would need vee-opposed valves operating in hemispherical combustion chambers. Two configurations of this type were selected for comparison in 1943 and the prototypes named "XG" and "XF"; the XG 4-cylinder of 1,776 cc, first tested in October 1943, was based on the 1.5-litre Standard block and used its single cam-in-block to operate the opposed valves via a complicated crossover pushrod arrangement, similar to that of the pre-war BMW 328. The XF 4-cylinder of 1,732 cc used the now familiar dual overhead cam configuration and was first tested in November 1944; the XG was found to suffer from excessive pushrod and rocker noise and gas flow figures through its vertical valve ports did not equal those of the horizontal ports on the XF. Therefore, from these two options, the DOHC XF layout was selected. 4-cyl engine development progressed as follows: XG Pushrod engine 73 x 106 x 4 1776 cc May to Nov 1944 XF 75 x 98 x 4 1732 cc Nov 1944 to Jun 1945 XK1 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Oct 1945 to Nov 1946 XK2 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Feb to Sep 1946 XK3 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Dec 1946 to Feb 1947 XK4 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Nov 1946 to Dec 1947 Gardner Engine 1970 cc 1948 XK Number 1 3-bearing crank 1970 cc 1949-1952 XK Number 2 3-bearing crank 1970 cc 1950-1952 XK 5-bearing crank 1970 cc 1953By September 1947 a 3.2-litre 6-cylinder version had been produced, called the "XJ 6-cylinder", intended to replace both Standard-based 6-cylinder units.
Testing showed the need for higher torque at low speeds than this engine could produce and hence it was'stroked' to 3,442 cc to form the "XK 6-cylinder", which saw its debut in an open two-seat XK120 sports car at the 1948 London Motor Show. Following this the XK6 powered a number of other models in subsequent years; the XG prototype soldiered on as a component testbed until 1948. There existed an "XK 4-cylinder" of 1,790 cc first tested in October 1945 and remaining under development alongside the XK 6-cylinder units. At the time of William Heynes' paper presented to the IMechE in February 1953, the XK 4-cylinder was still referred to as being under development, it was only dropped as a possible production engine in 1953, by which time it had been realised that Jaguar's image in the market had moved beyond the need for a replacement for the old 1.5-litre Standard 4-cylinder unit. Because the 6-cylinder XK prototypes were found to be so much more refined than the 4-cylinder versions, in 1951 a 1,986 cc 6-cylinder version of the XK 6-cylinder was built to see if it would suffice as a smaller scale engine.
By 1954 this had grown to 2,483 cc and it was this short-block version of the XK 6-cylinder, fitted to the new compact Jaguar 2.4-litre released in that year. None of the 4-cylinder prototypes advanced to production but Lt. Col. Goldie Gardner's speed record team did fit a 1970 cc version to the MG streamliner EX-135 in 1948 to take the 2,000 cc class record at 177 mph, on the Jabbeke motorway in Belgium. There are some misleading claims of an intervening "XJ" 4-cyl prototype but it seems the only person who referred to them as such was William Heynes in a paper presented to the IMechE in 1953. Heynes stated there were many 4-cyl variants following the XF but it was he alone who loosely grouped them as XJ; the last mention of XF was in July 1945 and the first mention of XK was in October of the same year. This doesn't give much room for a series of XJ engines. There are no mentions of XJ in the archive. If there is a XJ, the first one is to have been referred to as XK1 internally. There were three others of nominally 1790 cc capacity called XK2, XK3 & XK4.
It is these are what Heynes referred to as "XJ". The
Vehicle emissions control
Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the emissions produced by motor vehicles internal combustion engines. Emissions of many air pollutants have been shown to have variety of negative effects on public health and the natural environment. Emissions that are principal pollutants of concern include: Hydrocarbons - A class of burned or burned fuel, hydrocarbons are toxins. Hydrocarbons are a major contributor to smog. Prolonged exposure to hydrocarbons contributes to asthma, liver disease, lung disease, cancer. Regulations governing hydrocarbons vary according to type of jurisdiction. Technology for one application may not be suitable for use in an application that has to meet a total hydrocarbon standard. Methane is not directly toxic, but is more difficult to break down in fuel vent lines and a charcoal canister is meant to collect and contain fuel vapors and route them either back to the fuel tank or, after the engine is started and warmed up, into the air intake to be burned in the engine.
Carbon monoxide - A product of incomplete combustion, inhaled carbon monoxide reduces the blood's ability to carry oxygen. NOx - Generated when nitrogen in the air reacts with oxygen at the high temperature and pressure inside the engine. NOx is a precursor to acid rain. NOx is the sum of NO and NO2. NO2 is reactive. NOx production is increased when an engine runs at its most efficient operating point, so there tends to be a natural tradeoff between efficiency and control of NOx emissions. Particulate matter – Soot or smoke made up of particles in the micrometre size range: Particulate matter causes negative health effects, including but not limited to respiratory disease and cancer. Fine particulate matter has been linked to cardiovascular disease. Sulfur oxide - A general term for oxides of sulfur, which are emitted from motor vehicles burning fuel containing sulfur. Reducing the level of fuel sulfur reduces the level of Sulfur oxide emitted from the tailpipe. Volatile organic compounds - Organic compounds which have a boiling point less than or equal to 250 °C.
Volatile organic compounds are a subsection of Hydrocarbons that are mentioned separately because of their dangers to public health. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, various federal and local governments in the United States conducted studies into the numerous sources of air pollution; these studies attributed a significant portion of air pollution to the automobile, concluded air pollution is not bounded by local political boundaries. At that time, such minimal emission control regulations as existed in the U. S. were promulgated at the municipal or the state level. The ineffective local regulations were supplanted by more comprehensive state and federal regulations. By 1967 the State of California created the California Air Resources Board, in 1970, the federal United States Environmental Protection Agency was established. Both agencies, as well as other state agencies, now create and enforce emission regulations for automobiles in the United States. Similar agencies and regulations were contemporaneously developed and implemented in Canada, Western Europe and Japan.
The first effort at controlling pollution from automobiles was the PCV system. This draws crankcase fumes heavy in unburned hydrocarbons — a precursor to photochemical smog — into the engine's intake tract so they are burned rather than released unburned from the crankcase into the atmosphere. Positive crankcase ventilation was first installed on a widespread basis by law on all new 1961-model cars first sold in California; the following year, New York required it. By 1964, most new cars sold in the U. S. were so equipped, PCV became standard equipment on all vehicles worldwide. The first legislated exhaust emission standards were promulgated by the State of California for 1966 model year for cars sold in that state, followed by the United States as a whole in model year 1968. In 1966, the first emission test cycle was enacted in the State of California measuring tailpipe emissions in PPM; the standards were progressively tightened year by year, as mandated by the EPA. By the 1974 model year, the emission standards had tightened such that the de-tuning techniques used to meet them were reducing engine efficiency and thus increasing fuel usage.
The new emission standards for 1975 model year, as well as the increase in fuel usage, forced the invention of the catalytic converter for after-treatment of the exhaust gas. This was not possible with existing leaded gasoline, because the lead residue contaminated the platinum catalyst
Redline refers to the maximum engine speed at which an internal combustion engine or traction motor and its components are designed to operate without causing damage to the components themselves or other parts of the engine. The redline of an engine depends on various factors such as stroke, mass of the components, composition of components, balance of components; the word is used as a verb, meaning to ride or drive an automotive vehicle at its maximum engine speed. The acceleration, or rate of change in piston velocity, is the limiting factor; the piston acceleration is directly proportional to the magnitude of the G-forces experienced by the piston-connecting rod assembly. As long as the G-forces acting on the piston-connecting rod assembly multiplied by their own mass is less than the compressive and tensile strengths of the materials they are constructed from and as long as it does not exceed the bearing load limits, the engine can safely rev without succumbing to physical or structural failure.
Redlines vary anywhere from a few hundred revolutions per minute to more than 10,000 rpm. Diesel engines have lower redlines than comparatively sized gasoline engines because of fuel-atomization limitations. Gasoline automobile engines will have a redline at around 5500 to 7000 rpm; the Ariel Atom 500 has the highest redline of a piston-engine road car rated at 10,600. The Renesis in the Mazda RX-8 has the highest redline of a production rotary-engine road car rated at 9000 rpm. In contrast, some older OHV engines had redlines as low as 4800 rpm due to the engines being designed and built for low-end power and economy during the late 1960s all the way to the early 1990s. One main reason OHV engines have lower redlines is valve float. At high speeds, the valve spring cannot keep the tappet or roller on the camshaft. After the valve opens, the valve spring does not have enough force to push the mass of the rocker arm, push rod, lifter down on the cam before the next combustion cycle. Overhead cam engines eliminate many of the components, moving mass, used on OHV engines.
Lower redlines, however, do not mean low performance, as some skeptics sometimes assume. For example, a Supercharged Buick 3800 V6 with a redline anywhere from 5500 to 6000 has a torque curve that peaks at 2600–3600 rpm, yet the engine is a strong performer from takeoff all the way through to the redline. Motorcycle engines can have higher redlines because of their comparatively lower reciprocating mass. For example, the 1986–1996 Honda CBR250RR has a redline of about 19,000 rpm.. Higher yet is the redline of a modern Formula One car. Regulations in 2010 limit the maximum engine rotation to 18,000 rpm, but during the 2006 season, engine speeds reached over 20,000 rpm on the Cosworth engine; the actual term redline comes from the red bars that are displayed on tachometers in cars starting at the rpm that denotes the redline for the specific engine. Operating an engine in this area is known as redlining. Straying into this area does not mean instant engine failure, but may increase the chances of damaging the engine.
Most modern cars have computer systems that prevent the engine from straying too far into the redline by cutting fuel flow through the fuel injectors/fuel rail /carburetor or by disabling the ignition system until the engine drops to a safer operating speed. This device is known as a rev limiter and is set to an RPM value at redline or a few hundred RPM above. Most Electronic Control Units of automatic transmission cars will upshift before the engine hits the redline with maximum acceleration. If manual override is used, the engine may go past redline for a brief amount of time before the ECU will auto-upshift; when the car is in top gear and the engine is in redline, the ECU will cut fuel to the engine, forcing it to decelerate until the engine begins operating below the redline at which point it will release fuel back to the engine, allowing it to operate once again. However with these electronic protection systems, a car is not prevented from redlining through inadvertent gear engagement.
If a driver accidentally selects a lower gear when trying to shift up or selects a lower gear than intended while shifting down, the engine will be forced to rev-up to match the speed of the drivetrain. If this happens while the engine is at high rpms, it may exceed the redline. For example, if the operator is driving close to redline in 3rd gear and attempts to shift to 4th gear but unintentionally puts the car in 2nd by mistake, the transmission will be spinning much faster than the engine, when the clutch is released the engine’s rpm will increase rapidly, it will lead to a rough and noticeable engine braking, engine damage. This is known as a'money shift' because of the likelihood of engine damage and the expense of fixing the engine. Power band
The Rover P6 series is a saloon car produced by Rover and subsequently British Leyland from 1963 to 1977 in Solihull, West Midlands, England. The P6 was voted European Car of the Year in 1964, the first winner of the title; the P6 was announced on 9 October 1963, just before the Earls Court Motor Show. The vehicle was marketed first as the Rover 2000 and was a complete "clean sheet" design intended to appeal to a larger number of buyers than earlier models such as the P4 it replaced. Rover had identified a developing market between the standard'1.5-litre' saloon car class and the accepted'three-litre' large saloon cars. Younger and affluent professional workers and executives were seeking out cars that were superior to the normal 1.5-litre models in style and luxury but which offered more modern driving dynamics than the big three-litre class and lower purchase and running costs than sports saloons such as the Jaguar Mark 2. Automotive technology had improved in the mid-to-late 1950s, typified by the introduction of cars such as the Citroen DS and Lancia Flavia in Europe and the Chevrolet Corvair in America.
The replacement for the traditionally-designed P4 would therefore be a smaller car with a two-litre engine utilising the latest design and styling, thus making the Rover one of the earliest examples of what would now be classified as an executive car. The P6 would be lower-priced than the P4 and sales volumes were anticipated to be higher; the more upmarket and conservative P5 was sold alongside the P6 until 1973. The 2000 was advanced for the time with a de Dion tube suspension at the rear, four-wheel disc brakes, a synchromesh transmission; the unibody design featured non-stressed panels bolted to a unit frame, inspired by the Citroën DS. The de Dion set-up was unique in that the "tube" was in two parts that could telescope, thereby avoiding the need for sliding splines in the drive shafts, with consequent stiction under drive or braking torque, while still keeping the wheels vertical and parallel in relation to the body; the Rover 2000 won industry awards for safety when it was introduced and included a designed "safety" interior.
One innovative feature was the prism of plastic on the top of the front side lights. This allowed the driver to see the front corner of the car in low light conditions, confirmed that they were operative; the sharp plastic projections did not meet homologation standards in some export markets, including Germany, however and so a lens with a smooth top was substituted where the law demanded. One unique feature of the Rover 2000 was the design of the front suspension system, in which a bell crank conveyed the vertical motion of the wheel to a fore-and-aft-horizontally mounted spring fastened to the rear wall of the engine compartment. A single hydraulically damped; the front suspension was designed to allow as much width for the engine compartment as possible so that Rover's Gas Turbine engine could be fitted. The styling outline was first seen in the 1961 prototype T4, a front-engined front-wheel drive gas turbine saloon, one of a line of gas turbine prototypes built by Rover in the 1950s and 60s.
T4 can be seen at the British Motor Museum. In the event, the gas turbine engine was never used for the production vehicle, but the engine compartment width did facilitate the accommodation of the Buick derived V8 engine made available in the P6 from April 1968. Sculptor Flaminio Bertoni's Citroën DS body inspired David Bache. With a nod to the new Kamm tail, the finished Rover appearance incorporated a enlarged boot filled otherwise by Rover's de Dion rear suspension, it lacked the Citroën shark nose, which it was planned to introduce as a drooping bonnet with headlamps in pods and projecting sidelights. Luggage compartment space was limited due to the complex rear suspension and, in Series II vehicles, the boot mounted battery; the spare wheel competed for space, stored either flat on the boot floor or vertically to the side. A optional'touring package' allowed the spare to be carried on the boot lid, with a vinyl weatherproof cover; when not in place, the mounting bracket was concealed by a circular Rover badge.
Series II models offered Dunlop Denovo Run-flat tyre, eliminating the need for a spare, though this was not selected and is unusual on surviving examples. The car's primary competitor on the domestic UK market was the Triumph 2000 released in October 1963, just one week after the Rover. In continental Europe the Rover 2000 competed in the same sector as the Citroën DS which, like the initial Rover offering, was offered only with a four-cylinder engine – a situation, resolved in the Rover when the V8 was engineered to fit into the engine bay; the Rover 2000 interior was not as spacious as those of its Triumph and Citroën rivals in the back, where its sculpted two-person rear seat implied that customers wishing to accommodate three in the back of a Rover should opt for the larger and older Rover P5. The first P6 used a 2.0 L engine designed for the P6. Although it was announced towards the end of 1963, the car had been in "pilot production" since the beginning of the year, therefore deliveries were able to begin immediately.
Original output was in the order of 104 bhp. At the time the engine was unus
Magneti Marelli S.p. A. manufactures high-tech components for the automotive industry. Magneti Marelli is headquartered in Corbetta and includes 86 manufacturing plants, 12 R&D centres and 26 application centers in 19 countries—with 43,000 employees and a turnover of 7.9 billion euro in 2016.. It was a subsidiary of Fiat from 1967 to 2018. On October 22 2018 FCA announced Magneti Marelli was being bought by the Japanese automotive company Calsonic Kansei for $7.2 billion in a deal that would create one of the world's largest auto parts suppliers Subsidiaries and brands of the company include AL-Automotive Lighting, Cromodora, Ergom Automotive, Mako Elektrik, Securvia, Siem SpA, Veglia Borletti, Weber. Founded in 1919—as Fabbrica Italiana Magneti Marelli, a joint-venture between Fiat and Ercole Marelli, an Italian electrical manufacturing company—Magneti Marelli manufactured magnetos for the automotive and aviation industries, with its first plant in Sesto San Giovanni near Milan. Fiat Chrysler is expected to sell Magneti Marelli to CK Holdings in early 2019.
CK Holdings will be renamed Magneti Marelli CK Holdings. Magneti Marelli deals with intelligent systems for active and passive vehicle safety as well as powertrain systems. Business lines include automotive lighting systems, body control systems, powertrain control systems, electronic instrument clusters, telematics systems, computers, suspension systems and components, exhaust systems, motorsport, wherein Magneti Marelli develops specific electronic systems for Formula One, Motorcycle Grand Prix and the World Rally Championship. Magneti Marelli worked with Ford Motor Company and Microsoft Auto to develop an in-dash computer for Ford's work truck division introduced in 2008—with a built-in 6.5-inch, high-resolution touch screen and Bluetooth, USB connectivity, GPS Navigation, voice recognition, as well as general office applications, e.g. word processing and calendar. List of Italian companies Magneti Marelli Holding S.p. A