Economy of Indonesia
Indonesia has the largest economy in Southeast Asia and is one of the emerging market economies of the world. The country is a member of G20 and classified as a newly industrialised country, it is the 16th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the 7th largest in terms of GDP. Its GDP per capita, ranks below the world average. Indonesia still depends on domestic market and government budget spending and its ownership of state-owned enterprises; the administration of prices of a range of basic goods plays a significant role in Indonesia's market economy. However, since the 1990s, the majority of the economy has been controlled by individual Indonesians and foreign companies. In the aftermath of the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the government took custody of a significant portion of private sector assets through acquisition of nonperforming bank loans and corporate assets through the debt restructuring process and the companies in custody were sold for privatization several years later.
Since 1999 the economy has recovered and growth has accelerated to over 4–6% in recent years. In 2012, Indonesia replaced India behind China. Since the annual growth rate slowed down and stagnates at the rate of 5%. In the years following the proclamation of Indonesian independence, both the Japanese occupation and conflict between Dutch and Republican forces had crippled the country's production, with exports of commodities such as rubber and oil being reduced to 12 and 5 percent their pre-WW2 levels, respectively; the first Republican government-controlled bank, the Indonesian State Bank was founded on July 5, 1946 and acted as the manufacturer and distributor of ORI, a currency issued by the Republican Government, the predecessor of Rupiah. Despite so, currency issued during the Japanese occupation and by Dutch authorities were still in circulation, simplicity of the ORI made its counterfeiting straightforward, worsening matters. Once the nation's independence has been recognised by the Netherlands on December 1949, the next 10 years saw the devaluation of Dutch banknotes into half their value, dissolution of the United States of Indonesia in 1950, during the liberal democracy period the nationalization of De Javasche Bank into modern Bank Indonesia and the takeover of Dutch corporate assets following the West New Guinea dispute.
During the guided democracy era in the 1960s, the economy deteriorated drastically as a result of political instability. The government was inexperienced in implementing macro-economic policies, which resulted in severe poverty and hunger. By the time of Sukarno's downfall in the mid-1960s, the economy was in chaos with 1,000% annual inflation, shrinking export revenues, crumbling infrastructure, factories operating at minimal capacity, negligible investment. Indonesia´s post-1960 economic improvement was considered remarkable when taking consideration of how few indigenous Indonesians in the 1950s had received a formal education under Dutch colonial policies. Following President Sukarno's downfall, the New Order administration brought a degree of discipline to economic policy that brought inflation down, stabilised the currency, rescheduled foreign debt, attracted foreign aid and investment.. Indonesia was until Southeast Asia's only member of OPEC, the 1970s oil price raises provided an export revenue windfall that contributed to sustained high economic growth rates, averaging over 7% from 1968 to 1981.
With high levels of regulation and a dependence on declining oil prices, growth slowed to an average of 4.5% per annum between 1981 and 1988. A range of economic reforms were introduced in the late 1980s, including a managed devaluation of the rupiah to improve export competitiveness, de-regulation of the financial sector, Foreign investment flowed into Indonesia into the developing export-oriented manufacturing sector, from 1989 to 1997, the Indonesian economy grew by an average of over 7%. GDP per capita grew 545% from 1970 to 1980 as a result of the sudden increase in oil export revenues from 1973 to 1979. High levels of economic growth masked a number of structural weaknesses in the economy, it came at a high cost in terms of weak and corrupt governmental institutions, severe public indebtedness through mismanagement of the financial sector, the rapid depletion of natural resources, a culture of favors and corruption in the business elite. Corruption gained momentum in the 1990s, reaching to the highest levels of the political hierarchy as Suharto became the most corrupt leader according to Transparency International.
As a result, the legal system was weak, there was no effective way to enforce contracts, collect debts, or sue for bankruptcy. Banking practices were unsophisticated, with collateral-based lending the norm and widespread violation of prudential regulations, including limits on connected lending. Non-tariff barriers, rent-seeking by state-owned enterprises, domestic subsidies, barriers to domestic trade and export restrictions all created economic distortions; the 1997 Asian financial crisis that began to affect Indonesia became an economic and political crisis. The initial response was to float the rupiah, raise key domestic interest rates, tighten fiscal policy. In October 1997, Indonesia and the International Monetary Fund reached agreement on an economic reform program aimed at macroeconomic stabilisation and elimination of some of the country's most damaging economic policies, such as
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
West Java is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the western part of the island of Java and its capital and largest urban center is Bandung, although much of its population in the northwest corner of the province live in areas suburban to the larger urban area of Jakarta, though that city itself lies outside the administrative province. With a population of 46.3 million West Java is the most populous of Indonesia's provinces. The city proper of Bandung, largest city in West Java, has one of the highest population density worldwide, while Bekasi and Depok are the 7th and 10th most populated suburbs in the world. All these cities are suburban to Jakarta; the oldest human inhabitant archaeological findings in the region were unearthed in Anyer with evidence of bronze and iron metallurgical culture dating to the first millennium AD. The prehistoric Buni culture clay pottery were developed with evidence found in Anyer to Cirebon. Artefacts, such as food and drink containers, were found as burial gifts.
There is archaeological evidence in Batujaya Archaeological Site dating from the 2nd century and, according to Dr Tony Djubiantono, the head of Bandung Archaeology Agency, Jiwa Temple in Batujaya, West Java was built around this time. One of the earliest known recorded history in Indonesia is from the former Tarumanagara kingdom, where seven fourth century stones are inscribed in Wengi letters and in Sanskrit describing the kings of the kingdom Tarumanagara. Records of Tarumanegara's administration lasted until the sixth century, which coincides with the attack of Srivijaya, as stated in the Kota Kapur inscription; the Sunda Kingdom subsequently became the ruling power of the region, as recorded on the Kebon Kopi II inscription. An Ulama, Sunan Gunung Jati, settled in Cirebon, with the intention of spreading the word of Islam in the pagan town. In the meantime, the Sultanate of Demak in central Java grew to an immediate threat against the Sunda kingdom. To defend against the threat, Prabu Surawisesa Jayaperkosa signed a treaty with the Portuguese in 1512.
In return, the Portuguese were granted an accession to build fortresses and warehouses in the area, as well as form trading agreements with the kingdom. This first international treaty of West Java with the Europeans was commemorated by the placement of the Padrao stone monument at the bank of the Ciliwung River in 1522. Although the treaty with the Portuguese had been established, it could not come to realization. Sunda Kalapa harbour fell under the alliance of the Sultanate of Demak and the Sultanate of Cirebon in 1524, after their troops under Paletehan alias Fadillah Khan had conquered the city. In 1524/1525, their troops under Sunan Gunung Jati seized the port of Banten and established the Sultanate of Banten, affiliating with the Sultanate of Demak; the war between the Sunda kingdom with Demak and Cirebon sultanates continued for five years until a peace treaty was made in 1531 between King Surawisesa and Sunan Gunung Jati. From 1567 to 1579, under the last king Raja Mulya, alias Prabu Surya Kencana, the Sunda kingdom declined under the pressure from Sultanate of Banten.
After 1576, the kingdom could not maintain its capital at Pakuan Pajajaran and the Sultanate of Banten took over the former Sunda kingdom's region. The Mataram Sultanate from central Java seized the Priangan region, the southeastern part of the kingdom. In the sixteenth century, the Dutch and the British trading companies established their trading ships in West Java after the falldown of Sultanate of Banten. For the next three hundred years, West Java fell under the Dutch East Indies' administration. West Java was declared as a province of Indonesia in 1950, referring to a statement from Staatblad number 378. On October 17, 2000, as part of nationwide political decentralization, Banten was separated from West Java and made into a new province. There have been recent proposals to rename the province Pasundan after the historical name for West Java. Since the creation of West Bandung Regency in 2008, the Province of West Java has been subdivided into 9 cities and 17 regencies; these 26 cities and regencies are divided into 620 districts, which comprise 1,576 urban villages and 4,301 rural villages.
An 18th regency was formed in October 2012 - Pangandaran Regency - from the southern half of Ciamis Regency. Notes* - the 2005 population is included in the total for Bandung Regency, of which West Bandung Regency was part. ** - the figures for Ciamis Regency include those for the new Pangandaran Regency, created in 2012. West Java borders Jakarta and Banten province to the west, Central Java to the east. To the north is the Java Sea. To the south is the Indian Ocean. Unlike most other provinces in Indonesia which have their capitals in coastal areas, the provincial capital, Bandung, is loc
Puncak or Puncak Pass is a mountain pass in West Java, Indonesia. The area is a common weekend destination for residents of Jakarta, including for those who are longing for clean air and natural scenery; the pass connects the city of Bogor and Bandung, is spread within the regencies of Bogor and Sukabumi. Puncak Pass is located on the ridge to the north of Mt. Gede-Pangrango; the highest point of the pass is about 1500 m altitude. Puncak is a large conglomeration of districts in Bogor regency, such as Cisarua, Megamendung, etc. All of those districts are unified by Jalan Raya Puncak. Puncak is the name of a pass on the Indonesian island of Java which one passes when one of Bogor to Bandung travel; the highland, being cooler than Batavia, has been popular resort area for the inhabitants of Batavia, looking for cooler air. Many Swiss-type chalets were built around Puncak during the pre-World War II colonial period. Today Puncak Pass is surrounded by resorts. Puncak rests within the mountains between Bogor.
Many tourists visit this area of West Java to escape the heat and busy city areas. Puncak is known for its individual private resorts/villas, which can be rented out for individual or group bookings. Schools and companies organize group outings, business conference, trainings in those resorts. There are a number of tea plantations on either side of the main Puncak road, the activities available here include paragliding, tea plantation walking, or just relaxing with the views. In addition, Puncak has several landmarks and tourist attractions, such as Taman Safari, Puncak Pas, Kota Bunga. Another tourist attraction, just south of the pass, is the Cibodas Botanical Garden. Taman Safari, a wildlife park, is located in Puncak. There is a volcanic lake Telaga Warna near the main route. Bogor Regency is planning to build an alternative route from Sentul International Circuit-Babakan Madang-Hambalang-Sukmamakmur-Cipanas Palace, Pacet with total length of 47 kilometers, a carriageway 30 meters wide. Most of the land will be granted by businessmen such as Tommy Suharto.
The construction was planned to commence in 2011 and was scheduled to be finished in 2013. Puncak travel guide from Wikivoyage
Tangerang is a city in the province of Banten, Indonesia. Located on the western border of Jakarta, it is the third largest urban centre in the Greater Jakarta metropolitan area after Jakarta and Bekasi, it has an area of 164.54 square kilometres and an official 2010 Census population of 1,797,715, increasing to 2,001,925 as at 2014 – making it the eighth most populated suburb in the world at the latter date. Tangerang, along with South Tangerang, is where many giant developers created built-up areas such as BSD City, Gading Serpong, Alam Sutera, Lippo Village. Tangerang is home for Soekarno–Hatta International Airport which serves Jakarta metropolitan area and as the Indonesia's main gateway. Indonesia Convention Exhibition is the biggest convention and exhibition centre in Indonesia opened in 2015. Tangerang is home to over 1,000 factories. Many international corporations have plants in the city. Tangerang tends to be humid, with little in the way of trees or geographical features. Certain areas consist of swamps, including the areas near the Soekarno–Hatta International Airport.
In recent years the urban expansion of Jakarta has covered Tangerang. As a result, many of its residents commute to Jakarta for vice versa. Many high-class and middle-class satellite cities have been developed in Tangerang, complete with their own shopping malls, private schools and convenience centers; the government is working on expanding the highway system to accommodate more traffic flow to and from the area. Tangerang is the corporations' alternative to move or build their offices from Jakarta due to the heavy traffic and crowds, such as Unilever Indonesia that moved their head from Jalan Jenderal Gatot Subroto, Jakarta to BSD City. Majority of Tangerang Citizen are Sundanese. Tangerang has a significant community of Chinese Indonesians, many of whom are of Cina Benteng extraction, they are part of the country's Peranakan Chinese community, but with deep, centuries-old roots in the historic Tangerang area called'Benteng' locally. Most of the old settlements in Tangerang have colonial, Chinese districts, such as at Sewan, Pasar Lama, Pasar Baru, Benteng Makasar and Karawaci Lama.
One can find all things Chinese there. In addition, a large proportion of Benteng Chinese have traditionally been rural dwellers, engaged in agricultural activities, such as farming and livestock production. Due to the growth of satellite towns in the greater Jakarta region, which includes Tangerang, the area is now home to many new migrants from all parts of Indonesia. In October 1945, Laskar Hitam, a Muslim militia, was established in Tangerang; the goal of this movement was to establish an Islamic nation in Indonesia. This movement became a part of DI/TII rebel group. On October 31, 1945, Laskar Hitam kidnapped Otto Iskandardinata, Republic of Indonesia's Minister of State, he was presumed to have been murdered at Mauk beach, Tangerang on December 20, 1945. Tangerang city was formed as an autonomous city on 27 February 1993 out of the Tangerang Regency; the city was an administrative city in that regency. In August 1996, the largest retail group in USA, opened its first branch in Lippo Karawaci, Tangerang.
The branch was ransacked and burned down during the Indonesian riots of May 1998. Walmart discontinued their investment in Indonesia after the riot. Tangerang District is the location of the Situ Gintung reservoir built by the Dutch colonial authorities in 1933, it was surrounded by a dam up to 16 metres high, which failed on 27 March 2009 with the resulting floods killing at least 93 people. Boen Tek Bio is the oldest Chinese temple, or klenteng, in Tangerang – with a history going back to 1684. Next to Boen Tek Bio is the Benteng Heritage Museum, a historic townhouse, restored and repurposed as a museum by a Benteng Chinese businessman Udaya Halim, it was opened on a chosen auspicious date: November 11, 2011 or 11/11/11. The museum displays Benteng Chinese artefacts and other cultural objects related to the history of Tangerang's Chinese community; the city of Tangerang is divided into 13 districts, tabulated below with their 2010 Census population. By 2007 the city government passed an anti-prostitution law which meant that women who are perceived to be dressed too provocatively may be arrested.
Some news outlets reported that some women decided to wear jilbab to avoid being prosecuted under this law. In addition the city government began requiring municipal employees to abide by Islamic dress codes. South Tangerang is a city which, like Tangerang city, is administratively separate from Tangerang Regency, it is subdivided into seven districts – Serpong, Serpong Utara, Ciputat Timur, Pondok Aren and Setu. Located on the southwest of Jakarta, it has an area of 147.19 square kilometres and a population of 1,303,569 at the 2010 Census. Tangerang provides educational facilities from kindergarten to college. BSD City is the pioneer of Tangerang's first education centre called EduTown which now consists of two universities. In addition to government schools, there are many private colleges. Among these are Sekolah Santa Ursula BSD, Santa Laurensia School, BPK Penabur Gading Serpong, IPEKA Plus BSD Christian School. Tangerang houses the following international primary and secondary schools Jakarta Nanyang School German International School Jakarta Sinarmas World Academy, BSD City Pelita Harapan School Stella Maris International SchoolThe following are in South Tange
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Mount Pangrango is a dormant stratovolcano located in the Sunda Arc of West Java, Indonesia. The mountain formed by a subduction zone on the southern coast of Java facing the Indian Ocean, it is located about 80 km south of capital of Indonesia. It has the height of 3,019 m, its peak is called Mandalawangi. The mountain located northwest of Mount Gede in the vicinity of Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park; the name Pangrango is speculated to be originated from two ancient Sundanese words Pang and Rango which means "That which huffs and puffs" referring to the past volcanic activity of this mountain. The Mandalawangi peak of the mountain is a tripoint where the borders of Bogor and Sukabumi Regency meet, it is the second highest mountain in West Java after Mount Cereme. Mount Pangrango ranked 26th of the Ribus of Indonesia with topographic prominence of 2,426 m; the mountain is seen from Bogor & Sukabumi, while it is obscured by the neighboring Mount Gede if seen from Cianjur. On a clear day it can be seen from Jakarta.
Kebun Raya Cibodas