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James–Younger Gang

The James–Younger Gang was a notable 19th-century gang of American outlaws that centered around Jesse James and his brother Frank James. The gang was based in the state of the home of most of the members. Membership fluctuated from robbery to robbery, as the outlaws' raids were separated by many months; as well as the notorious James brothers, at various times it included the Younger brothers, John Jarrett, Arthur McCoy, George Shepherd, Oliver Shepherd, William McDaniel, Tom McDaniel, Clell Miller, Charlie Pitts, Bill Chadwell. The James–Younger Gang had its origins in a group of Confederate bushwhackers that participated in the bitter partisan fighting that wracked Missouri during the American Civil War. After the war, the men continued to plunder and murder, though the motive shifted to personal profit rather than for the glory of the Confederacy; the loose association of outlaws did not become the "James–Younger Gang" until 1868 at the earliest, when the authorities first named Cole Younger, John Jarrett, Arthur McCoy, George Shepherd and Oliver Shepherd as suspects in the robbery of the Nimrod Long bank in Russellville, Kentucky.

The James–Younger Gang dissolved in 1876, following the capture of the Younger brothers in Minnesota during the ill-fated attempt to rob the Northfield First National Bank. Three years Jesse James organized a new gang, including Clell Miller's brother Ed and the Ford brothers, renewed his criminal career; this career came to an end in 1882. For nearly a decade following the Civil War, the James–Younger Gang was among the most feared, most publicized, most wanted confederations of outlaws on the American frontier. Though their crimes were reckless and brutal, many members of the gang commanded a notoriety in the public eye that earned the gang significant popular support and sympathy; the gang's activities spanned much of the central part of the country. From the beginning of the American Civil War, the state of Missouri had chosen not to secede from the Union but not to fight for it or against it either: its position, as determined by an 1861 constitutional convention, was neutral. Missouri, had been the scene of much of the agitation about slavery leading up to the outbreak of the war, was home to dedicated partisans from both sides.

In the mid-1850s, local Unionists and Secessionists had begun to battle each other throughout the state, by the end of 1861, guerrilla warfare erupted between Confederate partisans known as "bushwhackers" and the more organized Union forces. The Missouri State Guard and the newly elected Governor of Missouri, Claiborne Fox Jackson, who maintained implicit Southern sympathies, were forced into exile as Union troops under Nathaniel Lyon and John C. Frémont took control of the state. Still, pro-Confederate guerrillas resisted; this conflict raged until after the fall of Richmond and the surrender of General Robert E. Lee, costing thousands of lives and devastating broad swathes of the Missouri countryside; the conflict escalated into a succession of atrocities committed by both sides. Union troops executed or tortured suspects without trial and burned the homes of suspected guerrillas and those suspected of aiding or harboring them. Where credentials were suspect, the accused guerrilla was executed, as in the case of Lt. Col. Frisby McCullough after the Battle of Kirksville.

Bushwhackers, meanwhile went house to house, executing Unionist farmers. The James and Younger brothers belonged to slave-owning families from an area known as "Little Dixie" in western Missouri with strong ties to the South. Zerelda Samuel, the mother of Frank and Jesse James, was an outspoken partisan of the South, though the Youngers' father, Henry Washington Younger, was believed to be a Unionist. Cole Younger's initial decision to fight as a bushwhacker is attributed to the death of his father at the hands of Union forces in July 1862, he and Frank James fought under one of the most famous Confederate bushwhackers, William Clarke Quantrill, though Cole joined the regular Confederate Army. Jesse James began his guerrilla career in 1864, at the age of sixteen, fighting alongside Frank under the leadership of Archie Clement and "Bloody Bill" Anderson. At the war's end, Frank James surrendered in Kentucky, he was nursed back to health by his cousin, Zerelda "Zee" Mimms, whom he married. When Cole Younger returned from a mission to California, he learned that Quantrill and Anderson had both been killed.

The James brothers, continued to associate with their old guerrilla comrades, who remained together under the leadership of Archie Clement. It was Clement who, amid the tumult of Reconstruction in Missouri, turned the guerrillas into outlaws. On February 12, 1866, a group of gunmen carried out one of the first daylight, armed bank robberies in U. S. history when they held up the Clay County Savings Association in Missouri. The outlaws stole some $60,000 in cash and bonds and killed a bystander on the street outside the bank. State authorities suspected Archie Clement of leading the raid, prom

2015 WKU Hilltoppers football team

The 2015 WKU Hilltoppers football team represented Western Kentucky University in the 2015 NCAA Division I FBS football season as members of the East Division of Conference USA. Led by second year head coach Jeff Brohm, they played their home games at Houchens Industries–L. T. Smith Stadium in Bowling Green, Kentucky, they finished the season 8 -- 0 in C-USA play to be champions of the East Division. They represented the East Division in the Conference USA Football Championship Game where they defeated Southern Miss to win their first C-USA championship, they were invited to the Miami Beach Bowl. They were ranked in the AP Top 25 for the first time in program history; the Hilltoppers finished 4 -- 4 in conference play. WKU biggest win and upset was against season closer Marshall by 67–66 in overtime, Marshall's first and only loss of their season making them ineligible for a berth in a New Year's Six Bowl. WKU became bowl eligible after defeating UTSA and was invited to play in the inaugural Bahamas Bowl, the first international bowl game since 2010.

The Hilltoppers defeated the Central Michigan Chippewas, 49–48. Western Kentucky announced their 2015 football schedule on February 2, 2015; the 2015 schedule consist of five home and seven away games in the regular season. The Hilltoppers will host CUSA foes Florida Atlantic, Louisiana Tech and Middle Tennessee, will travel to Florida International, North Texas, Old Dominion, Rice. Schedule source

Doctors of Madness

Doctors of Madness were a British protopunk art rock band active as a recording and touring band from 1975 until late 1978. They had little commercial success. Since they have come to be regarded as prime movers who were forerunners of the punk movement; the Doctors of Madness were formed in 1974 in a basement in Brixton, south London, by the band's composer and lead singer/guitarist Richard Strange, known as ‘Kid’ Strange. To provide a platform for his musical ideas and compositions, which analysed urban culture neurosis and systems of control, Strange joined forces with Stoner, Peter DiLemma, Urban Blitz to provide a link between the early 1970s progressive rock and glam rock of David Bowie and Roxy Music and the 1970s punk rock of the Sex Pistols and The Clash. Strange cited The Velvet Underground and writer William S. Burroughs as major influences on the band's music, which fused avant-garde hard rock with warped quasi-classical tones. In March 1975 the band started playing gigs at a pub in Twickenham, south-west London, where they were spotted by a talent scout for music manager Bryan Morrison, who had managed Pink Floyd, Syd Barrett and Marc Bolan.

Morrison was impressed. Morrison and his partner Justin de Villeneuve launched an intensive publicity campaign to promote the band, which included an appearance on the BBC's prime time UK television The Twiggy Show, they were the opening act at the three-day Great British Music Festival at Olympia in London on 31 December 1975. The band signed to Polydor Records for the Europe; the Doctors of Madness were BBC Radio John Peel Show featured artists on 25 November 1976, received British television exposure during 1975/76 on the Twiggy Show and the Janet Street-Porter Show. The Doctors of Madness toured extensively in Great Britain and continental Europe, gigging in France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Switzerland and Sweden, their early stage shows, in which Strange appeared with dyed-blue hair and Stoner wore skeletal-style make-up, incorporated costumes, make-up, projected backdrop images, strobe lights, theatrical spot-lighting and taped sound effects. Stoner recalled that they had wanted to create "a outrageous image to match the songs Richard was writing".

Strange spoke of a cinematic style of song-writing, "where the images come in and out, not making much sense on a rational level, more on a sensory one... sleazy and outrageous."Support acts during their heyday included The Sex Pistols, The Jam, Joy Division and Simple Minds. Richard'Kid' Strange was best man at Dave Vanian's wedding; the band's tour manager and sound engineer was Dave'Hobbs' Hilsden, who Strange called'Obbsy'. Hilsden was subsequently sound engineer, road manager and crew boss for Motorhead for 30 years until his death in 2015. Between 1975 and 1977, the Doctors of Madness recorded three albums for Polydor records: Late Night Movies, All Night Brainstorms, produced by John Punter, it was decided to give the band's third album a more'punk' feel, the tracks on Sons of Survival were recorded as high-volume live performances in the studio. "Bulletin" from Sons of Survival, backed by "Waiting" from Late Night Movies, All Night Brainstorms, was released as a single in late 1977. A posthumous Doctors of Madness compilation, was released by Polydor in 1981, the band having split in late 1978.

The band's first three albums were re-released on CD by Ozit Records. Early in 1978 after the release of Sons of Survival, Urban Blitz left the band because of musical and personal differences, he was replaced by singer Dave Vanian of punk rock band The Damned, who had temporarily split. The Doctors of Madness were known informally as'the Doctors'. After the release of Sons of Survival in 1978, Strange experimented with renaming the band'The Doctors'. Kid Strange and Peter DiLemma continued as a trio, minus violinist, before disbanding after disappointing sales of the latest album and withdrawal of record company support, they played their final gig at The Music Machine in Camden, North London, on 26 October 1978, with TV Smith of The Adverts as a guest. In years, Richard Strange continued to promote and perform Doctors of Madness music while pursuing an extensive international career as a solo artist. In 2003 he performed in Japan, backed by ex-Pogues multi-instrumentalist David Coulter and Sister Paul, a Japanese Doctors of Madness tribute band based in Tokyo.

Recognition of Doctors of Madness influence on the emergence of British punk rock was documented in the book An Unauthorised Guide to Punk Rock: The Early English Scene, which included the Deviants, the Doctors of Madness, David Bowie, the Sex Pistols and the Clash. The band's reappraisal as an important influence in British punk rock had prompted the re-release of their albums on CD in 2002; the original line-up of the Doctors of Madness - Kid Strange, Peter DiLemma and Urban Blitz - reunited in London in October 2014 for a one-off performance at the South Bank Centre as part of Richard Strange's "Language is a Virus from Outer Space", a multi-media centenary celebration of satirical US writer

Hull and Doncaster Branch

The Hull and Doncaster Branch is a secondary main railway line in England, connecting Kingston upon Hull to South Yorkshire and beyond via a branch from the Selby Line near Gilberdyke to a connection to the Barnsley to Barnetby Line at a junction near Thorne 8 miles northeast of Doncaster. The line was sanctioned by parliament in 1864, opened in 1869. There are two minor stations on Thorne North; the Hull and Doncaster Line is a railway running from Staddlethorpe junction on the Hull and Selby Line southwest past to the River Ouse crossing by the Skelton viaduct swing bridge near Skelton and making an end on junction at Goole railway station. At Goole the line diverges southwest passing over the westward running line of the former Wakefield and Goole Railway; the line ran to Doncaster over the Barnsley to Barnetby branch line to Doncaster. As of 2014 Network Rail classes the line as a secondary route, part of the SRS H.08 set of route which include Goole-Knottingley and Moorthorpe-Knottingley-Church Fenton lines.

The line is double tracked, with the exception of the junction at Thorne. The line code is TJG: TJG1 Thorne junction to Thorne is 1 mile 944 yards. Route availability is 8 or 9, with loading gauge W6 to W9, the linespeed 70 miles per hour; the line is used for both passenger and freight trains, with an average of two passenger trains per hour. Early proposals for a line connecting Hull to Doncaster included the Hull and Midland Direct Railway, promoted in 1845, for a line from the Hull and Selby Line near Gilberdyke, crossing the Ouse near Goole by a tunnel via Thorne and Kirk Sandall to Doncaster west to a junction with the North Midland Railway near Wath upon Dearne; this was abandoned by 1846. Another scheme, the Hull and Doncaster Railway was promoted in 1855 to connect South Yorkshire coalfields to Hull. In 1860 another scheme, called the'Hull and Doncaster Railway', was submitted to parliament; the line was to run from the Thorne branch of the South Yorkshire Railway to a junction with the Hull and Selby Railway east of Staddlethorpe station.

Both the SYR and Great Northern Railway were to have running powers to Hull over the line. The North Eastern Railway persuaded the original promoters to withdraw the scheme on the understanding that the NER would promote and build a similar line; the NER submitted a scheme for a railway connecting Doncaster and Hull via a line from Staddlethorpe to Hull. The NER's scheme was defeated in the House of Lords. In the next session of parliament the NER reached an agreement with the SYR and Manchester and Lincolnshire Railways not to oppose the bill, in exchange for mutual running powers over the two companies' lines between Hull and Doncaster; the NER reached an agreement with the L&YR, who had a rival bill in parliament, with both companies agreeing running powers on each other's routes to Normanton, mutual running powes to Hull, to Barnsley. The NER's scheme was submitted in 1862, in the same session the SYR submitted a bill with clauses enabling it to modify a permitted line from Doncaster to Thorne to add a junction and branch north to near the Selby-Bawtry turnpike, northwest of the town of Thorne.

The NER's act was enabled by parliament 23 July 1863, as the North Eastern Railway Act, 1863. The line was to run from the NER's Hull and Selby Line west of Staddlethorpe station at Staddlethorpe junction; the act allowed £310,000 in shares, £103,000 in loans to be raised for the construction of the line. Most of the route of the line was flat ground, representing an easy route for construction of a railway; the main feature of the line was the wrought iron bridge crossing the River Ouse, the Skelton viaduct. The contractors for the bridge were Butler and Pitts of Stanningley, Pease and Company for the swing span, with hydraulic machinery from William Armstrong. Bridges were required in close succession west of Goole: one over the L&YR line into the dock

1924 FA Cup Final

The 1924 FA Cup Final was contested by Newcastle United and Aston Villa at Wembley. Newcastle won the goals scored by Neil Harris and Stan Seymour; the match has become known as the "Rainy Day" final due to the weather that day, a consequence of which has led to there being few good condition programmes left for the game. The value of the programme is the highest for any Wembley final with recent sales attaining over £6,000 at auction; the referee was Swindon-born William E. Russell, the only referee from Swindon, Wiltshire, to officiate an FA Cup Final, he died aged 65 years in April - June 1946. Match report at FA Cup Final lineups

2018–19 Scottish Cup

The 2018–19 Scottish Cup was the 134th season of Scotland's most prestigious football knockout competition. The tournament was sponsored by bookmaker William Hill in what was the eighth season of a nine-year partnership, after contract negotiations saw the initial five-year contract extended for an additional four years in October 2015; the cup was won for the third consecutive occasion, a record 39th in total, by the defending champions, Celtic who had won the 2018 Scottish Cup Final on 19 May 2018. The calendar for the 2018–19 Scottish Cup, as announced by Scottish Football Association; the draw for the preliminary rounds took place on Monday, 16 July 2018 at Hampden Park and was made by Scottish National Team Head Coaches Alex McLeish and Shelley Kerr.19 clubs were involved in the draw, of which five received a bye to the second preliminary round, while the other 14 entered the first preliminary round. The teams competing in these rounds were made up of teams from the East of Scotland Football League, South of Scotland Football League, North Caledonian Football League, Scottish Junior Football Association and the Scottish Amateur Football Association.

Shortlees and Tynecastle took part in the Scottish Cup for the first time after winning the 2017–18 Scottish Amateur Cup and the 2017–18 South & East Cup-Winners Shield respectively. There were three parts to the draw; the first part determined which five clubs, from the 14 eligible, received a bye to the second preliminary round. The clubs which did not receive a bye into the second preliminary round entered the first preliminary round. Seven ties were drawn in the first preliminary round to be played on Saturday, 11 August 2018; the final part of the draw saw six ties drawn in the second preliminary round to be played on Saturday, 1 September 2018. Clubs with a valid Club Licence at the date of the draw were eligible for a bye to the second preliminary round. Teams in Bold advanced to the first round. Girvan, Linlithgow Rose, Lothian Thistle Hutchison Vale, Newton Stewart, Wigtown & Bladnoch received a bye to preliminary round two; the first round took place on the weekend of 22 September 2018.

Along with the six winners from the second preliminary round, there were 30 new entries at this stage - 16 from the Highland Football League and 14 from the Lowland Football League. The draw for the first round took place on Saturday, 1 September 2018 at Hampden Park and was made by former Scottish Cup winner Robbie Neilson and boxer Charlie Flynn. Selkirk withdrew from the competition before the draw was made so one team received a bye to the second round. Teams in Bold advanced to the second round. BSC Glasgow were drawn to receive a bye to the second round; the second round took place on the weekend of 20 October 2018. Along with the 17 winners and one bye from the first round, there were 14 new entries at this stage - two each from the Highland Football League and the Lowland Football League and all 10 from League Two; the draw for the second round took place at Hampden Park on 22 September 2018. The draw was made by Olympic bronze medallist Eve Muirhead and Kilmarnock's Scottish Cup winning captain Ray Montgomerie.

Teams in Italics were not known at the time of the draw. Teams in Bold advanced to the third round; the third round took place on the weekend of 24 November 2018. Along with the 16 winners from the second round, there were 16 new entries at this stage - all 10 from League One, six from the Championship; the draw for the third round took place at Hampden Park on 20 October 2018 at 5:45pm. Teams in Italics were not known at the time of the draw. Teams in Bold advanced to the fourth round; the fourth round took place on the weekend of 19 January 2019. Along with the 16 winners from the third round, there were 16 new entries at this stage - the remaining four clubs from the Championship, all 12 from the Premiership; the draw for the fourth round took place at Hampden Park on 24 November 2018 at 5:45pm. Teams in Italics were not known at the time of the draw. Teams in Bold advanced to the fifth round; the fifth round took place on the weekend of 9 February 2019. The draw for the fifth round took place at Tynecastle Stadium on 20 January 2019 following the Hearts v Livingston match live on BBC One Scotland.

Teams in Italics were not known at the time of the draw. Teams in Bold advanced to the quarter-finals; the quarter-finals took place on the weekend of 2 March 2019. The draw for the quarter-finals took place at Victoria Park on 11 February 2019 following the Ross County v Inverness Caledonian Thistle match live on BBC Two Scotland. Teams in Italics were not known at the time of the draw. Teams in Bold advanced to the semi-finals; the semi-finals took place on the weekend of 13 April 2019. The draw for the semi-finals took place at Firhill Stadium on 4 March 2019 during'The Nine' live on BBC Scotland. Teams in Italics were not known at the time of the draw. Teams in Bold advanced to the final; the final was played on 25 May 2019 at Hampden Park in Glasgow. The following is the bracket. Numbers in parentheses next to the match score represent the results of a replay, numbers in parentheses next to the replay score represents the results of a penalty shoot-out. From round four onwards, selected matches from the Scottish Cup are broadcast live in the UK and Ireland by BBC Scotland and Premier Sports.

BBC Scotland has the option to show two ties per round, with Premier Sports showing two ties per round. The following matches are to be broadcast live on UK television