Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world, it is ranked first in the world by the ARWU Shanghai Ranking. Each class in the three-year J. D. program has 560 students, among the largest of the top 150 ranked law schools in the United States. The first-year class is broken into seven sections of 80 students, who take most first-year classes together. Harvard's uniquely large class size and prestige have led the law school to graduate a great many distinguished alumni in the judiciary and the business world. According to Harvard Law's 2015 ABA-required disclosures, 95% of the Class of 2014 passed the Bar exam. Harvard Law School graduates have accounted for 568 judicial clerkships in the past three years, including one-quarter of all Supreme Court clerkships, more than any other law school in the United States.
Harvard Law School's founding is traditionally linked to the funding of Harvard's first professorship in law, paid for from a bequest from the estate of Isaac Royall, Jr. a colonial American landowner and a slaveholder. Today, it is home to the largest academic law library in the world; the current dean of Harvard Law School is John F. Manning, who assumed the role on July 1, 2017; the law school has 328 faculty members. Harvard Law School's founding is traced to the establishment of a "law department" at Harvard in 1817. Dating the founding to the year of the creation of the law department makes Harvard Law the oldest continuously-operating law school in the nation. William & Mary Law School opened first in 1779, but closed due to the American Civil War, reopening in 1920; the University of Maryland School of Law was chartered in 1816, but did not begin classes until 1824, closed during the Civil War. The founding of the law department came two years after the establishment of Harvard's first endowed professorship in law, funded by a bequest from the estate of wealthy slaveowner Isaac Royall, Jr. in 1817.
Royall left 1,000 acres of land in Massachusetts to Harvard when he died in exile in Nova Scotia, where he fled as a British loyalist during the American Revolution, in 1781, "to be appropriated towards the endowing a Professor of Laws... or a Professor of Physick and Anatomy, whichever the said overseers and Corporation shall judge to be best." The value of the land, when liquidated in 1809, was $2,938. The Royalls were so involved in the slave trade, that "the labor of slaves underwrote the teaching of law in Cambridge." The dean of the law school traditionally held the Royall chair, deans Elena Kagan and Martha Minow declined the Royall chair due to its origins in the proceeds of slavery. Royall’s legacy at Harvard is lasting, Harvard Law School adopted the Royall family crest as apart of its school crest; that crest features with three bushels of wheat. Until the connection of the seal to the slave owning Royalls was unknown to many. According to The Harvard Crimson "Most Law School alumni and faculty were unaware of the story behind the seal."
In response to its ties to slavery, Harvard Law School decided to stop using the Royalls seal. It has yet to design a replacement seal. Royall's Medford estate, the Isaac Royall House, is now a museum which features the only remaining slave quarters in the northeast United States; the Royall family coat-of-arms, which shows three stacked wheat sheaves, was adopted as the school crest in 1936, topped with the university motto. In March 2016, following requests by students, the school decided to remove the emblem because of its association with slavery. By 1827, the school, with one faculty member, was struggling. Nathan Dane, a prominent alumnus of the college endowed the Dane Professorship of Law, insisting that it be given to Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story. For a while, the school was called "Dane Law School." In 1829, John H. Ashmun, son of Eli Porter Ashmun and brother of George Ashmun, accepted a professorship and closed his Northampton Law School, with many of his students following him to Harvard.
Story's belief in the need for an elite law school based on merit and dedicated to public service helped build the school's reputation at the time, although the contours of these beliefs have not been consistent throughout its history. Enrollment remained low through the 19th century as university legal education was considered to be of little added benefit to apprenticeships in legal practice. After first trying lowered admissions standards, in 1848 HLS eliminated admissions requirements entirely. In 1869, HLS eliminated examination requirements. In the 1870s, under Dean Christopher Columbus Langdell, HLS introduced what has become the standard first-year curriculum for American law schools – including classes in contracts, torts, criminal law, civil procedure. At Harvard, Langdell developed the case method of teaching law, now the dominant pedagogical model at U. S. law schools. Langdell's notion that law could be studied as a "science" gave university legal education a reason for being distinct from vocational preparation.
Critics at first defended the old lecture method because it was faster and cheaper and made fewer demands on faculty and students. Advocates said the case method had a sounder theoretical basis in scientific research and the inductive method. Langdell's graduates became leading professors at other law schools where they introduced the case method; the metho
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Paul Engle, was an American poet, teacher, literary critic and playwright. He is remembered as the long-time director of the Iowa Writers' Workshop and as co-founder of the International Writing Program, both at the University of Iowa. Engle has been mistakenly credited with having founded the Iowa Writers' Workshop. Nonetheless no one better helped to establish the reputation of the venerable writing program than Engle. During his tenure as director, he was responsible for luring some of the finest writers of the day to Iowa City. Robert Lowell, John Berryman, Robie Macauley, Kurt Vonnegut and many other prominent novelists and poets served as faculty under Engle, he increased enrollment and oversaw numerous students of future fame and influence, including Flannery O'Connor, Philip Levine, Mark Costello, Marvin Bell, Joe Nicholson, Sunil Gangopadhyay, Donald Justice, Raymond Carver, Douglas Kent Hall, Andre Dubus, Robert Bly. During his tenure, Engle raised millions of dollars in support of the program whose shape and direction proved the model for the hundreds of writing programs that have followed.
Vonnegut described Engle in a 1967 letter in this fashion: "The former head, Paul Engle, is still around, is a hayseed clown, a foxy grandpa, a terrific promoter, who, if you listen talks like a man with a paper asshole."In 1967, following his departure as director of the workshop and future second wife Nieh Hualing co-founded The University of Iowa's International Writing Program, which provided for dozens of published authors from around the world to visit Iowa City each year to write and collaborate. Engle left the Writer's Workshop permanently in 1969 to devote himself full-time to the international program, he admitted many who would have been executed if they had remained home. Many Cambodians and Vietnamese writers owe him their lives. Born Paul Hamilton Engle in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, to Thomas Allen, a livery stable owner, Evelyn Engle, Engle grew up in the Wellington Heights section of Cedar Rapids, he graduated from Washington High School, attended Coe College, The University of Iowa, Columbia University, Oxford University.
As a student at Iowa, Engle was one of the earliest recipients of an advanced degree awarded for creative work: his first collection Worn Earth, which went on to win the Yale Series of Younger Poets. His second book, American Song, was given a rave front-page review in the New York Times Book Review and was briefly, a bestseller. From 1954 to 1959, Engle served as series editor for the O. Henry Prize. At the time of his death, Engle was the author of more than a dozen collections of poetry, a novel, a memoir, an opera libretto, a children's book. Engle wrote numerous reviews for many of the largest periodicals of his day, his papers are held at the University of Coe College. Worn Earth, Yale University Press, 1932. American Song, Doubleday, 1934, reprinted, AMS Press, 1979. Break the Heart's Anger, Doubleday, 1936. Corn, Doubleday, 1939. New Englanders, Prairie Press, 1940. West of Midnight, Random House, 1941. American Child: A Sonnet Sequence, Random House, 1945 revised and enlarged edition published as American Child: Sonnets for My Daughter, Dial, 1956.
The Word of Love, Random House, 1951. Book and Child: Three Sonnets, Cummington Press, 1956. Poems in Praise, Random House, 1959. Christmas Poems printed, 1962. A Woman Unashamed and Other Poems, Random House, 1965. Embrace: Selected Love Poems', Random House, 1969. Images of China: Poems Written in China, April–June, 1980, preface by Hualing Nieh, New World Press, 1981. Always the Land, Random House, 1941. A Prairie Christmas, Green, 1960. Golden Child, Dutton, 1962. Who's Afraid?, Crowell-Collier, 1962. An Old-Fashioned Christmas, Dial, 1964. Women in the American Revolution, Follett, 1976. A Lucky American Childhood. Foreword Albert E. Stone. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press. 1996. ISBN 978-1-58729-636-9. 1954–59 Prize Stories: The O. Henry Awards, six volumes, Doubleday. Reading Modern Poetry, Scott Foresman, 1955, revised edition, 1968. Homage to Baudelaire, on the Centennial of "Les Fleurs du Mal," Cummington Press, 1957. Midland: Twenty-Five Years of Fiction and Poetry from the Writing Workshops of the State University of Iowa, Random House, 1961.
Poet's Choice, Dial Press, 1962. On Creative Writing, Dutton, 1964. Midland II, Random House, 1970. Poems of Mao Tse-Tung, Dell, 1972; the World Comes to Iowa: Iowa International Anthology, Iowa State University, 1987. NB: for further reference, Richard B. Weber has compiled a comprehensive bibliography entitled Paul Engle: A Checklist of books Paul Engle authored, as well as of publications he edited or to which he contributed. Remembering Paul Engle in Iowa City by Robert Bly Famous Iowans: Paul Engle The Papers of Paul Engle at The University of Iowa A Community of Writers: Paul Engle and the Iowa Writers' Workshop By Robert Dana, ed. Paul Engle Papers: George T. Henry College Archives, Coe College Cedar Rapids Iowa Extracts from the works of Paul and Nieh Hualing Engle
University of Virginia
The University of Virginia is a public research university in Charlottesville, Virginia. It was founded in 1819 by Declaration of former President Thomas Jefferson. UVA is a World Heritage site of the United States, it is known for its historic foundations, student-run honor code, secret societies. The original governing Board of Visitors included Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe. Monroe was the sitting President of the United States at the time of its foundation and earlier Presidents Jefferson and Madison were UVA's first two rectors. Jefferson designed the original courses of study and Academical Village; as the first elected member to the research-driven Association of American Universities in the American South, since 1904, it remains the only AAU member in Virginia. The university is classified as a Research University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Foundation, its recent research efforts have been recognized by such scientific media as the journal Science, which credited UVA faculty with two of the top ten global breakthroughs of 2015.
UVA faculty and alumni have founded a large number of companies, such as Reddit. UVA offers 121 majors across three professional schools; the historic 1,682-acre campus is internationally protected by UNESCO and has been ranked as one of the most beautiful collegiate grounds in the country. UVA additionally maintains 2,913 acres southeast of the city, at Morven Farm; the university manages the College at Wise in Southwest Virginia, until 1972 operated George Mason University and the University of Mary Washington in Northern Virginia. Virginia student athletes compete in 27 collegiate sports and the Cavaliers lead the Atlantic Coast Conference in men's team NCAA championships with 18, additionally placing second in women's national titles with seven. UVA was awarded the men's Capital One Cup in 2015 after fielding the top overall men's athletics program in the nation. In 1802, while serving as President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson wrote to artist Charles Willson Peale that his concept of the new university would be "on the most extensive and liberal scale that our circumstances would call for and our faculties meet," and that it might attract talented students from "other states to come, drink of the cup of knowledge".
Virginia was home to the College of William and Mary, but Jefferson lost all confidence in his alma mater because of its religious nature – it required all its students to recite a catechism – and its stifling of the sciences. Jefferson had flourished under William and Mary professors William Small and George Wythe decades earlier, but the college was in a period of great decline and his concern became so dire by 1800 that he expressed to British chemist Joseph Priestley, "we have in that State, a college just well enough endowed to draw out the miserable existence to which a miserable constitution has doomed it." These words would ring true some seventy years when William and Mary fell bankrupt after the Civil War and the Williamsburg college was shuttered in 1881 being revived in a limited capacity as a small college for teachers until well into the twentieth century. In 1817, three Presidents and Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court John Marshall joined 24 other dignitaries at a meeting held in the Mountain Top Tavern at Rockfish Gap.
After some deliberation, they selected nearby Charlottesville as the site of the new University of Virginia. Farmland just outside Charlottesville was purchased from James Monroe by the Board of Visitors as Central College; the school laid its first building's cornerstone late in that same year, the Commonwealth of Virginia chartered the new university on January 25, 1819. John Hartwell Cocke collaborated with James Madison and Joseph Carrington Cabell to fulfill Jefferson's dream to establish the university. Cocke and Jefferson were appointed to the building committee to supervise the construction. Like many of its peers, the university owned slaves, they served students and professors. The university's first classes met on March 7, 1825. In contrast to other universities of the day, at which one could study in either medicine, law, or divinity, the first students at the University of Virginia could study in one or several of eight independent schools – medicine, mathematics, ancient languages, modern languages, natural philosophy, moral philosophy.
Another innovation of the new university was that higher education would be separated from religious doctrine. UVA had no divinity school, was established independently of any religious sect, the Grounds were planned and centered upon a library, the Rotunda, rather than a church, distinguishing it from peer universities still functioning as seminaries for one particular strain of Protestantism or another. Jefferson opined to philosopher Thomas Cooper that "a professorship of theology should have no place in our institution", never has there been one. There were two degrees awarded by the university: Graduate, to a student who had completed the courses of one school. Jefferson was intimately involved in the university to the end, hosting Sunday dinners at his Monticello home for faculty and students until his death. So taken with the import of what he viewed the university's foundations and potential to be, counting it amongst his greatest accomplishments, Jefferson insisted his grave mention only his status as author of the Declaration of Independence and Virginia Statute for Religious Fre
Morris Brown College
Morris Brown College is a private, liberal arts college in the Vine City community of Atlanta, United States. It is a black college affiliated with the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Although Morris Brown College is no longer a member of the Atlanta University Center Consortium, it is located within the Atlanta University Center. In 2002 it lost its accreditation and federal funding due to a financial mismanagement scandal during the 1998–2002 tenure of Dolores Cross as school president; the United Negro College Fund terminated its support for the college. Ten years the college filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in an attempt to prevent foreclosure and sale of the school at auction. Morris Brown offers baccalaureate degrees in Management and Technology and Organizational Management and Leadership. Morris Brown is unaccredited; until 2003, Morris Brown was accredited by a regional accreditor, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Morris Brown was more than $23 million in debt and was on probation in 2001 with SACS for shoddy bookkeeping and a shortage of professors with advanced degrees.
In December 2002, SACS revoked Morris Brown's accreditation. Eight years the college settled its nearly $10 million debt with the Department of Education. An April 2017 Atlanta Magazine article indicated that the college intends to reapply to SACS for reaccreditation; the Morris Brown Colored College was founded in 1881 by African Americans affiliated with the African Methodist Episcopal Church and named to honor the denomination's second bishop, Morris Brown. The AME Church sent missionaries to the South following the American Civil War, they founded numerous new AME churches in Georgia and other states, as hundreds of thousands of freedmen joining new congregations. On January 5, 1881, the North Georgia Annual Conference of the AME Church passed a resolution to establish an educational institution in Atlanta for the moral and intellectual growth of Negro boys and girls; the school formally opened its doors on October 1885, with 107 students and nine teachers. Morris Brown was the first educational institution in Georgia to be owned and operated independently by African Americans.
For more than a century, the college enrolled many students from poor backgrounds, large numbers of whom returned to their hometowns as teachers, as education was a mission of high priority. Fountain Hall known as Stone Hall when occupied by Atlanta University, was completed in 1882, it is associated with the history of the college and has been designated a National Historic Landmark. After Atlanta University consolidated its facilities, it leased the building to Morris Brown College, which renamed it Fountain Hall. Eighty percent of the school's 2,500 students received financial aid from the federal government, totaling $8 million annually in the early 2000s. Under the Federal Government's grant-in-aid, college student financial aid program, accredited universities' request of the Department of Education reimbursing grants in aid; the university has further certified to its accreditation body that it is conducting an academic semester as approved for it, by its accreditor, as to overall semester/quarter length, actual number of in-classroom clock-hours per semester hour to be awarded, in each classroom course offered.
A federal criminal case was filed against the former president, Dolores Cross, the financial aid director, Parvesh Singh, alleging that they had, on behalf of the university, submitted to the Department of Education false declarations of enrollment of students for semesters when, in the specified semesters, the students identified in the declarations had not, in fact, been enrolled. Since the grant-in-aid program's structure required the federal funds received to be applied to each individual enrolled student's account, the two school officers committed their second offense of embezzlement when they unlawfully applied these funds directly to ineligible college costs, such as for paying of personal staff, instead of applying the funds to offset individual students' enrollment expenses. In 2002, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools revoked the college's accreditation because of its financial problems. Cross and Singh were charged in December 2004 in a 34-count indictment that accused them of defrauding the school, the U.
S. Department of Education, hundreds of students; the pair, who had first worked together at a college in Chicago, were convicted of using the names of hundreds of students, ex-students, people who were never enrolled to obtain financial aid for the school. During the time Cross held the college presidency, from November 1998 through February 2002, Singh obtained about 1,800 payments from federally insured loans and Pell grants for these students, who had no idea they would be responsible for paying off the loans, the indictment said. Singh pleaded guilty to one count of embezzlement. Singh, 64 received five years of probation but 18 months of home confinement. At the time of the 2004 indictment, Cross was teaching at DePaul University in Chicago. On May 1, 2006, Cross pleaded guilty to fraud by embezzlement, she agreed to pay $11,000 to the Department
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Ta-Nehisi Paul Coates is an American author and comic book writer. Coates gained a wide readership during his time as national correspondent at The Atlantic, where he wrote about cultural and political issues regarding African Americans and white supremacy. Coates has worked for The Village Voice, Washington City Paper, Time, he has contributed to The New York Times Magazine, The Washington Post, The Washington Monthly, O, other publications. In 2008 he published a memoir, The Beautiful Struggle: A Father, Two Sons, an Unlikely Road to Manhood, his second book, Between the World and Me, was released in July 2015. It won the 2015 National Book Award for Nonfiction, was a nominee for the Phi Beta Kappa 2016 Book Awards, he was the recipient of a "Genius Grant" from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation in 2015, he is the writer of a Black Panther series for Marvel Comics drawn by Brian Stelfreeze. Coates was born in Maryland, his father, William Paul "Paul" Coates, was a Vietnam War veteran, former Black Panther and librarian.
His mother, Cheryl Lynn, was a teacher. Coates' father founded and ran Black Classic Press, a publisher specializing in African-American titles; the Press grew out of the George Jackson Prison Movement. The GJPM operated a Black book store called the Black Book. Black Classic Press was established with a table-top printing press in the basement of the Coates family home. Coates' father had five boys and two girls, by four women. Coates' father's first wife had three children, Coates' mother had two boys, the other two women each had a child; the children were raised together in a close-knit family. Coates said. In Coates' family, he said that the important overarching focus was on rearing children with values based on family, respect for elders and being a contribution to your community; this approach to family was common in the community. Coates grew up in the Mondawmin neighborhood of Baltimore during the crack epidemic. Coates' interest in books was instilled at an early age when his mother, in response to bad behavior, would require him to write essays.
His father's work with the Black Classic Press was a huge influence: Coates has said he read many of the books his father published. Coates attended a number of Baltimore-area schools, including William H. Lemmel Middle School and Baltimore Polytechnic Institute, before graduating from Woodlawn High School. After high school, Coates attended Howard University, he left after five years to start a career in journalism. He is the only child in his family without a college degree. In mid-2014, Coates attended an intensive program in French at Middlebury College to prepare for a writing fellowship in Paris, France. Coates' first journalism job was as a reporter at The Washington City Paper. From 2000 to 2007, Coates worked as a journalist at various publications, including Philadelphia Weekly, The Village Voice and Time, his first article for The Atlantic, "This Is How We Lost to the White Man", about Bill Cosby and conservatism, started a new, more successful and stable phase of his career. The article led to an appointment with a regular column for The Atlantic, a blog, popular and had a high level of community engagement.
Coates became a senior editor at The Atlantic, for which he wrote feature articles as well as maintaining his blog. Topics covered by the blog included politics, race, culture as well as sports, music, his writings on race, such as his September 2012 The Atlantic cover piece "Fear of a Black President" and his June 2014 feature "The Case for Reparations", have been praised, have won his blog a place on the Best Blogs of 2011 list by Time magazine and the 2012 Hillman Prize for Opinion & Analysis Journalism from The Sidney Hillman Foundation. Coates' blog has been praised for its engaging comments section, which Coates curates and moderates so that "the jerks are invited to leave the grown-ups to stay and chime in."In discussing The Atlantic article on "The Case for Reparations", Coates said he had worked on it for two years. He had read Rutgers University professor Beryl Satter's book, Family Properties: Race, Real Estate, the Exploitation of Black Urban America, a history of redlining that included a discussion of the grassroots organization, the Contract Buyers League, of which Clyde Ross was one of the leaders.
The focus of the article was not so much on reparations for slavery, but was instead a focus on the institutional racism of housing discrimination. In December 2017, the philosopher and activist Cornel West published an editorial in The Guardian with the title: "Ta-Nehisi Coates is the neoliberal face of the black freedom struggle"; the premise of the article was that Coates "fetishizes white supremacy" and represents a "narrow racial tribalism and myopic political neo-liberalism" by wrongly casting former President Barack Obama as a successor to figures as Malcolm X as an African-American hero. West believes that Obama should never be compared to civil rights activists, such as Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr. who in their fight against white supremacy spoke out against systemic biases in predatory capitalism and war. The same day, West shared the article on Twitter, attracting tweets in response from many others, including hundreds of supporters of Coates; the next day, West's tweet was retweeted by the alt-right