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James Brown

James Joseph Brown was an American singer, dancer, record producer and bandleader. A progenitor of funk music and a major figure of 20th century music and dance, he is referred to as the "Godfather of Soul" and "Soul Brother No. 1". In a career that lasted over 50 years, he influenced the development of several music genres. Brown began his career as a gospel singer in Georgia, he joined a rhythm and blues vocal group, the Gospel Starlighters founded by Bobby Byrd, in which he was the lead singer. First coming to national public attention in the late 1950s as a member of the singing group The Famous Flames with the hit ballads "Please, Please" and "Try Me", Brown built a reputation as a tireless live performer with the Famous Flames and his backing band, sometimes known as the James Brown Band or the James Brown Orchestra, his success peaked in the 1960s with the live album Live at the Apollo and hit singles such as "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag", "I Got You" and "It's a Man's Man's Man's World".

During the late 1960s, Brown moved from a continuum of blues and gospel-based forms and styles to a profoundly "Africanized" approach to music-making that influenced the development of funk music. By the early 1970s, Brown had established the funk sound after the formation of the J. B.s with records such as "Get Up Sex Machine" and "The Payback". He became noted for songs of social commentary, including the 1968 hit "Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud". Brown continued to perform and record until his death from pneumonia in 2006. Brown recorded 17 singles, he holds the record for the most singles listed on the Billboard Hot 100 chart which did not reach No. 1. Brown was inducted into 1st class of the Rhythm & Blues Music Hall of Fame in 2013 as an artist and in 2017 as a songwriter, he received honors from many other institutions, including inductions into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Songwriters Hall of Fame. In Joel Whitburn's analysis of the Billboard R&B charts from 1942 to 2010, Brown is ranked No. 1 in The Top 500 Artists.

He is ranked No. 7 on Rolling Stone's list of its 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Rolling Stone has cited Brown as the most sampled artist of all time. Brown was born on May 3, 1933, in Barnwell, South Carolina, to 16-year-old Susie, 22-year-old Joseph Gardner Brown, in a small wooden shack. Brown's name was supposed to have been Joseph James Brown Jr. but his first and middle names were mistakenly reversed on his birth certificate. He legally changed his name to remove "Jr." In his autobiography, Brown stated that he had Chinese and Native American ancestry, that his father was of mixed African-American and Native American descent, whilst his mother was of mixed African-American and Asian descent. The Brown family lived in extreme poverty in Elko, South Carolina, an impoverished town at the time, they moved to Augusta, when James was four or five. His family first settled at one of his aunts' brothels, they moved into a house shared with another aunt. Brown's mother left the family after a contentious and abusive marriage and moved to New York.

Brown spent long stretches of time on his own, hustling to get by. He managed to stay in school until the sixth grade, he began singing in talent shows as a young child, first appearing at Augusta's Lenox Theater in 1944, winning the show after singing the ballad "So Long". While in Augusta, Brown performed buck dances for change to entertain troops from Camp Gordon at the start of World War II as their convoys traveled over a canal bridge near his aunt's home, he learned to play the piano and harmonica during this period. He became inspired to become an entertainer after hearing "Caldonia" by Louis Jordan and his Tympany Five. In his teen years, Brown had a career as a boxer. At the age of 16, he was sent to a juvenile detention center in Toccoa. There, he formed a gospel quartet including Johnny Terry. Brown met singer Bobby Byrd when the two played against each other in a baseball game outside the detention center. Byrd discovered that Brown could sing, after hearing of "a guy called Music Box", Brown's musical nickname at the prison.

Byrd has since claimed he and his family helped to secure an early release, which led to Brown promising the court he would "sing for the Lord". Brown was paroled on June 14, 1952. Shortly thereafter, he joined the gospel group the Ever-Ready Gospel Singers, featuring Byrd's sister Sarah. Brown joined Byrd's group in 1954; the group had evolved from the Gospel Starlighters, an a cappella gospel group, to an R&B group with the name the Avons. He reputedly joined the band after one of Troy Collins, died in a car crash. Along with Brown and Byrd, the group consisted of Sylvester Keels, Doyle Oglesby, Fred Pulliam, Nash Knox and Nafloyd Scott. Influenced by R&B groups such as Hank Ballard and the Midnighters, the Orioles and Billy Ward and His Dominoes, the group changed its name, first to the Toccoa Band and to the Flames. Nafloyd's brother Baroy joined the group on bass guitar, Brown and Keels switched lead positions and instruments playing drums and piano. Johnny Terry joined, by which time Pulliam and Oglesby had long left.

Berry Trimier became the group's first manager, booking them at parties near college campuses in Georgia and South Carolina. The group had gained a reputation as a good live act when they renamed themselves the Famous Flames. In 1955, the group had contacted Lit

Income tax

An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities that varies with respective income or profits. Income tax is computed as the product of a tax rate times taxable income. Taxation rates may vary by type or characteristics of the taxpayer; the tax rate may increase as taxable income increases. The tax imposed on companies is known as corporate tax and is levied at a flat rate. However, individuals are taxed at various rates according to the band. Further, the partnership firms are taxed at flat rate. Most jurisdictions exempt locally organized charitable organizations from tax. Capital gains may be taxed at different rates than other income. Credits of various sorts may be allowed that reduce tax; some jurisdictions impose the higher of an income tax or a tax on an alternative base or measure of income. Taxable income of taxpayers resident in the jurisdiction is total income less income producing expenses and other deductions. Only net gain from sale of property, including goods held for sale, is included in income.

Income of a corporation's shareholders includes distributions of profits from the corporation. Deductions include all income producing or business expenses including an allowance for recovery of costs of business assets. Many jurisdictions allow notional deductions for individuals, may allow deduction of some personal expenses. Most jurisdictions either do not tax income earned outside the jurisdiction or allow a credit for taxes paid to other jurisdictions on such income. Nonresidents are taxed only on certain types of income from sources within the jurisdictions, with few exceptions. Most jurisdictions require self-assessment of the tax and require payers of some types of income to withhold tax from those payments. Advance payments of tax by taxpayers may be required. Taxpayers not timely paying tax owed are subject to significant penalties, which may include jail for individuals or revocation of an entity's legal existence; the concept of taxing income is a modern innovation and presupposes several things: a money economy, reasonably accurate accounts, a common understanding of receipts and profits, an orderly society with reliable records.

For most of the history of civilization, these preconditions did not exist, taxes were based on other factors. Taxes on wealth, social position, ownership of the means of production were all common. Practices such as tithing, or an offering of first fruits, existed from ancient times, can be regarded as a precursor of the income tax, but they lacked precision and were not based on a concept of net increase; the first income tax is attributed to Egypt. In the early days of the Roman Republic, public taxes consisted of modest assessments on owned wealth and property; the tax rate under normal circumstances was 1% and sometimes would climb as high as 3% in situations such as war. These modest taxes were levied against land and other real estate, animals, personal items and monetary wealth; the more a person had in property, the more tax they paid. Taxes were collected from individuals. In the year 10 AD, Emperor Wang Mang of the Xin Dynasty instituted an unprecedented income tax, at the rate of 10 percent of profits, for professionals and skilled labor.

He was overthrown 13 years in 23 AD and earlier policies were restored during the reestablished Han Dynasty which followed. One of the first recorded taxes on income was the Saladin tithe introduced by Henry II in 1188 to raise money for the Third Crusade; the tithe demanded that each layperson in England and Wales be taxed one tenth of their personal income and moveable property. The inception date of the modern income tax is accepted as 1799, at the suggestion of Henry Beeke, the future Dean of Bristol; this income tax was introduced into Great Britain by Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger in his budget of December 1798, to pay for weapons and equipment for the French Revolutionary War. Pitt's new graduated income tax began at a levy of 2 old pence in the pound on incomes over £60, increased up to a maximum of 2 shillings in the pound on incomes of over £200. Pitt hoped that the new income tax would raise £10 million a year, but actual receipts for 1799 totalled only a little over £6 million.

Pitt's income tax was levied from 1799 to 1802, when it was abolished by Henry Addington during the Peace of Amiens. Addington had taken over as prime minister in 1801, after Pitt's resignation over Catholic Emancipation; the income tax was reintroduced by Addington in 1803 when hostilities with France recommenced, but it was again abolished in 1816, one year after the Battle of Waterloo. Opponents of the tax, who thought it should only be used to finance wars, wanted all records of the tax destroyed along with its repeal. Records were publicly burned by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, but copies were retained in the basement of the tax court. In the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, income tax was reintroduced by Sir Robert Peel by the Income Tax Act 1842. Peel, as a Conservative, had opposed income tax in the 1841 general election, but a growing budget deficit required a new source of funds; the new income tax, based on Addington's model, was imposed on incomes above £150. Although this measure was intended to be temporary, it soon became a fixture of the British taxation system.

A committee was formed in 1851 under Joseph Hume to investigate the matter, but failed to reach a clear recommendation. Despite the vociferous objection, William Gladstone, Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1852, kept the prog

Carl Critchlow

Carl Critchlow is a British fantasy and science fiction comic illustrator. He is best known for his character Thrud the Barbarian, which appeared in White Dwarf magazine, for his work for the Lobster Random comics. Critchlow's comic book career began in the early 1980s, when he contributed to fanzines and informal publications, his professional career began in 1983 when his work was published in Issue 45 of Games Workshop's White Dwarf magazine, where Critchlow first portrayed his fantasy barbarian character, Thrud the Barbarian, in a regular, page-long and white, ink-drawn strip of the same name. Thrud was published for over fours years until issue 106. Thrud the Barbarian reflected current Games Workshop product lines and borrowed themes from games like Judge Dredd, Blood Bowl and Warhammer 40,000 and Thrud's native fantasy theme. To celebrate the character's status as a popular feature of the publication, Citadel produced a number of metal miniatures of Thrud. Shannon Appelcline referred to Bil's "Gobbledigook" and "Thrud the Barbarian" as the two comics "for which White Dwarf is best known".

Critchlow provided numerous black and white interior illustrations for Games Workshop's Dark Future game, was featured in an Illuminations exposè in White Dwarf issue 103. In 1984, Critchlow had his debut in mainstream comic books when he contributed The Black Currant strip for Warrior issue 26. In the 1990s, after the Thrud strip had concluded in White Dwarf, Critchlow began working with 2000AD, he contributed artwork for Pat Mills' Nemesis & Deadlock strip. Critchlow contributed art for numerous strips in 2000AD, including Tharg's Future Shocks, Judge Dredd, Mean Machine: Son of Mean Machine, Tales of Telguuth and full colour work for the 1995 crossover Judge Dredd/Batman:The Ultimate Riddle. Critchlow further contributed to the gaming world in 2000, his work appeared in Dungeons & Dragons third edition books Monster Manual, Monsters of Faerûn, Magic of Faerûn, Lords of Darkness, Tome of Magic and Fiendish Codex I: Hordes of the Abyss, he has provided illustrations for the Wheel of Time Roleplaying Game and the Star Wars supplements Secrets of Tatooine, Ultimate Alien Anthology and Star Wars Hero's Guide and two hundred illustrations for the Magic: The Gathering card game.

He contributed to JLA: Riddle of the Beast, a DC Comics graphic novel by Alan Grant. In 2000, Critchlow withdrew from mainstream comics; the series proved popular with the comic reading public and won the Diamond 2004 Award for Best Small Press title. During this time he worked as a lecturer and numerous new comics artists, such as Barry Renshaw, credited him for helping and inspiring them. In October 2002, four months after the first issue of Thrud was published, Critchlow started drawing for 2000AD again, his first work was the Judge Dredd story Out of the Undercity written by John Wagner, followed by the introduction of new comic Lobster Random in 2003 with No Gain, No Pain, written by Simon Spurrier. This was followed by Tooth & Claw in 2004 and The Agony & the Ecstasy in 2006, his current work includes ongoing artwork for Lobster Random and artwork for Judge Dredd scripts by Gordon Rennie. Critchlow's early work, including the entire Thrud the Barbarian series in White Dwarf, consisted of black and white ink drawings.

The Thrud character originated at art college, where Critchlow was studying under comic artist Bryan Talbot. Critchlow was presented with a comic strip project for the course, began to develop Thrud. Critchlow was inspired by Robert E. Howard's Conan stories. In an exposè published in White Dwarf towards the end of Thrud's tenure, art editor John Blanche wrote that Critchlow's "unique, chunky comic book technique provides the perfect vehicle for the biffoesque barbarian."In the 1990s Critchlow began to use colour. At the time, while considered impressive his painting work was considered forced and muddy. Critic Joseph Szadkowski wrote that Critchlow's 1996 work "Sherlock Joker Strikes Out" shows his "commitment to presenting the Joker in an expressionist style Kirchner in a good mood." Critchlow continued to develop his colour work and new stylistic direction as he abandoned paint and began to combine traditional line drawings with computer colouring. However, having been pigeon-holed as a painter he did not believe he could interest anyone in this radically different approach.

This new combination of techniques was used in 2000AD for the Judge Dredd story Out of the Undercity and was well received and seen as a marked improvement over his previous painted style, with clearer figures and atmospheric computer colouring. As the Undercity story developed, Critchlow was criticised for using too narrow a palette, with too many greys and blues, although this may have been a result of the story's underground setting. By the end of the series, views on Critchlow's artwork were mixed, although some readers wanted to see him working on a story set above ground and in daylight. Criticism of Critchlow's subdued colouring style continued with his work on the Lobster Random debut in 2003, but as appreciation for the story grew, the two-toned colouring and scratchy line style were viewed by some as well-suited to the character. In one instalment, in which the protagonist is drugged, Critchlow introduced more colour into the strip, used sumptuous Day-Glo colours and experimented with unconventional panel layouts, moves that were well received.

By the conclusion, Critchlow's style was recognised as unique, and