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James Chadwick

Sir James Chadwick, was a British physicist, awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932. In 1941, he wrote the final draft of the MAUD Report, which inspired the U. S. government to begin serious atomic bomb research efforts. He was the head of the British team that worked on the Manhattan Project during the Second World War, he was knighted in Britain in 1945 for his achievements in physics. Chadwick graduated from the Victoria University of Manchester in 1911, where he studied under Ernest Rutherford. At Manchester, he continued to study under Rutherford until he was awarded his MSc in 1913; the same year, Chadwick was awarded an 1851 Research Fellowship from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851. He elected to study beta radiation under Hans Geiger in Berlin. Using Geiger's developed Geiger counter, Chadwick was able to demonstrate that beta radiation produced a continuous spectrum, not discrete lines as had been thought. Still in Germany when the First World War broke out in Europe, he spent the next four years in the Ruhleben internment camp.

After the war, Chadwick followed Rutherford to the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge, where Chadwick earned his Doctor of Philosophy degree under Rutherford's supervision from Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, in June 1921. He was Rutherford's assistant director of research at the Cavendish Laboratory for over a decade at a time when it was one of the world's foremost centres for the study of physics, attracting students like John Cockcroft, Norman Feather, Mark Oliphant. Chadwick followed his discovery of the neutron by measuring its mass, he anticipated. Chadwick left the Cavendish Laboratory in 1935 to become a professor of physics at the University of Liverpool, where he overhauled an antiquated laboratory and, by installing a cyclotron, made it an important centre for the study of nuclear physics. During the Second World War, Chadwick carried out research as part of the Tube Alloys project to build an atomic bomb, while his Manchester lab and environs were harassed by Luftwaffe bombing.

When the Quebec Agreement merged his project with the American Manhattan Project, he became part of the British Mission, worked at the Los Alamos Laboratory and in Washington, D. C, he surprised everyone by earning the almost-complete trust of Jr.. For his efforts, Chadwick received a knighthood in the New Year Honours on 1 January 1945. In July 1945, he viewed the Trinity nuclear test. After this, he served as the British scientific advisor to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission. Uncomfortable with the trend toward Big Science, Chadwick became the Master of Gonville and Caius College in 1948, he retired in 1959. James Chadwick was born in Bollington, Cheshire, on 20 October 1891, the first child of John Joseph Chadwick, a cotton spinner, Anne Mary Knowles, a domestic servant, he was named James after his paternal grandfather. In 1895, his parents moved to Manchester, he went to Bollington Cross Primary School, was offered a scholarship to Manchester Grammar School, which his family had to turn down as they could not afford the small fees that still had to be paid.

Instead he attended the Central Grammar School for Boys in Manchester. He now had two younger brothers and Hubert. At the age of 16, he sat two examinations for university scholarships, won both of them. Chadwick chose to attend Victoria University of Manchester, which he entered in 1908, he enrolled in physics by mistake. Like most students, he lived at home, walking the 4 miles to the back each day. At the end of his first year, he was awarded a Heginbottom Scholarship to study physics; the physics department was headed by Ernest Rutherford, who assigned research projects to final-year students, he instructed Chadwick to devise a means of comparing the amount of radioactive energy of two different sources. The idea was that they could be measured in terms of the activity of 1 gram of radium, a unit of measurement which would become known as the curie. Rutherford's suggested approach was unworkable—something Chadwick knew but was afraid to tell Rutherford—so Chadwick pressed on, devised the required method.

The results became Chadwick's first paper, which, co-authored with Rutherford, was published in 1912. He graduated with first class honours in 1911. Having devised a means of measuring gamma radiation, Chadwick proceeded to measure the absorption of gamma rays by various gases and liquids; this time the resulting paper was published under his name alone. He was awarded his Master of Science degree in 1912, was appointed a Beyer Fellow; the following year he was awarded an 1851 Exhibition Scholarship, which allowed him to study and research at a university in continental Europe. He elected to go to the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt in Berlin in 1913, to study beta radiation under Hans Geiger. Using Geiger's developed Geiger counter, which provided more accuracy than the earlier photographic techniques, he was able to demonstrate that beta radiation did not produce discrete lines, as has been thought, but rather a continuous spectrum with peaks in certain regions. On a visit to Geiger's laboratory, Albert Einstein told Chadwick that: "I can explain either of these things, but I can't explain them both at the same time."

The continuous spectrum would remain an unexplained phenomenon for many years. Chadwick was still in Germany at the start of the First World War, an

Vacation Time (1950)

"Vacation Time" is a 33-page Disney comics story written and lettered by Carl Barks. The story was first published in Four Color Comics as Vacation Parade #1; the story stars Donald Duck and his nephews Huey and Louie. The story has been reprinted many times. Tourist Donald's dream of a carefree woodland idyll is beset by dangers. Despite his nephews' characteristic needling, an elusive buck deer, an unskilled bully fishing near their camp, Donald doggedly perseveres in wringing enjoyment from the outdoors, but once the bully's carelessness causes a forest fire that traps the Duck family alone, Donald's woodcraft and quick thinking are needed to ensure their survival. Critic Geoffrey Blum hails Barks' artwork in "Vacation Time" as "justly famous" from its opening page. Eight panels per page for visuals are standard practice in comics layout, but Barks varies the panel's sizes and increases their number of angles to permit changes in flow and scope in his storytelling; this technique allows Barks to make larger compositions without the need for half-page splashes.

A handful of seven-panel pages serve admirably for detailed and evocative depictions of scenery and action. Echoing a marked theme among commentators on Barks' work, John Steel Gordon reflects that'although Walt Disney invented Donald Duck, it was Barks who gave him his modern appearance and attributes.' Barks' stamp is notable in the Duck's personality, as is discussed at greater length at the article Donald Duck in comics. Donald evolved in Bark's hands from what Geofrey Moses describes as a "jumble of neuroses and funny quacking noises" into an "exemplar of modernist doubt and anxiety," observing that "Barks' comics were popular in large part because they allowed people to see their unconscious fears and insecurities laid bare and to laugh at them, safe in the knowledge that, for all his problems, Donald would get through all right. In this sense, the character takes on heroic proportions." Vacation Time serves as an apex in this development of heroism, as Donald's efforts to save the lives of his nephews shows him shouldering responsibilities given to his supporting characters, casting him much against type as an audacious rescuer.

The moment, like the forest fire, is appropriately brief, encapsulated by comic impasses both before and after Donald's peak experience. List of Disney comics by Carl Barks Vacation Time at INDUCKS

The Great Impersonation (1935 film)

The Great Impersonation is a 1935 American drama film directed by Alan Crosland and starring Edmund Lowe, Valerie Hobson and Wera Engels. It was adapted from the novel The Great Impersonation by E. Phillips Oppenheim, it was made by Universal Pictures with some aesthetic similarities to the Universal Horror films of the 1930s. Two other film versions of the story were made with the same title in 1942 respectively. Before the First World War, Sir Everard Dominey, a drunken upper-class Englishman, encounters an old acquaintance the sinister German arms dealer Baron Leopold von Ragostein in Africa; the two men are identical, von Ragostein plans to kill his doppelganger and take his place in British high society where he will be able to further his arms business and spy on Britain for the German Empire. He arranges the murder with his various associates; when "Dominey" returns to London shortly afterwards, he encounters the German aristocrat Stephanie Elderstrom, certain she recognises him as her former lover, von Ragostein.

Von Ragostein's associates attempt to buy her off but she remains convinced something untoward is going on. When he reaches Donimey Hall, Dominey's wife is certain that it is her genuine husband returning from Africa at long-last. Doubts begin to emerge whether it is the real Dominey who has come home. Edmund Lowe as Sir Everard Dominey/Baron Leopold von Ragostein Valerie Hobson as Eleanor Dominey Wera Engels as Princess Stephanie Elderstrom Murray Kinnell as Seaman Henry Mollison as Eddie Pelham Esther Dale as Mrs. Unthank Brandon Hurst as Middleton Ivan F. Simpson as Doctor Harrison Spring Byington as Duchess Caroline Lumsden Hare as Duke Henry Charles Waldron as Sir Ivan Brunn Leonard Mudie as Mangan Claude King as Sir Gerald Hume Frank Reicher as Doctor Trenk Harry Allen as Perkins Lowden Adams as Waiter Frank Benson as English Farmer Robert Bolder as Villager Willy Castello as Duval Edward Cooper as Butler David Dunbar as English Farmer Dwight Frye as Roger Unthank Nan Grey as Middleton's Daughter Virginia Hammond as Lady Hume Henry Kolker as Doctor Schmidt Priscilla Lawson as Maid Adolph Milar as German Thomas R. Mills as Bartender Pat O'Hara as Chauffeur John Powers as Policeman Tom Ricketts as Villager Violet Seaton as Nurse Leonid Snegoff as Wolff Larry Steers as Army Officer Frank Terry as Villager Douglas Wood as Nobleman Harry Worth as Hugo Weaver, Tom & Brunas, Michael & Brunas, John.

Universal Horrors: The Studio's Classic Films, 1931-1946. McFarland & Company, 2007; the Great Impersonation on IMDb

Robustiano PatrĂ³n Costas

Robustiano Patrón Costas was a conservative Argentine politician and businessman who served as interim president of the nation and governor of his native province. He led the National Democratic Party. Patrón Costas was born in Salta to Francisca Costas Robustiano Patrón, he studied law at the University of Buenos Aires, receiving his doctorate in 1901. The following year, Patrón Costas was appointed minister of works for Salta Province by Governor Ángel Zerda, in 1912, he served as the head of government for Governor Avelino Figueroa, he was appointed to complete Figueroa's term as governor from 1913 to 1916. In 1916, Patrón Costas was elected as a National Democrat to the Argentine Senate, serving until 1925, when he returned to Salta's provincial legislature as president of the Senate, he was re-elected to the national Senate in 1932 and again in 1938. As the Provisional President of the Senate he served as interim president of Argentina in the early 1940s, he was close to a leading figure in the governing Concordancia.

In 1942 he was announced as the government's candidate to succeed the president. His candidacy proved unpalatable, however: the wealthy Patrón Costas was a synonym for the staunchly conservative provincial aristocracies that maintained Northern Argentina in a quasi-feudal state, there were widespread rumors that the government planned a massive fraud to install him as president. A coup in 1943 put an end to Patron Costas' candidacy; as a businessman, Patrón Costas' name is associated with the sugar industry. In 1918 he and his brother founded the sugar refinery Ingenio San Martín de Tabacal in Orán Department which at one time was one of the largest in the Western hemisphere; the company is owned by the Seaboard Corporation. Patrón Costas worked with the Archbishop of Salta, Roberto Tavella, to establish the Catholic University of Salta, a private university, he was awarded a knighthood in the Pontifical Order of St. Gregory the Great by Pope Paul VI


Nyarong is a Tibetan historical region located in Eastern Kham. It is equated with modern Xinlong County, called Nyarong in Tibetan, though the traditional region includes parts of Litang County and Baiyü County; the most common name, Nyarong means "river valley". However, the region is referred to as Chagdud or Chakdu, which refers to a prominent monk who came from the region. Nyarong is a valley located on and around the middle portion of the Yalong River, with Derge to the west, Garzê to the north, the Hor States to the east, Litang to the south; the valley is low compared to the surrounding mountains, the upper portion of the valley is quite narrow. This makes it hard to access the region without modern transport, it was also quite poor, as there is little flat land in the region. For much of its history, no single polity controlled Nyarong; this is considered unusual because while tribal administration was common among pastoral regions, Nyarong instead depended on agriculture. Due to its geographical inaccessibility, Nyarong was not involved in the political machinations or trade routes of the rest of Tibet.

By the 1800s, Nyarong was controlled by a powerful family divided into three branches, known as the "Three Iron Knots". While it was nominally controlled by the Qing Dynasty, it was independent due to its isolation. However, the Qing overlords of Kham were not pleased by this development, launched an incursion into Nyarong, supported by the surrounding Khampa states. However, against the odds, Namgye was able to resist the invasion. However, he was stopped by the Ganden Podrang government, who killed him in 1865; this sent Nyarong back into the unimportance it still enjoys today, though this has been somewhat disrupted by tourism. This was momentarily disrupted as Nyarong was a key base of resistance against the Incorporation of Tibet into the People's Republic of China Gombo Namgye, Tibetan rebel leader Lodi Gyari Rinpoche, activist in exile, negotiator Tertön Sogyal, teacher of the thirteenth Dalai Lama

Maurice Green (virologist)

Maurice Green was an American virologist whose research career spanned more than six decades. He is regarded in particular their role in cancer. Green founded the Institute of Molecular Virology at St. Louis University School of Medicine in the late 1950s, served as its chairman. Green was born on May 5, 1926, in New York, New York, to Jewish parents, David Green, an emigrant from Russia, Bessie Lipschitz, an emigrant from Lithuania. Green is the oldest of four children. Following graduation from high school in 1944, Green served in the U. S. Navy, after which he earned a B. S. degree in chemistry from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor in 1949, M. S. and Ph. D. degrees in biochemistry and chemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He pursued postdoctoral research training at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, serving as an instructor of biochemistry from 1955 to 1956. Green joined the faculty of St. Louis University School of Medicine as an assistant professor in the Department of Microbiology in 1956, being promoted to associate professor in 1960 and professor in 1963.

In 1964, he became professor of molecular virology and founding chairman of the Institute for Molecular Virology. Green was a well-known tumor virologist, with a research career, he played a critical role in developing adenovirus as an experimental system and made many important contributions in virology and molecular biology, leading to over 300 authored/co-authored publications and one U. S. patent. He first coined the term molecular virology. Many of his graduate students and postdoctoral fellows have gone on to successful research careers, making significant contributions to the fields of virology, molecular virology, tumor biology. Green's research in the 1960s and early 1970s was regarded because of the insights it provided into the role of viruses in cancer, it is thus notable that in December 1971, Green was invited by U. S. President Richard Nixon to attend the signing of the National Cancer Act of 1971 at the White House, an event, viewed as the beginning of the ‘War on Cancer.’ At that bill signing, he was given one of the pens used by President Nixon to sign the legislation.

Educational and professional honors given to Green: multiple honorary societies. E. Dyer Lectureship Award. Green married Marilyn Glick on August 20, 1950, they had three children: Michael R. Green, M. D. Ph. D. Wendy A. Green Lee, M. D.. D. Ph. D. director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health. Green has two grandsons. Green was one of the founding scientists in the field of tumor virology, an area of biomedical research investigating the role that viruses play in cancer, his early studies were major contributions to the general armamentarium of techniques and concepts used in experimental virology today. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Green was among the first scientists in the world to study biochemical features of virus replication in cell culture and to develop and apply the emerging concepts of molecular biology, his major focus of investigation was human adenoviruses. He and his colleagues worked out the basic parameters for working with these viruses – for example, how to grow them in culture, to purify the virions, to extract and characterize the viral DNA, to study gene expression at the RNA and protein levels.

This work established the kinetics of infection, showed that the infection was divided into two major stages of gene expression. In 1962, scientists at the National Institutes of Health discovered that certain serotypes of human adenoviruses can induce tumors in newborn hamsters; this finding was not only of scientific interest, but it raised concerns because the military was using live adenoviruses as vaccines against adenovirus-induced acute respiratory disease. Green was asked to learn as much as he could as as possible about the 31 distinct viral serotypes known at that time, his studies included characterizing the viruses’ DNA, investigating the tumor-inducing properties of the viruses, determining the molecular and kinetic parameters of adenovirus infection. He showed that adenoviruses could be divided into distinct groups based on these and other properties; these classic studies served to establish adenoviruses as a powerful model system that has since been used to address more global questions about virus replication, human cell molecular biology and immu