The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc, Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4000 metres, the altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe, in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Wildlife such as live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era, a mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established, Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, and the Romans had settlements in the region.
In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the passes with an army of 40,000. The 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists, writers, in World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation in the Bavarian Alps throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, at present, the region is home to 14 million people and has 120 million annual visitors. The English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes, maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp and this may be consistent with the theory that in Greek Alpes is a name of non-Indo-European origin. According to the Old English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might possibly derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb hill, Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe.
In Roman times, Albania was a name for the eastern Caucasus, in modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width, the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the border of Bavaria in Germany
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
George Street, Edinburgh
George Street in Edinburgh is the central street in James Craigs plan of the New Town. It is located to the north of Princes Street and to the south of Queen Street and it connects St Andrew Square with Charlotte Square and takes its name from King George III. The street was first proposed in 1767, and was initially a residential area, by 2013 it had become, according to the Edinburgh Evening News, the city’s most prestigious shopping district. Several prominent statues are located along the street, commemorating Thomas Chalmers, William Pitt the Younger, King George IV, in 2013 the street became a focal point for the Edinburgh Festival, with pedestrian areas increased and traffic space reduced. In October 2012, the City of Edinburgh Council approved a 12-month trial starting in June 2014 that saw George Street featuring a one way system for vehicles, as part of this the outdoor space for restaurants and bars on this street was extended, too. On street car parking was being reviewed, and the frequency of buses on Princes street was reduced significantly, the trial used an Experimental Traffic Regulation Order as a place making and design measure.
At the end of a trial using an ETRO the street has to be returned to its previous layout before the plan is put to the public. Ironside Farrer conducted a consultation and proposed a continental style solution in their report and this report was discussed by the council on 7 June 2016 and the design principles approved unanimously. During the August 2016 festival period a new event, WestFest, the event featured a whisky experience, a mobile cinema and 9-hole mini golf as well as a temporary cafe and bar. Most of the George Street restaurants had extra outdoor seating during the event, media related to George Street, Edinburgh at Wikimedia Commons
Fellow of the Royal Society
As of 2016, there are around 1600 living Fellows and Honorary Members. Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually usually in May, each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS, see Category, Fellows of the Royal Society and Category, Female Fellows of the Royal Society. Every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members, like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science. As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS, see Category, Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville, Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters HonFRS.
Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include David Attenborough and John Palmer, prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain, H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category, Fellows of the Royal Society. The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows, Prince of Wales, Princess Royal, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Prince Andrew, Duke of York. Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow. The election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination, each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal.
Previously, nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, the certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April, a candidate is elected if he or she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A further maximum of six can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows, nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with fifteen members and a chair
University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotlands ancient universities. The university is deeply embedded in the fabric of the city of Edinburgh, the University of Edinburgh was ranked 17th and 21st in the world by the 2014–15 and 2015-16 QS rankings. It is now ranked 19th in the according to 2016-17 QS Rankings. It is ranked 16th in the world in arts and humanities by the 2015–16 Times Higher Education Ranking and it is ranked the 23rd most employable university in the world by the 2015 Global Employability University Ranking. It is ranked as the 6th best university in Europe by the U. S. News Best Global Universities Ranking and it is a member of both the Russell Group, and the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe. It has the third largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, after the universities of Cambridge and it continues to have links to the British Royal Family, having had the Duke of Edinburgh as its Chancellor from 1953 to 2010 and Princess Anne since 2011.
Edinburgh receives approximately 50,000 applications every year, making it the fourth most popular university in the UK by volume of applicants, after St Andrews, it is the most difficult university to gain admission into in Scotland, and 9th overall in the UK. This was a move at the time, as most universities were established through Papal bulls. Established as the Tounis College, it opened its doors to students in October 1583, instruction began under the charge of another St Andrews graduate Robert Rollock. It was the fourth Scottish university in a period when the more populous. It was renamed King Jamess College in 1617, by the 18th century, the university was a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment. The universitys first custom-built building was the Old College, now Edinburgh Law School and its first forte in teaching was anatomy and the developing science of surgery, from which it expanded into many other subjects. From the basement of a nearby house ran the anatomy tunnel corridor and it went under what was North College Street, and under the university buildings until it reached the universitys anatomy lecture theatre, delivering bodies for dissection.
It was from this tunnel the body of William Burke was taken after he had been hanged, towards the end of the 19th century, Old College was becoming overcrowded and Robert Rowand Anderson was commissioned to design new Medical School premises in 1875. The medical school was more or less built to his design and was completed by the addition of the McEwan Hall in the 1880s. The building now known as New College was originally built as a Free Church college in the 1840s and has been the home of divinity at the university since the 1920s. The two oldest schools – law and divinity – are both well-esteemed, with law being based in Old College and divinity in New College on the Mound and they are represented by the Edinburgh University Sports Union which was founded in 1866. The medical school is renowned throughout the world and it was widely considered the best medical school in the English-speaking world throughout the 18th century and first half of the 19th century
In electrodynamics the strength and direction of an electric field is defined by its electric field vector. In the case of a polarized wave, as seen in the accompanying animation. At any instant of time, the field vector of the wave describes a helix along the direction of propagation. Circular polarization is a case of the more general condition of elliptical polarization. The other special case is the linear polarization. The phenomenon of polarization arises as a consequence of the fact that light behaves as a transverse wave. On the right is an illustration of the electric field vectors of a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave, the electric field vectors have a constant magnitude but their direction changes in a rotary manner. Given that this is a wave, each vector represents the magnitude. Specifically, given that this is a circularly polarized plane wave, refer to these two images in the plane wave article to better appreciate this. This light is considered to be right-hand, clockwise circularly polarized if viewed by the receiver, as a result, the magnetic field vectors would trace out a second helix if displayed.
Circular polarization is often encountered in the field of optics and in this section, refer to the second illustration on the right. The vertical component and its plane are illustrated in blue while the horizontal component. Notice that the horizontal component leads the vertical component by one quarter of a wavelength. The result of this alignment is that there are select vectors, corresponding to the helix, to appreciate how this quadrature phase shift corresponds to an electric field that rotates while maintaining a constant magnitude, imagine a dot traveling clockwise in a circle. Consider how the vertical and horizontal displacements of the dot, relative to the center of the circle, now referring again to the illustration, imagine the center of the circle just described, traveling along the axis from the front to the back. The circling dot will trace out a helix with the displacement toward our viewing left, the next pair of illustrations is that of left-handed, counter-clockwise circularly polarized light when viewed by the receiver.
Because it is left-handed, the horizontal component is now lagging the vertical component by one quarter of a wavelength rather than leading it. To convert a given handedness of polarized light to the other one can use a half-wave plate
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. The boiling point of a liquid varies depending upon the environmental pressure. A liquid in a vacuum has a lower boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. A liquid at high pressure has a boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. For a given pressure, different liquids boil at different temperatures, for example, water boils at 100 °C at sea level, but at 93.4 °C at 2,000 metres altitude. The normal boiling point of a liquid is the case in which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the defined atmospheric pressure at sea level,1 atmosphere. At that temperature, the pressure of the liquid becomes sufficient to overcome atmospheric pressure. The standard boiling point has been defined by IUPAC since 1982 as the temperature at which boiling occurs under a pressure of 1 bar, the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance from a liquid into a gas at a given pressure.
Liquids may change to a vapor at temperatures below their boiling points through the process of evaporation, evaporation is a surface phenomenon in which molecules located near the liquids edge, not contained by enough liquid pressure on that side, escape into the surroundings as vapor. On the other hand, boiling is a process in which molecules anywhere in the liquid escape, a saturated liquid contains as much thermal energy as it can without boiling. The saturation temperature is the temperature for a corresponding saturation pressure at which a liquid boils into its vapor phase, the liquid can be said to be saturated with thermal energy. Any addition of energy results in a phase transition. If the pressure in a system remains constant, a vapor at saturation temperature will begin to condense into its liquid phase as thermal energy is removed, similarly, a liquid at saturation temperature and pressure will boil into its vapor phase as additional thermal energy is applied. The boiling point corresponds to the temperature at which the pressure of the liquid equals the surrounding environmental pressure.
Thus, the point is dependent on the pressure. Boiling points may be published with respect to the NIST, USA standard pressure of 101.325 kPa, at higher elevations, where the atmospheric pressure is much lower, the boiling point is lower. The boiling point increases with increased pressure up to the critical point, the boiling point cannot be increased beyond the critical point. Likewise, the point decreases with decreasing pressure until the triple point is reached
Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies. A related field that uses geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology, a recording of earth motion as a function of time is called a seismogram. A seismologist is a scientist who does research in seismology, scholarly interest in earthquakes can be traced back to antiquity. Early speculations on the causes of earthquakes were included in the writings of Thales of Miletus, Anaximenes of Miletus, Aristotle. In 132 CE, Zhang Heng of Chinas Han dynasty designed the first known seismoscope, in 1664, Athanasius Kircher argued that earthquakes were caused by the movement of fire within a system of channels inside the Earth. In 1703, Martin Lister and Nicolas Lemery proposed that earthquakes were caused by chemical explosions within the earth, the Lisbon earthquake of 1755, coinciding with the general flowering of science in Europe, set in motion intensified scientific attempts to understand the behaviour and causation of earthquakes.
The earliest responses include work by John Bevis and John Michell, Michell determined that earthquakes originate within the Earth and were waves of movement caused by shifting masses of rock miles below the surface. From 1857, Robert Mallet laid the foundation of instrumental seismology and he is responsible for coining the word seismology. In 1897, Emil Wiecherts theoretical calculations led him to conclude that the Earths interior consists of a mantle of silicates, surrounding a core of iron. In 1906 Richard Dixon Oldham identified the separate arrival of P-waves, S-waves and surface waves on seismograms, in 1910, after studying the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Harry Fielding Reid put forward the elastic rebound theory which remains the foundation for modern tectonic studies. The development of this depended on the considerable progress of earlier independent streams of work on the behaviour of elastic materials. In 1926, Harold Jeffreys was the first to claim, based on his study of waves, that below the mantle.
In 1937, Inge Lehmann determined that within the liquid outer core there is a solid inner core. By the 1960s, earth science had developed to the point where a comprehensive theory of the causation of seismic events had come together in the now well-established theory of plate tectonics, seismic waves are elastic waves that propagate in solid or fluid materials. There are two types of waves, Pressure waves or Primary waves and Shear or Secondary waves. S-waves are transverse waves that move perpendicular to the direction of propagation, they appear than P-waves on a seismogram. Fluids cannot support perpendicular motion, so S-waves only travel in solids, the two main surface wave types are Rayleigh waves, which have some compressional motion, and Love waves, which do not. Rayleigh waves result from the interaction of vertically polarized P- and S-waves that satisfy the conditions on the surface
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earths crust, like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, quartz-bearing sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure, usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite, grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages, first, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Typically, sedimentation occurs by the settling out from suspension.
The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. Colours will usually be tan or yellow, a predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe. The regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a building material or as a facing stone. These physical properties allow the grains to survive multiple recycling events. Quartz grains evolve from rock, which are felsic in origin. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in sandstones, Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions, alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope, below is a description of the different types of feldspar.
Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. Plagioclase feldspar is a group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone, commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone
Monymusk is a planned village in the Marr area of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Malcolm Canmore first established a Celtic foundation on the site in 1078, the Culdees of Munimusc are recorded as inhabiting the site in 1170. An Augustinian priory was built by Gilchrist, Earl of Mar, the estate passed from the Forbes family to the Grant family in 1712, and Sir Archibald Grant established a planned village for estate workers. The village was rebuilt again in 1840. In modern times, Monymusk serves as a site for fishing on the nearby River Don, the eminent geologist and palaeontologist Dame Maria Matilda Ogilvie Gordon was born in the village in 1864. The painters Archibald and Alexander Robertson were natives of the village, the talented salmon flyfisher Francis T. Grant was born at House of Monymusk. He authored the book Salmon flyfishing - the dynamics approach in 1993 based on his fishing in the nearby River Don, in River Dee, Monymusk Reliquary Monymusk community website Monymusk Hall
It extends from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers, to 1000000 nm. Most of the radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared. Like all EMR, IR carries radiant energy, and behaves both like a wave and like its quantum particle, the photon, slightly more than half of the total energy from the Sun was eventually found to arrive on Earth in the form of infrared. The balance between absorbed and emitted infrared radiation has an effect on Earths climate. Infrared radiation is emitted or absorbed by molecules when they change their rotational-vibrational movements and it excites vibrational modes in a molecule through a change in the dipole moment, making it a useful frequency range for study of these energy states for molecules of the proper symmetry. Infrared spectroscopy examines absorption and transmission of photons in the infrared range, Infrared radiation is used in industrial and medical applications. Night-vision devices using active near-infrared illumination allow people or animals to be observed without the observer being detected, Infrared thermal-imaging cameras are used to detect heat loss in insulated systems, to observe changing blood flow in the skin, and to detect overheating of electrical apparatuses.
Thermal-infrared imaging is used extensively for military and civilian purposes, military applications include target acquisition, night vision and tracking. Humans at normal body temperature radiate chiefly at wavelengths around 10 μm, Infrared radiation extends from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers to 1 mm. This range of wavelengths corresponds to a range of approximately 430 THz down to 300 GHz. Below infrared is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Sunlight, at a temperature of 5,780 kelvins, is composed of near thermal-spectrum radiation that is slightly more than half infrared. At zenith, sunlight provides an irradiance of just over 1 kilowatt per square meter at sea level, of this energy,527 watts is infrared radiation,445 watts is visible light, and 32 watts is ultraviolet radiation. Nearly all the radiation in sunlight is near infrared, shorter than 4 micrometers. On the surface of Earth, at far lower temperatures than the surface of the Sun, almost all thermal radiation consists of infrared in mid-infrared region, much longer than in sunlight.
Of these natural thermal radiation processes only lightning and natural fires are hot enough to produce much visible energy, thermal infrared radiation has a maximum emission wavelength, which is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature of object, in accordance with Wiens displacement law. Therefore, the band is often subdivided into smaller sections. Due to the nature of the blackbody radiation curves, typical hot objects, such as exhaust pipes, the three regions are used for observation of different temperature ranges, and hence different environments in space
Agassiz grew up in Switzerland, and studied and received Doctor of Philosophy and medical degrees at Erlangen and Munich, respectively. After further studies with Cuvier and Humboldt in Paris, Agassiz proceeded with leading to his appointment as professor of natural history at University of Neuchâtel. He made vast institutional and scientific contributions to zoology, nevertheless, his reputation has suffered somewhat in hindsight by the evidence of his resistance to Darwinian evolution, and his writings on human polygenism. Louis Agassiz was born in Môtier in the canton of Fribourg, educated first at home, spending four years of secondary school in Bienne, he completed his elementary studies in Lausanne. In 1829 he received the degree of doctor of philosophy at Erlangen, moving to Paris he came under the tutelage of Alexander von Humboldt Humboldt and Georges Cuvier launched him on his careers of geology and zoology respectively. Previously he had not paid attention to the study of ichthyology.
Spix, who died in 1826, did not live enough to work out the history of these fish. He at once threw himself into the work with an enthusiasm which characterized him to the end of his busy life, the task of describing the Brazilian fish was completed and published in 1829. This was followed by research into the history of the found in Lake Neuchâtel. Enlarging his plans, in 1830 he issued a prospectus of a History of the Freshwater Fish of Central Europe and it was only in 1839, that the first part of this publication appeared, and it was completed in 1842. In 1832 he was appointed professor of history in the University of Neuchâtel. The fossil fish there soon attracted his attention, the fossil-rich stones furnished by the slates of Glarus and the limestones of Monte Bolca were known at the time, but very little had been accomplished in the way of scientific study of them. Agassiz, as early as 1829, planned the publication of the work which, more than any other, five volumes of his Recherches sur les poissons fossiles appeared at intervals from 1833 to 1843.
They were magnificently illustrated, chiefly by Joseph Dinkel, in gathering materials for this work Agassiz visited the principal museums in Europe, and meeting Cuvier in Paris, he received much encouragement and assistance from him. They had known him for seven years at the time, Agassiz found that his palaeontological labors made necessary a new basis of ichthyological classification. The fossils rarely exhibited any traces of the tissues of fish. They consisted chiefly of the teeth and fins, with the bones being perfectly preserved in comparatively few instances. He therefore adopted a classification which divided fish into four groups, Placoids and Ctenoids, based on the nature of the scales, while Agassiz did much to improve fish taxonomy, his classification has been superseded by work