James Ephraim Lovelock, is an independent scientist and futurist. He is best known for proposing the Gaia hypothesis, which postulates that the Earth functions as a self-regulating system. With a PhD in medicine, Lovelock began his career performing cryopreservation experiments on rodents, including thawing frozen specimens, his methods were influential in the theories of cryonics. He invented the electron capture detector, using it, became the first to detect the widespread presence of CFCs in the atmosphere. While designing scientific instruments for NASA, he developed the Gaia hypothesis. In the 2000s, he proposed a method of climate engineering to restore carbon dioxide-consuming algae, he has been an outspoken member of Environmentalists for Nuclear, asserting that fossil fuel interests have been behind opposition to nuclear energy, citing the effects of carbon dioxide as being more harmful to the environment, warning of global warming due to the greenhouse effect. He has written several environmental science books based upon the Gaia hypothesis since the late 1970s.
James Lovelock was born in Letchworth Garden City. Nell, his mother, won a scholarship to a grammar school but was unable to take it up, started work at 13 in a pickle factory, his father, had served six months hard labour for poaching in his teens and was illiterate until attending technical college, ran a book shop. The family moved to London, where Lovelock's dislike of authority made him, by his own account, an unhappy pupil at Strand School. Lovelock could not afford to go to university, something which he believes helped prevent him becoming overspecialised and aided the development of Gaia theory. After leaving school Lovelock worked at a photography firm, attending Birkbeck College during the evenings, before being accepted to study chemistry at the University of Manchester, where he was a student of the Nobel Prize laureate Professor Alexander Todd. Lovelock worked at a Quaker farm before a recommendation from his professor led to him taking up a Medical Research Council post, working on ways of shielding soldiers from burns.
Lovelock refused to use the shaved and anaesthetised rabbits that were used as burn victims, exposed his own skin to heat radiation instead, an experience he describes as "exquisitely painful". His student status enabled temporary deferment of military service during the Second World War, but he registered as a conscientious objector, he abandoned his conscientious objection in the light of Nazi atrocities, tried to enlist in the armed forces, but was told that his medical research was too valuable for the enlistment to be approved. In 1948, Lovelock received a PhD degree in medicine at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, he spent the next two decades working at London's National Institute for Medical Research. In the United States, he has conducted research at Yale, Baylor College of Medicine, Harvard University. In the mid-1950s, Lovelock experimented with the cryopreservation of rodents, determining that hamsters could be frozen with 60% of the water in the brain crystallized into ice with no adverse effects recorded.
Other organs were shown to be susceptible to damage. The results were influential in the theories of cryonics. A lifelong inventor, Lovelock has created and developed many scientific instruments, some of which were designed for NASA in its planetary exploration program, it was while working as a consultant for NASA that Lovelock developed the Gaia hypothesis, for which he is most known. In early 1961, Lovelock was engaged by NASA to develop sensitive instruments for the analysis of extraterrestrial atmospheres and planetary surfaces; the Viking program, which visited Mars in the late 1970s, was motivated in part to determine whether Mars supported life, many of the sensors and experiments that were deployed aimed to resolve this issue. During work on a precursor of this program, Lovelock became interested in the composition of the Martian atmosphere, reasoning that many life forms on Mars would be obliged to make use of it. However, the atmosphere was found to be in a stable condition close to its chemical equilibrium, with little oxygen, methane, or hydrogen, but with an overwhelming abundance of carbon dioxide.
To Lovelock, the stark contrast between the Martian atmosphere and chemically dynamic mixture of the Earth's biosphere was indicative of the absence of life on Mars. However, when they were launched to Mars, the Viking probes still searched for extant life there. Further experiments to search for life on Mars have been carried out by further space probes, most NASA'S 2012 Curiosity Rover. Lovelock had invented the electron capture detector, which assisted in discoveries about the persistence of CFCs and their role in stratospheric ozone depletion. After studying the operation of the Earth's sulphur cycle and his colleagues, Robert Jay Charlson, Meinrat Andreae and Stephen G. Warren developed the CLAW hypothesis as a possible example of biological control of the Earth's climate. Lovelock was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1974, he served as the president of the Marine Biological Association from 1986 to 1990, has been an Honorary Visiting Fellow of Green Templeton College, Oxford since 1994.
As an independent scientist and author, Lovelock worked out of a barn-turned-laboratory he called his "experimental station" located in a wooded valley on the Devon/Cornwall border in the South West England. In 1988 he made an extended appearance on the Channel 4 television programme After Dark, alongside Heathcote Williams and Petra Kelly, among others. On 8 May
Ohrid-Prespa Transboundary Biosphere Reserve is a biosphere reserve encompassing the area of Lake Ohrid and Lake Prespa, on North Macedonia and Albania. The reserve was declared in June 2014 and comprises a combination of water bodies and surrounding mountain reliefs, covering an area of 446,244.52 hectares. The Ohrid-Prespa area was declared a biosphere reserve on 11 June 2014 at the UNESCO international commission session held in Jönköping, Sweden; the proposal was made by the Lake Ohrid Bilateral Secretariat, together with the UNESCO national commissions of Macedonia and Albania, as well as their respective environment ministries. The Ohrid-Prespa Transboundary Reserve includes various ecosystems, ranging from the mountainous areas around the lakes, to the temperate sub-tropical forests found at lower altitudes around the water basins; the Ohrid-Prespa lake system is one of the largest in Europe of its kind. Both lakes possess exceptional value on a national and international level because of their geological and biological uniqueness.
Lake Ohrid is renowned for its endemic species, five of which are limited to microecosystems within the lake itself. Ten of the seventeen fish species are endemic, including the Ohrid trout. There are endemic and unique forest areas such as that covered by the Macedonian pine. Mammals represent the second most important group of species in the Ohrid-Prespa Transboundary Reserve, whose protection is crucial to the reserve, they include Balkan lynx, gray wolf, the brown bear and others. The Balkan lynx is an exceptionally rare species, holding high symbolic value. One bird species in the area of particular note is the Dalmatian pelican; the Prespa region is the home to about 260 bird species, representing more than half the bird species in Europe. About 140 species nest in this area; the Ohrid-Prespa Transboundary Reserve has an estimated population of 455,000, representing an area of cultural and religious diversity. The settlements are situated only in the transitional areas and include demographically stable settlements, whereas other populated areas, receive many thousands of visitors during the tourist season.
In Albania, the main economic activity of the local populations is agriculture, still present in the transitional area and some parts of the buffer zone. More the food processing industry has seen significant development, in parallel with traditional agriculture, giving rise to new settlements; the most important sector of development in the area of the reserve is the primary sector. In many areas, individual smallholding family farms are replaced with a more intense type of production. In some mountainous parts, forestry is a significant economic activity. Stockbreeding is important throughout the transboundary region. Tourism is the key area of development of the entire transboundary biosphere reserve; the city of Ohrid alone receives a large number of visitors during the high season, six times that of its native population. Fishing is another key activity with economic impacts on the lakes. North MacedoniaCities: Ohrid, Resen, Bitola Municipalities: Debarca, VevčaniAlbaniaKorçë, Bilisht, Maliq The Ohrid-Prespa Transboundary Reserve - UNESCO
"Father of All..." is a song by American rock band Green Day, released as the lead single from their thirteenth studio album, Father of All Motherfuckers, on September 10, 2019. Lead vocalist Billie Joe Armstrong has stated the song is about "making people feel bad." Armstrong added "Rock and roll sometimes has become so tame because a lot of rock acts are always trying to look for the feel-good song of the year or something." Despite that, Rolling Stone described the song as "bright, upbeat and a big departure from the tone of 2016's Revolution Radio."A departure in sound for the band, the song has been described as garage rock revival and garage punk. Containing dirty guitars, grooving bass, rolling drums, as well as filtered and falsetto vocals, it has been compared to their tenth studio album ¡Dos! and their side-project Foxboro Hot Tubs. The music video pays homage to the "Guitar Man" portion of the opening number from Elvis Presley's 1968 comeback special. In it, the band performs in front of the dancers in the red background while footage of people doing various movements intervene