New York Guard
The New York Guard is the state defense force of New York State called The New York State Military Reserve. As of June 2008, the New York Guard, a recognized command under the New York State's Military law, has line-item funding in the state budget. Now with a unified command structure the organization contained an Army Division and an Air Division; the missions of the New York Guard include augmentation and support of the New York Army National Guard and New York Air National Guard and aide to civil authorities in New York State. New York has a New York Naval Militia which, with the State Guard and the Army and Air National Guards, is under the command of the Governor of New York, the Adjutant General of New York, the Division of Military and Naval Affairs; the New York Guard is one of the best organized State Guards in the United States. It is derived from Revolutionary and Civil War era state military units that were reorganized several times in American history in response to various international and domestic crises.
Organized under the Military Law, State of New York, the New York Guard cannot be federalized and cannot be deployed outside New York State without the consent of the governor. Members of the New York Guard are entitled to many of the benefits accorded members of other components of the'Organized Militia of the State of New York,' the legal collective term describing the New York Army and Air National Guards, New York Naval Militia and New York Guard; these include'military leave' for employees of state or local governments and many private employers. For more detail, see List of New York Civil War Regiments Many units of the New York State Militia saw service in the American Civil War, after being activated into federal service by President Abraham Lincoln; the activation of state militia by President Abraham Lincoln led to some conflict with State authorities in command of the units: With the advent of the Civil War in April 1861, the 14th regiment saw its first war service in guarding the Brooklyn Navy Yard.
By mid-April of that year, the "Brooklyn Chasseurs" were ready to leave New York for Washington D. C. Colonel Alfred Wood advised the Honorable Governor Morgan that the regiment was prepared to march and had accepted a three-year federal enlistment. However, the governor would not issue orders for the regiment to leave New York. While encamped at Fort Greene Park in Brooklyn, Colonel Wood and Congressman Moses O'Dell went to see President Lincoln to secure orders for the regiment to march to Washington. President Lincoln lost no time in issuing those orders to the 14th Brooklyn; when Governor Morgan learned that the regiment was preparing to march, he telegraphed Colonel Wood and inquired "by what authority" did he move his regiment, Colonel Wood coolly replied, "By the authority of the President of the United States." Following the Civil War, efforts were made to link the varied military units in New York under overall headquarters. As a result of this, the 3rd Brigade, New York State Militia, came into being on August 5, 1886.
On August 3, 1917, the Adjutant General of New York, in order to comply with the provisions of the State Constitution requiring that troops be available to the Governor for the protection of life and property of the citizens of New York, organized a state military force known as the New York Guard. The new force replaced the New York National Guard, drafted in the service of the United States on August 5, 1917; the force consisted of the First and Second Provisional Regiments, guarding aqueducts and other infrastructure in the southern portion and the remaining parts of the state. On January 1, 1919, the Guard numbered 22,000 in active service. After the Armistice, federalized New York National Guard Units were returned to State control. On May 21, 1924, Babe Ruth joined the New York National Guard and was Assigned to the 104th Field Artillery in Jamaica Queens Armory. George Herman Ruth, popularly known as "The Babe", "The Bambino", "The Sultan of Swat", was a member of the 104th Field Artillery in Jamaica Queens.
On May 21, 1924* he signed the dotted line for three years and joined the ranks of civilian soldiers. Babe Ruth was sworn in by Colonel James Austin at the Isle of Safety in Times Square in front of a military tent used for enlistment drives. Once the enlistment papers were filled he symbolically placed them into the open jaws of a horse drawn French 75-millimeter gun, he was immediately placed under the command of First Sergeant Adrian Jacques, in charge of the regiment present. He served. A May 29 Washington Post article reported that he appeared before General John Joseph Pershing at State and Navy building in Washington** once he was fitted and squared away; the 104th Field Artillery underwent several changes over the years while in active duty. The unit served under Federal control on November 5, 1916 for Mexican border control returned to state status on November 15, 1916. In addition, the unit was activated for Federal service during World War I and II, it wasn't until 1917 that the unit received its destination as the 104th Field Artillery and saw extensive service in France.
After World War I, the unit was demobilized but shortly reactivated into the New York National Guard until 1959 when it reorganized as the 104th Field Artillery Regiment. Consolidated 1 September 1992 with the 104th Field Artillery and consolidated unit designated as the 258th Field Artillery, to consist of the 1st Battalion, an element of the 42d Infantry Division. With the advent of World War II, New York National Guard units were federalized and the New York Guard was created for service to the State. In 1942, former Heavyweight ch
Army of the Potomac
The Army of the Potomac was the principal Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. It was created in July 1861 shortly after the First Battle of Bull Run and was disbanded in May 1865 following the surrender of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in April; the Army of the Potomac was created in 1861 but was only the size of a corps. Its nucleus was called the Army of Northeastern Virginia, under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, it was the army that fought the war's first major battle, the First Battle of Bull Run; the arrival in Washington, D. C. of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan changed the makeup of that army. McClellan's original assignment was to command the Division of the Potomac, which included the Department of Northeast Virginia under McDowell and the Department of Washington under Brig. Gen. Joseph K. Mansfield. On July 26, 1861, the Department of the Shenandoah, commanded by Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks, was merged with McClellan's departments and on that day, McClellan formed the Army of the Potomac, composed of all military forces in the former Departments of Northeastern Virginia, Washington and the Shenandoah.
The men under Banks's command became an infantry division in the Army of the Potomac. The army started with four corps, but these were divided during the Peninsula Campaign to produce two more. After the Second Battle of Bull Run, the Army of the Potomac absorbed the units that had served under Maj. Gen. John Pope, it is a popular, but mistaken, belief that John Pope commanded the Army of the Potomac in the summer of 1862 after McClellan's unsuccessful Peninsula Campaign. On the contrary, Pope's army consisted of different units, was named the Army of Virginia. During the time that the Army of Virginia existed, the Army of the Potomac was headquartered on the Virginia Peninsula, outside Washington, D. C. with McClellan still in command, although three corps of the Army of the Potomac were sent to northern Virginia and were under Pope's operational control during the Northern Virginia Campaign. The Army of the Potomac underwent many structural changes during its existence; the army was divided by Ambrose Burnside into three grand divisions of two corps each with a Reserve composed of two more.
Hooker abolished the grand divisions. Thereafter the individual corps, seven of which remained in Virginia, reported directly to army headquarters. Hooker created a Cavalry Corps by combining units that had served as smaller formations. In late 1863, two corps were sent West, and— in 1864— the remaining five corps were recombined into three. Burnside's IX Corps, which accompanied the army at the start of Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign, rejoined the army later. For more detail, see the section Corps below; the Army of the Potomac fought in most of the Eastern Theater campaigns in Virginia and Pennsylvania. After the end of the war, it was disbanded on June 28, 1865, shortly following its participation in the Grand Review of the Armies; the Army of the Potomac was the name given to General P. G. T. Beauregard's Confederate army during the early stages of the war. However, the name was changed to the Army of Northern Virginia, which became famous under General Robert E. Lee. In 1869 the Society of the Army of the Potomac was formed as a veterans association.
It had its last reunion in 1929. Because of its proximity to the large cities of the North, such as Washington, D. C. Philadelphia, New York City, the Army of the Potomac received more contemporary media coverage than the other Union field armies; such coverage produced fame for a number of this army's units. Individual brigades, such as the Irish Brigade, the Philadelphia Brigade, the First New Jersey Brigade, the Vermont Brigade, the Iron Brigade, all became well known to the general public, both during the Civil War and afterward; the army consisted of fourteen divisions commanded by Edwin Sumner, William B. Franklin, Louis Blenker, Nathaniel Banks, Frederick W. Lander, Silas Casey, Irvin McDowell, Fitz-John Porter, Samuel Heintzelman, Erasmus Keyes, William F. Smith, Charles P. Stone, George McCall; because this arrangement would be too hard to control in battle, President Lincoln issued an order on March 13, 1862, dividing the army into six corps headed by Sumner, Banks, McDowell and Keyes, the highest-ranking officers.
McClellan was not happy with this, as he had intended to wait until the army had been tested in battle before judging which generals were suitable for corps command. After the Battle of Williamsburg on May 5, McClellan requested and obtained permission to create two additions corps. Gen Fitz-John Porter, the VI Corps, headed by Brig. Gen William B. Franklin, both personal favorites of his. After the Battle of Kernstown in the Valley on March 23, the administration became paranoid about "Stonewall" Jackson's activities there and the potential danger they posed to Washington D. C. and to McClellan's displeasure, detached Blenker's division from the II Corps and sent it to West Virginia to serve under John C. Fremont's command. McDowell's corps was stationed in the Rappahannock area. In June 1862, George McCall's division from McDowell's corps was sent down to the Peninsula and temporarily attached to the V Corps. In the Seven Days Battles, the V Corps was engaged; the Pennsylvania Reserves, in particular, suffered heavy loss
First Battle of Bull Run
The First Battle of Bull Run known as the First Battle of Manassas, was the first major battle of the American Civil War and was a Confederate victory. The battle was fought on July 21, 1861 in Prince William County, just north of the city of Manassas and about 25 miles west-southwest of Washington, D. C; the Union's forces were slow in positioning themselves, allowing Confederate reinforcements time to arrive by rail. Each side poorly led troops in their first battle, it was a Confederate victory, followed by a disorganized retreat of the Union forces. Just months after the start of the war at Fort Sumter, the Northern public clamored for a march against the Confederate capital of Richmond, expected to bring an early end to the rebellion. Yielding to political pressure, Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell led his unseasoned Union Army across Bull Run against the inexperienced Confederate Army of Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard camped near Manassas Junction. McDowell's ambitious plan for a surprise flank attack on the Confederate left was poorly executed by his officers and men.
Confederate reinforcements under Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston arrived from the Shenandoah Valley by railroad, the course of the battle changed. A brigade of Virginians under the unknown brigadier general from the Virginia Military Institute, Thomas J. Jackson, stood its ground, which resulted in Jackson receiving his famous nickname, "Stonewall"; the Confederates launched a strong counterattack, as the Union troops began withdrawing under fire, many panicked and the retreat turned into a rout. McDowell's men frantically ran without order in the direction of Washington, D. C. Both armies were sobered by the fierce fighting and many casualties, realized that the war was going to be much longer and bloodier than either had anticipated; the First Battle of Bull Run highlighted many of the problems and deficiencies that were typical of the first year of the war. Units were committed piecemeal, attacks were frontal, infantry failed to protect exposed artillery, tactical intelligence was nil, neither commander was able to employ his whole force effectively.
McDowell, with 35,000 men, was only able to commit about 18,000, the combined Confederate forces, with about 32,000 men, committed only 18,000. On April 15, 1861, the day after South Carolina military forces attacked and captured Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, President Abraham Lincoln issued a proclamation declaring an insurrection against the laws of the United States. Earlier, South Carolina and seven other Southern states had declared their secession from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. To suppress the rebellion and restore Federal law in the Southern states, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers with ninety-day enlistments to augment the existing U. S. Army of about 15,000, he accepted an additional 40,000 volunteers with three-year enlistments and increased the strength of the U. S. Army to 20,000. Lincoln's actions caused four more Southern states, including Virginia, to secede and join the Confederacy, by 1 June the Confederate capital had been moved from Montgomery, Alabama, to Richmond, Virginia.
In Washington, D. C. as thousands of volunteers rushed to defend the capital, General in Chief Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott laid out his strategy to subdue the rebellious states, he proposed that an army of 80,000 men be organized and sail down the Mississippi River and capture New Orleans. While the Army "strangled" the Confederacy in the west, the U. S. Navy would blockade Southern ports along the eastern and Gulf coasts; the press ridiculed what they dubbed as Scott's "Anaconda Plan". Instead, many believed the capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond, only one hundred miles south of Washington, would end the war. By July 1861 thousands of volunteers were camped around Washington. Since General Scott was seventy-five years old and physically unable to lead this force, the administration searched for a more suitable field commander. Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase championed 42-year-old Maj. Irvin McDowell. Although McDowell was a West Point graduate, his command experience was limited.
In fact, he had spent most of his career engaged in various staff duties in the Adjutant General's Office. While stationed in Washington he had become acquainted with Chase, a former Ohio governor and senator. Now, through Chase's influence, McDowell was promoted three grades to brigadier general in the Regular Army and on 27 May was assigned command of the Department of Northeastern Virginia, which included the military forces in and around Washington. McDowell began organizing what became known as the Army of Northeastern Virginia, 35,000 men arranged in five divisions. Under public and political pressure to begin offensive operations, McDowell was given little time to train the newly inducted troops. Units were instructed in the maneuvering of regiments, but they received little or no training at the brigade or division level, he was reassured by President Lincoln, "You are green, it is true, but they are green also. Against his better judgment, McDowell commenced campaigning. During the previous year, U.
S. Army captain Thomas Jordan set up a pro-Southern spy network in Washington City, including Rose O'Neal Greenhow, a prominent socialite with a wide range of contacts, he provided her with a code for messages. After he left to join the Confederate Army, he gave her control of his network bu
The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, USA, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. It is sometimes known as the Lower Peninsula to distinguish it from two other peninsulas to the north, the Middle Peninsula and the Northern Neck, it is the site of historic Jamestown, founded in 1607 as the first English settlement in North America. Geographically located at the northwestern reaches, Charles City and New Kent counties are part of the Virginia Peninsula. In the 21st century, they are considered part of the Richmond-Petersburg region; the rest of the Virginia Peninsula is all part of the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA with a population of about 1.8 million. The Hampton Roads MSA is the common name for the metropolitan area that surrounds the body of water of the same name, it is the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the Southeast and the 32nd largest in the United States. The land portion of Hampton Roads has been divided into two regions, the Virginia Peninsula or Peninsula on the north side, South Hampton Roads on the south side.
More the boundaries of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area have expanded to include the two southernmost counties of the Middle Peninsula, across the York River from the Virginia Peninsula. Early in the 16th century, Spanish explorers were the first Europeans to see the Chesapeake Bay, which they called Bahía de Madre de Dios or Bahía de Santa Maria, they were searching for the Northwest Passage to India and the Orient.. They named the land now known as Virginia, as Ajacán; the Spanish succeeded in founding a colonial settlement in the New World in 1565 at St. Augustine, Florida, it was the first founded by Europeans in. They established small Spanish outposts along the eastern coast into present-day Georgia and the Carolinas; the northern-most post was Santa Elena. From there Juan Pardo was commissioned to lead expeditions into the interior, founding Fort San Juan in 1567-1568 at the regional Mississippian culture chiefdom of Joara. Located in present-day western North Carolina, this was the first European settlement in the interior of North America.
The first permanent English settlement in North America was established in 1607 at Jamestown. The first continuously occupied settlement was at Kecoughtan in Elizabeth City County what is now the City of Hampton. Nearby, Fort Monroe, the country's oldest military base still in use is located at Old Point Comfort. Old Point Comfort is the site of the first landing of Africans in America, in 1619. After declaring independence from Great Britain, Virginia's first state capital was Williamsburg; the decisive battle of the American Revolution, the siege of Yorktown in 1781, took place on the Virginia Peninsula. During the American Civil War, the Union Army invaded the Virginia Peninsula as part of the Peninsula Campaign in 1862 to capture Richmond, beginning from Fort Monroe at the entrance to Hampton Roads, which had remained in Union control after Virginia seceded in 1861. At the outset of the Peninsula Campaign, the Battle of Hampton Roads between the first ironclad warships took place near the mouth of the James River off the eastern tip of Warwick County.
The 1862 Siege of Yorktown took place along the York River. After a lengthy standoff, the largest Union Army of the war under General George B. McClellan chased the retreating Confederates through the Williamsburg Line and westward to the "Gates of Richmond", where the swampy upper reaches of the Chickahominy River created a natural barrier behind which the defenders held the Confederate capital prolonging the war for three more devastating years; as the region and Virginia rebuilt during Reconstruction, the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway under the leadership of Collis P. Huntington was completed from Richmond to the Ohio River by 1871. Long a dream of Virginians, sponsored by both Virginia and West Virginia, the new railroad opened paths to ship products west, as well as offering an economically viable method of shipping the rich bituminous coal of the region to fuel the Industrial Revolution. However, the tidal portion of the James River, while navigable from Hampton Roads to the Fall Line at Richmond, couldn't accommodate the deep drafts of collier ships.
The Peninsula had been long without a railroad, newly developing technology beginning in the 1830s. In 1881, the Peninsula Extension of the C&O was built from Richmond through Williamsburg to Newport News Point. There, Collis Huntington, his associates, his Old Dominion Land Company developed his vision for the area. Within only 15 years, a rural farm community in Warwick County turned into the new independent city of Newport News, Virginia by 1896 as new coal piers brought ships to what would become the world's largest shipyard, Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company. Hotels, houses and businesses sprung up there, at many points along the new rail line in Warwick and James City counties. Oyster Point became a shipping place for the watermen and the new town of Lee Hall, Virginia emerged, became an important point due to its proximity to Yorktown and to the new military base which became the U. S. Army's Fort Eustis. In Elizabeth City County, tracks were extended from Newport News to reach Old Point Comfort, where resort hotels and Buckroe Beach were developed.
There, a new town was incorporated. Phoebus was named after one of its early leading citizens, Harrison Phoebu
Geneseo, New York
Geneseo is a town in Livingston County in the Finger Lakes region of New York, United States on the far south end of the five-county Rochester Metropolitan Area. The population was 10,483 at the 2010 census; the town and surrounding area is quite rural. The English name "Geneseo" is an anglicization of the Iroquois name for the earlier Iroquois town there, Gen-nis-he-yo. A village of the same name lies within the town's western portion; the town is known today as the home of the State University of New York at Geneseo. Near Geneseo was the largest Seneca village, a center of power for the Iroquois Confederacy, it was the Confederacy's "bread basket", with orchards and fields of maize and vegetables. During the American Revolution, the Seneca joined the British and the Tories against the colonists who were fighting for independence; the alliance's raids from the west was a major threat to the American cause, General Washington sent the Sullivan Expedition to neutralize the Iroquois. As Sullivan's army approached Geneseo with their "scorched earth" policy, the Senecas fell back.
However, a large Seneca party ambushed one of Sullivan's scouting parties, carried them as prisoners to Geneseo and tortured them to death. When Sullivan's troops arrived and found the savagely mutilated bodies, they became enraged and destroyed anything that could support the Iroquois. No longer able to raid from Geneseo and the surrounding area, about 5,000 Seneca fled to British-held Fort Niagara, where they spent one of the coldest winters on record, with much loss of life, in camps outside the fort with only the small amount of supplies the British could spare; the town was established before the formation of Livingston County. The settlement of Geneseo by the colonists began shortly after the arrival of James and William Wadsworth in 1790; the brothers came to the Genesee Valley from Connecticut as agents of their uncle, Colonel Jeremiah Wadsworth, to care for and sell the land he had purchased. The Wadsworths were participants in the negotiations of the Treaty of Big Tree between Robert Morris and the Senecas at the site of Geneseo in 1797.
Geneseo, as well as nearby Mount Morris, was part of The Morris Reserve Morris held back from his sale of much of western New York to the Holland Land Company. Geneseo was the birthplace of Eliza Emily Chappell Porter in 1807, a nurse, school builder, underground railroad operative during the Civil War. Geneseo was the birthplace, in 1851, of the swindler Ferdinand Ward; the village of Geneseo became the county seat of Livingston County in 1821 and was incorporated in 1832. The State Normal School, now the SUNY Geneseo, opened in 1871. A portion of the village was designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Department of the Interior in 1991; the valley of the Genesee is wide and fertile, with some of the best agricultural land in New York, but it was prone to flooding, Geneseo suffered several bad floods until the United States Army Corps of Engineers' construction of the Mount Morris Dam upstream of the community in the 1950s. Agriculture is now a large contributor to Geneseo's economy.
Geneseo is used by many as a bedroom community for jobs in nearby Rochester. The village of Geneseo is governed by four trustees; the town can be divided into three geographies: the village has a small-town atmosphere, much of Route 20A is commercialized, the majority of the town's area is farmland. One of the main issues faced by the community today is urban sprawl; the increasing presence of big-box stores on Route 20A has been welcomed by some residents, who appreciate the convenience of nearby retailers, discouraged by others, who oppose the suburbanization of the small town. The Geneseo Airport is a general aviation airport west of the village, on the Wadsworth farm, it was established during July 1969, is used for 20 aircraft operations each day. Since 1980, it has hosted groups restoring and operating historic military aircraft—originally the National Warplane Museum, now the 1941 Historical Aircraft Group Museum. An airshow is held annually during the second weekend in July; the Association for the Preservation of Geneseo is a civic organization dedicated to preserving and restoring the places of civic and historic interest to Geneseo and to educate members of the community to their architectural and historical heritage.
Additional aims and purposes are to encourage others to contribute their knowledge and financial assistance. Sweet Briar and the Wadsworth Fort Site are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Geneseo Central School District encompasses Geneseo and Groveland, consists of Geneseo Central School, which graduates 75 students each year. The school mascot wear blue and white, with a gray accent color. Past accent colors included black. In 1933, the school in 1963 added a wing. In 1974 it moved into a new building at its present location on Avon Road. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 45.2 square miles, of which, 44.0 square miles of it is land and 1.2 square miles of it is water. The Genesee River defines the western town line, Conesus Lake defines the eastern town line. Interstate 390 and U. S. Route 20A pass through the town, along with State Routes 39, 63, 256. Avon Livonia; the town includes a number of hamlets on the w
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa