James Maitland Stewart was an American actor and military officer. Known for his distinctive drawl and everyman screen persona, Stewart had a film career that spanned over 55 years and 80 films. With the strong morality he portrayed both on and off the screen, Stewart epitomized the "American ideal" in twentieth-century United States. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked him third on its list of the greatest American male actors. Born and raised in Indiana, Stewart started acting while studying at Princeton University. After graduating in 1932, he began a career as a stage actor, appearing on Broadway and in summer stock productions. In 1935, he signed a film contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; the studio did not see leading man material in Stewart, but after three years of supporting roles and being loaned out to other studios, he had his big breakthrough in Frank Capra's ensemble comedy You Can't Take It with You. The following year, Stewart garnered his first Academy Award nomination for his portrayal of an idealized and virtuous man who becomes a senator in Capra's Mr. Smith Goes to Washington.
He won the Academy Award for his work in the screwball comedy The Philadelphia Story, which starred Katharine Hepburn and Cary Grant. A licensed amateur pilot, Stewart enlisted as a private in the Army Air Corps as soon as he could after the United States entered the Second World War in 1941. Although still an MGM star, his only public and film appearances in 1941—1945 were scheduled by the Air Corps. After fighting in the European theater of war, he had attained the rank of colonel and had received several awards for his service, he remained in the U. S. Air Force Reserve and was promoted to brigadier general in 1959, he retired in 1968, was awarded the United States Air Force Distinguished Service Medal. After the war, Stewart had difficulties in adapting to changing Hollywood and thought about ending his acting career, he became a freelancer, had his first postwar role was as George Bailey in Capra's It's a Wonderful Life. Although it earned him an Oscar nomination, the film was not a big success at first.
It has gained in popularity in the decades since its release, is considered a Christmas classic and one of Stewart's most famous performances. In the 1950s, Stewart experienced a career revival by playing darker, more morally ambiguous characters in westerns and thrillers; some of his most important collaborations during this period were with directors Anthony Mann, with whom he made eight films including Winchester'73, The Glenn Miller Story and The Naked Spur, Alfred Hitchcock, with whom he collaborated on Rope, Rear Window, The Man Who Knew Too Much, Vertigo. Vertigo was ignored by critics at its time of release, but has since been reevaluated and recognized as an American cinematic masterpiece, his other films in the 1950s included the Broadway adaptation Harvey and the courtroom drama Anatomy of a Murder, both of which landed him Academy Award nominations. He was one of the most popular film stars of the decade, with most of his films becoming box office successes. Stewart's Westerns included The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance and Cheyenne Autumn, both directed by John Ford.
He signed a lucrative multi-movie deal with 20th Century-Fox in 1962, appeared in many popular family comedies during the decade. After a brief venture into television acting, Stewart semi-retired by the 1980s, although he remained a public figure due to the renewed interest in his films with Capra and Hitchcock and his appearances at President Reagan's White House, he received many honorary awards, including an honorary Academy Honorary Award and the Presidential Medal of Freedom, both in 1985. Stewart remained unmarried until his 40s, was dubbed "The Great American Bachelor" by the press. In 1949, he married former model Gloria Hatrick McLean, they had twin daughters, he adopted her two sons from her previous marriage. The marriage lasted until McLean's death in 1994. James Maitland Stewart was born on May 20, 1908, in Indiana, the eldest child and only son born to Elizabeth Ruth and Alexander Maitland Stewart. Stewart had two younger sisters and Virginia, he was of Ulster-Scot ancestry. The Stewart family had lived in Pennsylvania for many generations.
Stewart's father ran the family business, the J. M. Stewart and Company Hardware Store, which he hoped Stewart would take over as an adult after attending Princeton University, as was the family tradition. Raised a Presbyterian by his religious father, Stewart was a devout church-goer for much of his life. Stewart's mother was a pianist, music was an important part of family life; when a customer at the store was unable to pay his bill, Stewart's father accepted an old accordion as payment. Stewart learned to play the instrument with the help of a local barber, his accordion became a fixture offstage during his acting career. A shy child, Stewart spent much of his time after school in the basement working on model airplanes, mechanical drawing, chemistry—all with a dream of going into aviation, he attended the Wilson Model School for junior high school. He was not received average to low grades. According to his teachers this was not from a lack of intelligence, but due to being creative and having a tendency to daydream.
Stewart began attending Mercersburg Academy prep school in fall 1923, because his father did not believe he would be accepted into Princeton if he attended public high school. At Mercersburg, Stewart participated in a variety
De Zuid-Afrikaan was a nineteenth-century Dutch language newspaper based in Cape Town that circulated throughout the Cape Colony, published between 1830 and 1930. The paper was founded by the advocate Christoffel Johan Brand on 9 April 1830 and played a major role in providing a mouthpiece for the more educated sections of the Cape Dutch community. Carl Juta, founder of Juta publishers in Cape Town, brother-in-law of Karl Marx, printed De Zuid Afrikaan. Marx wrote begging letters to Juta and in return Juta asked him to write articles for De Zuid Afrikaan; these letters are to be seen in the history files of Co.. In 1930 the paper succumbed to falling circulation figures resulting from the popularity of the Afrikaans language paper, Die Burger; the Dutch established a settlement in the Cape Colony in 1652. By the start of the Napoleonic Wars the colony was about twice the size of the current South African province of the Western Cape with a white population of some 15,500 and a slave population of 17,000.
The descendants of the slave population of Malay extraction, are today part of the Cape Coloured community. During the first century of the European settlement, migration eastwards into what is today the South African province of the Eastern Cape progressed unhindered. Towards the end of the eighteenth century European migration eastwards met with a south-western migration of the Bantu peoples, notably the Xhosa. Friction between the two groups resulted in what has become known as the Xhosa wars, a series of nine wars from 1779 to 1879. During the Napoleonic Wars the colony taken by the British whose occupation was confirmed in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna. After the Napoleonic Wars, large numbers of British settlers arrived in the Cape, amongst others the 1820 Settlers who, numbering some 5000 people, were settled in the eastern parts of the colony to provide better protection against the Xhosa. Shortly after the newspaper's foundation many Dutch farmers from the eastern part of the colony, dissatisfied with British rule, trekked into the interior where they set up their own republics - the Orange Free State and the South African Republic.
Friction between the British authorities and the Boer republics escalated into the First Boer War of 1880-1881 and the Second Boer War of 1899-1902. With the arrival of the 1820 settlers, Thomas Pringle and Abraham Faure were granted permission to produce a monthly newspaper, alternately in English and in Dutch. Pringle was outspoken about the harsh conditions of the 1820 settlers and the governor, Lord Charles Somerset expelled the printer Grieg from the colony; the case was taken to the British Government and in 1828 the Colonial Secretary, Sir George Murray granted the Cape Colony the same freedom of the press as existed in England. The newly won freedom of the press resulted in a number of newssheets being published. On 9 April 1830, an advocate Christoffel Johan Brand together with DG Reitz and JH Neethling established De Zuid-Afrikaan to promote the interests of the Cape Dutch community; the first editor was Charles Etienne Boniface, whose family had fled France during the French Revolution and who, as a sea cadet, had arrived in the Cape Colony on board a British warship.
Brand himself became editor of De Zuid-Afrikaan in 1839. Through his columns, he first opposed the emancipation of slavery on account of the large numbers of loans, estimated at £400,000, taken out by white farmers who used slaves as collateral. Once the abolition laws had been passed, the paper campaigned for appropriate compensation to enable former slave-owners to pay their debts. Although the paper lobbied against many aspects of British rule, including for example warning the British Government not to impose unpopular taxes, it saw British rule as "synonymous with civilized progress and order". The paper played a large role in ensuring that Common Law on South Africa was based on Roman-Dutch Law rather than English Law; the newspaper lobbied for parliamentary representation within the colony and in 1853 Brand became the first speaker in the Cape Parliament. During the middle of the nineteenth century De Zuid-Afrikaan continued to play a central role in the affairs of the Cape-Dutch; the differences between De Zuid-Afrikaan and its English-language rival, The South African Commercial Advertiser were highlighted during the 200th anniversary of the landing of van Riebeeck at the Cape.
While an editorial in the Advertiser extolled the variety of races and creeds in the Cape, all of whom acknowledged the authority of a common Sovereign, De Zuid-Afrikaan commended Faure's sermon in which he gave thanksgiving for the sanctioning of a Christian Church in South Africa. In 1871 Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr, editor of De Volksvriend became editor of De Zuid-Afrikaan, a post that he held until 1904. One of Hofmeyr's first acts was to merge the two publications into one. During the early 1870s, Arnoldus Pannevis and CP Hoogenhout, via letters to De Zuid-Afrikaan argued the need to translate the Bible into Afrikaans for the benefit of the coloured community and the poorer section of the Cape Dutch community who spoke a local patois rather than Dutch. In 1875 SJ du Toit used these sentiments to launch the Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners and his Afrikaans language newspaper Die Patriot. Hofmeyr allowed the presses of De Zuid-Afrikaan to be used for the early editions of Die Patriot though De Zuid-Afrikaaner, being the voice of the better-educated, dismissed Die Patriot as a "common enemy of civilization".
In common with other Dutch and Afrikaans newspapers, Ons Land supported the former Boer general Botha who became prime minister of the newly formed Union of South Afr
Artūras Paulauskas is a Lithuanian politician. He was the Speaker of Seimas, the parliament of Lithuania, from 2000 to 2006, he served as Acting President of Lithuania from 6 April 2004 to 12 July 2004. Artūras Paulauskas graduated from Vilnius University with a degree in law in 1976, he worked as an investigator and a prosecutor. He was Deputy Prosecutor General of Lithuania from 1987 to 1990 and Prosecutor General of Lithuania from 1990 to 1995, he was again Deputy Prosecutor General from 1995 to 1997 and was engaged in private legal practice from 1997 to 2000. Artūras Paulauskas entered politics by running for President of Lithuania in the 1997–1998 elections, he was supported by outgoing President Algirdas Brazauskas and narrowly lost in the runoff to Valdas Adamkus, with Paulauskas gaining 49.6% of vote and Adamkus gaining 50.4%. He established The New Union party, becoming its chairman on 25 April 1998; this party gained 19.6% of vote in the 2000 parliamentary election. Following this election, he became the Speaker of Seimas on 19 October 2000.
Following the impeachment of President Rolandas Paksas on 6 April 2004, Paulauskas served as acting President of Lithuania until early elections were held and a new President, Valdas Adamkus, was sworn on 12 July 2004. On 11 April 2006, Paulauskas was removed from office as Speaker by 94 votes, his party New Union did not participate in the election. Paulauskas was succeeded by Viktoras Muntianas. Paulauskas was named as the candidate for the post of Minister of Environment by Prime Minister Gediminas Kirkilas on 30 January 2008; as Minister, he made a May 2008 statement at a meeting of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development supporting the use of renewable energy resources in Lithuania. In 2015, news media reported that Paulauskas was included in a Russian blacklist of prominent people from the European Union who are not allowed to enter the country. Biography from Seimas website. Personal website Artūras Paulauskas