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James Watson

James Dewey Watson is an American molecular biologist and zoologist. In 1953, he co-authored with Francis Crick the academic paper proposing the double helix structure of the DNA molecule. Watson and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material". Watson earned degrees at the University of Indiana University. Following a post-doctoral year at the University of Copenhagen with Herman Kalckar and Ole Maaløe, Watson worked at the University of Cambridge's Cavendish Laboratory in England, where he first met his future collaborator Francis Crick. From 1956 to 1976, Watson was on the faculty of the Harvard University Biology Department, promoting research in molecular biology. From 1968 he served as director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory expanding its level of funding and research. At CSHL, he shifted his research emphasis to the study of cancer, along with making it a world leading research center in molecular biology.

In 1994, he served for 10 years. He was appointed chancellor, serving until he resigned in 2007 after making comments claiming a genetic link between intelligence and race. Between 1988 and 1992, Watson was associated with the National Institutes of Health, helping to establish the Human Genome Project. Watson has written many science books, including the textbook Molecular Biology of the Gene and his bestselling book The Double Helix. In January 2019, following the broadcast of a television documentary in which Watson repeated his views about race and genetics, CSHL revoked honorary titles that it had awarded to him and severed all ties with him. James D. Watson was born in Chicago on April 6, 1928, as the only son of Jean and James D. Watson, a businessman descended from colonial English immigrants to America, his mother's father, Lauchlin Mitchell, a tailor, was from Glasgow and her mother, Lizzie Gleason, was the child of parents from County Tipperary, Ireland. Raised Catholic, he described himself as "an escapee from the Catholic religion."

Watson said, "The luckiest thing that happened to me was that my father didn't believe in God."Watson grew up on the south side of Chicago and attended public schools, including Horace Mann Grammar School and South Shore High School. He was fascinated with bird watching, a hobby shared with his father, so he considered majoring in ornithology. Watson appeared on Quiz Kids, a popular radio show that challenged bright youngsters to answer questions. Thanks to the liberal policy of University president Robert Hutchins, he enrolled at the University of Chicago, where he was awarded a tuition scholarship, at the age of 15. After reading Erwin Schrödinger's book What Is Life? in 1946, Watson changed his professional ambitions from the study of ornithology to genetics. Watson earned his BS degree in Zoology from the University of Chicago in 1947. In his autobiography, Avoid Boring People, Watson described the University of Chicago as an "idyllic academic institution where he was instilled with the capacity for critical thought and an ethical compulsion not to suffer fools who impeded his search for truth", in contrast to his description of experiences.

In 1947 Watson left the University of Chicago to become a graduate student at Indiana University, attracted by the presence at Bloomington of the 1946 Nobel Prize winner Hermann Joseph Muller, who in crucial papers published in 1922, 1929, in the 1930s had laid out all the basic properties of the heredity molecule that Schrödinger presented in his 1944 book. He received his PhD degree from Indiana University in 1950. Watson was drawn into molecular biology by the work of Salvador Luria. Luria shared the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the Luria–Delbrück experiment, which concerned the nature of genetic mutations, he was part of a distributed group of researchers who were making use of the viruses that infect bacteria, called bacteriophages. He and Max Delbrück were among the leaders of this new "Phage Group," an important movement of geneticists from experimental systems such as Drosophila towards microbial genetics. Early in 1948, Watson began his PhD research in Luria's laboratory at Indiana University.

That spring, he met Delbrück first in Luria's apartment and again that summer during Watson's first trip to the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. The Phage Group was the intellectual medium; the members of the Phage Group sensed that they were on the path to discovering the physical nature of the gene. In 1949, Watson took a course with Felix Haurowitz that included the conventional view of that time: that genes were proteins and able to replicate themselves; the other major molecular component of chromosomes, DNA, was considered to be a "stupid tetranucleotide," serving only a structural role to support the proteins. At this early time, under the influence of the Phage Group, was aware of the Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment, which suggested that DNA was the genetic molecule. Watson's research project involved using X-rays to inactivate bacterial viruses. Watson went to Copenhagen University in September 1950 for a year of postdoctoral research, first heading to the laboratory of biochemist Herman Kalckar.

Kalckar was interested in the enzymatic synthesis of nucleic acids, he wanted to use phages as an experimental system. Watson wanted to explore the structure of DNA, his interests did not coincide with Kalckar's. After working part of the year with Kalckar, Watson s

List of Norfolk County Cricket Club List A players

This is a list of cricketers who have played for Norfolk County Cricket Club in List A matches. Norfolk, one of the Minor Counties, played 26 List A cricket matches – a one-day, limited overs form of cricket – between 1965 and 2003. After making their List A debut in the 1965 Gillette Cup the county played four matches in the competition up to the 1970. Minor counties were not a regular feature of the competition until the 1982 NatWest Trophy after which Norfolk took part every year until the 1985 competition and from 1990 until 2004, the last year in which all Minor Counties were included; the knock-out nature of the Gillette Cup means that in most competitions Norfolk only played one match against a first-class county. The exceptions were in 2000 and 2002 when Norfolk won their opening round match on each occasion and, in 2002, advanced to the third round of the competition after winning two matches. From the 2002 competition onwards the opening rounds of the tournament were held during the previous English cricket season.

As a result, Norfolk's last List A match, in the 2004 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy took place in August 2003. Players are listed alphabetically with the number of matches played and the calendar years in which they made their first and last appearances in List A cricket for Norfolk. Most players made appearances for Norfolk in the Minor Counties Championship; some will have represented other sides in top-class cricket. Only their appearances for Norfolk are included below. Nick Adams, 1 match, 1997 Andrew Agar, 2 matches, 1983–1984 Terry Allcock, 2 matches, 1965–1968 Carl Amos, 13 matches, 1994–2003 Rob Austin, 1 match, 2001 Pierre de Bruyn, 1 match, 2003 Stephen Dixon, 3 matches, 1990–1993 James Donaldson, 2 matches, 1968–1969 Bill Edrich, 4 matches, 1965–1970 Mark Ellis, 2 matches, 1990–1991 Richard Farrow, 2 matches, 1992–1993 Roger Finney, 5 matches, 1990–1994 Neil Foster, 1 match, 1995 Neil Fox, 8 matches, 1993–2000 Peter Free, 4 matches, 2000–2001 James Garner, 6 matches, 2000–2002 Steven Goldsmith, 15 matches, 1993–2003 John Greatrex, 1 match, 1970 Richard Innes, 1 match, 1983 Richard Jefferson, 3 matches, 1968–1970 Raymond Kingshott, 3 matches, 1990–1992 Jimmy Lewis, 2 matches, 1990–1992 Stephen Livermore, 7 matches, 1992–2002 Nigel Llong, 2 matches, 2000 Paul Newman, 12 matches, 1996–2003 Michael Parlane, 2 matches, 2002 David Pilch, 4 matches, 1965–1983 Steve Plumb, 10 matches, 1982–1995 Mark Powell, 2 matches, 1995–1996 Philip Ringwood, 1 match, 1983 Carl Rogers, 17 matches, 1991–2003 Billy Rose, 2 matches, 1965–1970 Claude Rutter, 1 match, 1965

Elisabeth Bing

Elisabeth Dorothea Bing was a German physical therapist, co-founder of Lamaze International, proponent of natural childbirth. She trained as a physical therapist in England after fleeing Nazi Germany due to her Jewish ancestry, her hospital work there made her interested in natural childbirth, she taught it to parents in the United States after she moved there in 1949. To promote natural childbirth methods, she co-founded the American Society for Psychoprophylaxis in Obstetrics, made several TV appearances and radio broadcasts, wrote several books on the subject, she became known as the "mother" of the Lamaze method in the United States. Bing was born on 8 July 1914, in a suburb of Berlin. Hers was a home birth, she was delivered before the doctor could arrive, her family were of Jewish descent, but converted to Protestantism years before her birth, on sensing danger with the rise of Nazi Germany, they decided to leave the country. Elisabeth left Germany for England in September 1933, she was the first of the family to leave.

In England, Bing trained as a physical therapist. At first she took a job as a student nurse, as physical therapy training was cheaper after one year of student nursing, it was difficult to get money abroad from Germany at that time. However, she was forced to quit halfway through after having to have surgery. After she moved to London, her family managed to get enough money to her to pay for her training, she became a member of the Chartered Society of Physical Therapy. Her interest in obstetrics began after working with new mothers in hospital. At the time, standard childbirth procedures involved giving mothers large amounts of medication, keeping them in hospital for ten days after they gave birth. Bing's job was to give physical therapy to these postpartum mothers. After talking about her experiences at the hospital with one of her part-time private patients, she learned of Grantly Dick-Read's book Natural Childbirth, she was unable to meet Read or other like-minded individuals because of the outbreak of World War II, so she taught herself as much as she could about obstetrics.

In 1949, Bing moved to Jacksonville, Illinois, in the United States, at the invitation of her sister. It was here that she first got the chance to teach natural childbirth methods, after being invited by an obstetrician she met at a house party, she coached all of the obstetrician's patients in natural childbirth. After a year of this, she decided to go back to England. However, as she passed through New York, she met her husband, Fred Max Bing, decided to remain there, they married in 1951. Bing continued to teach natural childbirth methods in New York, in 1951 she was invited by Dr. Alan Guttmacher to teach at Mount Sinai Hospital, which had just opened its first maternity ward, it was here that she heard about the psychoprophylactic method of childbirth developed by Dr. Fernand Lamaze. Lamaze's method incorporated breathing techniques as well as the natural childbirth techniques developed by Read. Mount Sinai Hospital cound not afford to send Bing to France to learn the method from Lamaze, but she met Marjorie Karmel, who had published the book Thank You, Dr. Lamaze, in 1959.

Karmel had learned the method directly from Lamaze in Paris, she in turn taught it to Bing. In 1960, the two went on to found the American Society for Psychoprophylaxis in Obstetrics, now known as Lamaze International. Bing was an advocate for the importance of mothers making informed childbirth decisions; as well as educating parents about childbirth, she worked with obstetricians to introduce them to natural childbirth methods. She wrote articles, she became known as the "mother" of Lamaze among the American public. Bing died at the age of 100 in her New York apartment in May 2015, she was survived by her son, Peter

First Johnson ministry

The first Johnson ministry began on 24 July 2019 when Queen Elizabeth II invited Boris Johnson to form a new government, following the resignation of the previous Prime Minister Theresa May. May had resigned as Leader of the Conservative Party on 7 June 2019; the Johnson ministry was formed from the 57th Parliament of the United Kingdom, as a Conservative minority government. It lost its working majority on 3 September 2019 when Tory MP Dr Phillip Lee crossed the floor to the Liberal Democrats. An election was called for 12 December 2019, which led to the formation of the Conservative majority second Johnson ministry. Theresa May announced on 24 May 2019 that she would resign as Leader of the Conservative Party and therefore Prime Minister, after failing three times to secure passage through the House of Commons of her Withdrawal Agreement and Implementation Bill, which would have seen the United Kingdom leave the European Union, her announcement followed the Conservative Party's poor showing in the 2019 European Parliament elections in the UK.

Her resignation as Conservative leader took effect on 7 June 2019. The former London Mayor and Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson was elected to succeed May on 23 July 2019, he was appointed Prime Minister on the following day by Queen Elizabeth II. Johnson inherited a minority government, supported by a confidence and supply agreement with the Democratic Unionist Party of Northern Ireland. Johnson appointed his cabinet on 24 July 2019, describing it as a "Cabinet for modern Britain", with The Guardian branding it "an ethnically diverse but ideologically homogeneous statement of intent". While forming his government, Johnson dismissed 11 senior ministers and accepted the resignation of six others, a purge described by Johnson's ally Nigel Evans as "not so much a reshuffle as a summer's day massacre"; the mass dismissal was the most extensive Cabinet reorganisation without a change in ruling party in postwar British political history, exceeding the seven Cabinet ministers dismissed in the "Night of the Long Knives" of 1962, was dubbed the "Night of the Blond Knives" by The Sun.

Among other appointments, Johnson made Dominic Raab the First Secretary of State and Foreign Secretary, appointed Sajid Javid and Priti Patel as Chancellor of the Exchequer and Home Secretary respectively. Johnson increased the number of ministers attending the Cabinet to 33, four more than had attended the May Cabinet. One quarter of those appointed were women, proportionally less than the Cameron ministries; the Cabinet set a new record for ethnic minority representation, with four secretaries of state and two additional ministers coming from minority backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of those appointed went to fee-paying schools, half had attended Oxford or Cambridge universities. Johnson created a new ministerial title to be held by himself, Minister for the Union, fulfilling a campaign pledge he had made in the leadership election. Loss of majority and ministerial resignations Johnson lost his working majority on 3 September 2019, when Dr Phillip Lee crossed the floor to join the Liberal Democrats.

This was reduced further the same day when 21 Conservative MPs had the whip removed after voting against the Government in order to enable Parliament to take control of the order paper and to debate a back bench bill designed to prevent a no-deal Brexit. On 5 September 2019, Johnson's brother and Orpington MP Jo Johnson announced his intention to resign both his ministerial position and parliamentary seat, stating “In recent weeks I’ve been torn between family loyalty and the national interest — it’s an unresolvable tension & time for others to take on my roles as MP & Minister.” On 7 September 2019, Amber Rudd announced she was resigning as Secretary of State for Work and Pensions and Minister for Women and Equalities, leaving the Conservative Party. Amid an impasse in parliament over Brexit, an election was called for 12 December 2019 by virtue of the passage of the Early Parliamentary General Election Act 2019 on 31 October 2019; the Conservatives won a majority in that election, leading to the formation of the second Johnson ministry.

Every minister in post when the election was called remained in the same post after the election up until the February 2020 reshuffle, with the exception of the Secretary of State for Wales. Jo Johnson quit the government on 5 September 2019 and said that he would resign as an MP, his spot in the cabinet was filled by Zac Goldsmith, made Minister of State at the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs and at the Department for International Development on 10 September 2019. Amber Rudd resigned from the cabinet and from the Conservative Party on 7 September 2019, she was replaced as Secretary of State for Work and Pensions by Therese Coffey on 8 September 2019, as Minister for Women and Equalities by Liz Truss on 10 September 2019. Alun Cairns resigned from his post of Welsh Secretary on 6 November 2019. Johnson cabinets, of Boris Johnson as Mayor of London Second Johnson ministry


Klina is a town and municipality located in the Peć District of north-western Kosovo. According to the 2011 census, the town of Klina has 5,542 inhabitants, while the municipality has 38,496 inhabitants, it is located at the confluence of the river Klina into the White Drin. During Early Middle Ages, Porphyrogenitus mentions the urban center of Desstinik, today Dersnik/Drsnik, where important archeological discoveries of Roman period were made in August 2013, described as:...the most important discovery of the past few decades to have been made in Kosovo in the area of archaeology. A symbol of Klina are the Mirusha Waterfalls. There is one bauxite mine operating on the territory of Klina - Grebnik mine. According to the last official census done in 2011, the municipality of Klina has 38,496 inhabitants. Based on the population estimates from the Kosovo Agency of Statistics in 2016, the municipality has 39,759 inhabitants; the ethnic composition of the municipality: In September 2014, 12 Egyptian families returned to Klina having spent the last 15 years displaced in Podgorica, Montenegro.

The families moved straight into a newly constructed neighbourhood as part of project helping refugees from the Kosovo War return to Kosovo. Anton Berisha and scholar Sadik Rama Gjurgjeviku, Kosovo Albanian guerrilla fighter, born in Veliki Đurđevik. Media related to Klina at Wikimedia Commons Komuna Klina

Magnus Bromelius

Magnus Bromelius, ennobled Von Bromell, born in Stockholm in 1679, died in 1731, was a Swedish physician and paleontologist. He was the son of botanist Olof Bromelius and Agnes Svinhufvud af Qvalstad. Bromelius became a doctor of medicine in 1703 in Reims, was appointed a member of the Collegium medicum in 1705. At the same time he inherited a considerable fortune, which allowed him to devote his time to enlarge the collections of natural objects and medals, he inherited from his father, he was appointed Professor of Anatomy in Stockholm in 1716, but soon left for a position at Collegium medicum, where he became president in 1724. He was elevated in 1726 to nobility. Bromelius wrote many papers in numismatics and science; some of them are contained in the "Acta Literaria et Scientiarum Sveciæ", including "Introduction to essential knowledge to recognize and order all sorts of rocks and fossils, etc.". According to Elias Fries he was the first Swede to describe plant fossils. In Lithographia Suecana Bromelius discusses fossil trilobites and shells from Gotland and plant fossils.

The mineral bromellite was named in his honour. This article or an earlier version is translated from the Swedish Wikipedia, which parts fall under the Creative Commons Attribution. See this page for editing history