Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is the husband of Elizabeth II. Philip was born into the Danish royal families, he was born in Greece. After being educated in France and the United Kingdom, he joined the British Royal Navy in 1939, aged 18. From July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth, whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War he served with distinction in the Pacific Fleets. After the war, Philip was granted permission by George VI to marry Elizabeth. Before the official announcement of their engagement in July 1947, he abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles and became a naturalised British subject, adopting the surname Mountbatten from his maternal grandparents, he married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947. Just before the wedding, he was created Baron Earl of Merioneth and Duke of Edinburgh. Philip left active military service when Elizabeth became queen in 1952, having reached the rank of commander, was formally made a British prince in 1957.
Philip and Elizabeth have four children: Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. Through a British Order in Council issued in 1960, descendants of the couple not bearing royal styles and titles can use the surname Mountbatten-Windsor, used by some members of the royal family who do hold titles, such as Princess Anne and Princes Andrew and Edward. A keen sports enthusiast, Philip helped develop the equestrian event of carriage driving, he is a patron, president or member of over 780 organisations and serves as chairman of The Duke of Edinburgh's Award for people aged 14 to 24. He is the longest-serving consort of a reigning British monarch and the oldest male member of the British royal family. Philip retired from his royal duties on 2 August 2017, at the age of 96, having completed 22,219 solo engagements since 1952. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark was born in Mon Repos on the Greek island of Corfu on 10 June 1921, the only son and fifth and final child of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg.
Philip's four elder sisters were Margarita, Theodora and Sophie. He was baptised in the Greek Orthodox rite at St. George's Church in the Old Fortress in Corfu, his godparents were his paternal grandmother Queen Olga of Greece, represented by Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, Alexandros S. Kokotos, the Mayor of Corfu, representing the people of Corfu. Shortly after Philip's birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg known as Louis Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven, died in London. Louis was a naturalised British citizen, after a career in the Royal Navy, had renounced his German titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten—an Anglicized version of Battenberg—during the First World War, owing to anti-German sentiment in Great Britain. After visiting London for the memorial and his mother returned to Greece where Prince Andrew had remained behind to command an army division embroiled in the Greco-Turkish War; the war went badly for Greece, the Turks made large gains. On 22 September 1922, Philip's uncle, King Constantine I, was forced to abdicate and the new military government arrested Prince Andrew, along with others.
The commander of the army, General Georgios Hatzianestis, five senior politicians were executed. Prince Andrew's life was believed to be in danger, Alice was under surveillance. In December, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece for life; the British naval vessel HMS Calypso evacuated Prince Andrew's family, with Philip carried to safety in a cot made from a fruit box. Philip's family went to France, where they settled in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud in a house lent to them by his wealthy aunt, Princess George of Greece and Denmark; because Philip left Greece as a baby, he does not have a strong grasp of the Greek language. In 1992, he said that he "could understand a certain amount". Philip has stated that he has thought of himself as Danish, his family spoke English and German. Philip, who in his youth was known for his charm, was linked to a number of women including Osla Benning. Philip was first educated at The Elms, an American school in Paris run by Donald MacJannet, who described Philip as a "know it all smarty person, but always remarkably polite".
In 1928, he was sent to the United Kingdom to attend Cheam School, living with his maternal grandmother, Victoria Mountbatten, Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven, at Kensington Palace and his uncle, George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven, at Lynden Manor in Bray, Berkshire. In the next three years, his four sisters married German princes and moved to Germany, his mother was diagnosed with schizophrenia and placed in an asylum, his father took up residence in Monte Carlo. Philip had little contact with his mother for the remainder of his childhood. In 1933, he was sent to Schule Schloss Salem in Germany, which had the "advantage of saving school fees" because it was owned by the family of his brother-in-law, Margrave of Baden. With the rise of Nazism in Germany, Salem's Jewish founder, Kurt Hahn, fled persecution and founded Gordonstoun School in Scotland, which Philip moved to after two terms at Salem. In 1937, his sister Cecilie, her husband Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse, her two young sons and Alexander, her newborn infant, her mother-in-law, Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich, were killed in an air crash at Ostend.
The following year, his uncle and guardian Lord Milford Haven died of bone marrow cancer. After leaving Gordonstoun in early 193
Jamestown Rediscovery is an archaeological project of Preservation Virginia investigating the remains of the original settlement at Jamestown established in the Virginia Colony beginning on May 14, 1607. In 1994, at the behest of Preservation Virginia, archaeologist William Kelso began directing excavations at Historic Jamestowne on Jamestown Island. By 1996, the Jamestown Rediscovery team had discovered the foundations of the 1607 James Fort, long thought to have disappeared in the waters of the James River. A 10-year project, given the wealth of knowledge and artifacts uncovered throughout its lifetime, it has been continued indefinitely. In 1994, Preservation Virginia agreed to fund a 10-year archaeological project called Jamestown Rediscovery, in order to archaeologically explore their land; the original goal was to locate archaeological remains of "the first years of settlement at Jamestown of the earliest fortified town. On April 4 work was begun in the area near the church protected by the 1900 sea wall, archaeologists discovered early colonial artifacts.
In 1996, they located parts of the palisade of the original 1607 James Fort. The news was made public on September 12 by the governor. Subsequent excavations have shown that only one corner of the first triangular fort turned out to have been destroyed. In 2006, the first well located in a cellar on the site was excavated. In 2007, to mark the 400th anniversary, Queen Elizabeth II re-visited the site. In 2010, archaeologists discovered the site of the second church constructed at Jamestown. In May 2013, in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution, the project announced the discovery of a young English woman, cannibalized during the "starving time" winter of 1609-1610. In July 2015, the remains of four principals of the colony were identified by the Rediscovery/Smithsonian team. From late 2016, attention has moved to the Memorial Church. Since it began, the extended archaeological campaign has made multiple significant discoveries. In addition, it has uncovered much of the fort, the remains of several houses and wells, a palisade wall line attached to the fort and the graves of several of the early settlers.
Visitors can now view the site of James Fort, the 17th-century church tower and the site of the 17th-century town, as well as tour an archaeological museum called the Archaearium and view some of the artifacts found. Excavations continuing on the site have uncovered evidence of the Starving Time winter of 1609/10, the arrival of the survivors from the Bermuda shipwreck Sea Venture and close to 1.5 million artifacts. The colonists' structures have been identified including temporary soldiers' shelters, row houses, the storehouse, the 1608 church; the original 10-year archaeological project has continued well past this period. Several of the archaeologist teams' discoveries have been named as the top 10 archaeology finds in various years by Archaeology, including evidence that the colonists had resorted to cannibalism during the "starving time" from finds in 2013, the discovery of the original church built inside James Fort in 2010, subsequently the identification of four graves within it belonging to important Jamestown settlers in 2015.
Jamestown Rediscovery lies in the correction of a historical myth thought to be true – that the site of the original Jamestown settlement of 1607 had washed into the James River long ago. The archaeologists, including William Kelso, Beverly Straube, Nick Luccketti, used primary source material to estimate the location of the fort on Jamestown Island, such as the Zuniga Map, created by a Spanish spy of the same name, the accounts of original colonists, such as William Strachey, Captain Ralph Hamor, John Smith. Upon analysis of these sources and other buildings, the Jamestown Rediscovery archaeologists discovered the postholes of the original fort. After expanding the dig, the archaeologists were able to validate that the Jamestown Fort had only begun to wash into the James River, but was instead covered inadvertently by a Confederate earthwork during the American Civil War. Throughout this excavation, the team discovered evidence of fort buildings and the remains of settlers. To date the project had retrieved over two million artifacts, a large fraction of them from the first few years of the settlement's history.
The discovery of a well within the limits of the Jamestown fort is less critical for understanding the colonial attempt to find a fresh water source and more important due to the artifacts found in the well. Wells that had stopped providing drinkable water were filled in with the refuse of daily life, which gave the archaeologists the opportunity to look at a concentrated collection of stratified artifacts. Tobacco pipes, pottery sherds, combat armor all help date the excavation site to the early 17th century, giving more support to the positive identification of the fort. In this case, curator Beverly Straube was able to substantiate evidence regarding the professional work done by the original settlers. Goldsmiths, masons, tailors, coopers, glassmakers and tobacco pipe makers are among the dominant professions for which there is archaeological evidence; the Jam
Cape Henry is a cape on the Atlantic shore of Virginia located in the northeast corner of Virginia Beach. It is the southern boundary of the entrance to the long estuary of the Chesapeake Bay. Across the mouth of the bay to the north is Cape Charles the opposite point of the Bay's gateway. Named for two sons of King James I of England in 1607, together Cape Henry and Cape Charles form the Virginia Capes. Cape Henry was named on April 26, 1607 in honor of Henry Frederick Stuart, the elder of two sons of King James I of England to survive to the age of 18 and heir-apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of England, by an expedition of the London Company branch of the proprietary Virginia Company headed by Captain Christopher Newport. After an unusually long voyage of 144 days from England, it was their first landfall, an event which has come to be called "The First Landing". Soon after this landing the English colonists erected a wooden cross and gave thanks for a successful crossing to a new land.
In the First Charter of Virginia, King James I devoted parcels of land for the purpose of spreading the Christian religion. The Charter reads in part: "We commending, graciously accepting of, their Desires for the Furtherance of so noble a Work, which may, by the Providence of Almighty God, hereafter tend to the Glory of his Divine Majesty, in propagating of Christian Religion to such People, as yet live in Darkness and miserable Ignorance..." Captain Newport, with his three ships, Susan Constant, the Godspeed, the Discovery, the group of 104 men and boys, subsequently explored inland and established Jamestown on an island for protection offshore from the north shore further upstream on the James River which became the first permanent English settlement in North America. The following year of 1608, Captain John Smith took a crew with a small boat outfitted with a sail and proceeded north up the Chesapeake Bay exploring and mapping its coasts and rivers and bays up to the named Susquehanna River which fed the Bay.
In 1781, the waters off of these Virginia Capes and the entrance to the Chesapeake and Hampton Roads harbor were the site of an important naval clash between warships of the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of England near the end of the American Revolutionary War in the Battle of the Capes. The victory of the French Navy over the British Royal Navy cut off the King's Army troops of Lord Charles Cornwallis surrounded and under siege for a month at Yorktown, Virginia, a short distance up the Bay on the Western Shore's York River, they had been pursued after a series of clashes for several years in the Southern Theater in Georgia and the Carolinas by rebel patriot regular forces of soldiers under the command of Gen. Nathanael Greene and Daniel Morgan, along with irregular bands of guerilla partisans sniping and wearing down the Redcoats by attrition; as Cornwallis headed northward to the rich untouched colony of Virginia and hoping to be reinforced / resupplied or evacuated if necessary on the ragged shores of the Carolina coast or the Chesapeake where British seapower and naval dominance could be brought to bear.
The French fleet under Admiral deGrasse sent from the Caribbean Sea and West Indies islands with an unusual naval victory over the British taskforce who had sent a second fleet from occupied New York retreating back northward, supposed to reinforce and guard Cornwallis' seaward side. The British general was forced to surrender in October 1781 to a combined jointly commanded American-French Army with German states mercenary allies under Gen. George Washington, Gen. Marquis de Lafayette and French Army troops under Gen. Rochambeau who had deceived Gen. William Howe commander in New York where the Northern Theater had stalemated and sneaked out slipping and gaining several weeks march southward down the East Coast to surprise and catch Cornwallis' Redcoats camped at Yorktown in a siege. For the first time in the six year long rebellion, the insurgents had numerical superiority in numbers and artillery along with adequate cooperating seapower from the French allies; the little known sea Battle of the Capes a few miles off the American Virginia coast was the nail in the coffin to assure colonial independence as the War ended a year and a half with the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
The Cape Henry Memorial commemorates The First Landing of the settlers. Nearby, the historic Cape Henry Lighthouse was the first in the United States. Of historical interest, the passenger station built in 1902 and served by the original Norfolk Southern Railway was restored late in the 20th century and is used as an educational facility by Fort Story, an army base located at Cape Henry, established in 1914. First Landing State Park occupies and protects the rest of the cape itself, as well as some of the nearby area. Shore Drive, a locally well-known road, facilitates viewing of the rest of the shoreline in Cape Henry. NPS Cape Henry website Cape Henry Lighthouse info
A seawall is a form of coastal defense constructed where the sea, associated coastal processes, impact directly upon the landforms of the coast. The purpose of a sea wall is to protect areas of human habitation and leisure activities from the action of tides, waves, or tsunamis; as a seawall is a static feature it will conflict with the dynamic nature of the coast and impede the exchange of sediment between land and sea. The shoreline is part of the coastal interface, exposed to a wide range of erosional processes arising from fluvial and terrestrial sources, meaning that a combination of denudational processes will work against a seawall; the coast is a high-energy, dynamic environment with spatial variations over a wide range of timescales. The coast is exposed to erosion by rivers and winds as well as the sea, so that a combination of denudational processes will work against a sea wall; because of these persistent natural forces, sea walls need to be maintained to maintain their effectiveness.
The many types of sea wall in use today reflect both the varying physical forces they are designed to withstand, location specific aspects, such as local climate, coastal position, wave regime, value of landform. Sea walls are hard engineering shore-based structures, but various environmental problems and issues may arise from the construction of a sea wall, including disrupting sediment movement and transport patterns. Combined with a high construction cost, this has led to an increasing use of other soft engineering coastal management options such as beach replenishment. Sea walls may be constructed from various materials, most reinforced concrete, steel, or gabions. Other possible construction materials are: vinyl, aluminium, fibreglass composite, large biodegrable sandbags made of jute and coir. In the UK, sea wall refers to an earthen bank used to create a polder, or a dike construction. A seawall works by reflecting incident wave energy back into the sea, thus reducing the energy available to cause erosion.
Sea walls have two specific weaknesses. First, wave reflection from the wall may result in scour and subsequent lowering of the sand level of the fronting beach. Second, sea walls may accelerate erosion of adjacent, unprotected coastal areas because they affect the littoral drift process. Different designs of man-made tsunami barriers include building reefs and forests to above-ground and submerged seawalls. In 2005, India began planting Casuarina and coconut saplings on its coast as a natural barrier against future tsunamis like the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Studies have found that an offshore tsunami wall could reduce tsunami wave heights by up to 83%; the design and type of sea wall, appropriate depends on aspects specific to the location, including the surrounding erosion processes. There are three main types of seawalls: vertical, curved or stepped, mounds, as set out in the table: A report published by the United Nations Environment Programme suggests that the tsunami of 26 December 2004 caused less damage in the areas where natural barriers were present, such as mangroves, coral reefs or coastal vegetation.
A Japanese study of this tsunami in Sri Lanka used satellite imagery modelling to establish the parameters of coastal resistance as a function of different types of trees. Natural barriers, such as coral reefs and mangrove forests, prevent the spread of tsunamis and the flow of coastal waters and mitigated the flood and surge of water. A cost-benefit approach is an effective way to determine whether a seawall is appropriate and whether the benefits are worth the expense. Besides controlling erosion, consideration must be given to the effects of hardening a shoreline on natural coastal ecosystems and human property or activities. A seawall is a static feature which can conflict with the dynamic nature of the coast and impede the exchange of sediment between land and sea; the table below summarises some positive and negative effects of seawalls which can be used when comparing their effectiveness with other coastal management options, such as beach nourishment. Seawalls can be a successful way to control coastal erosion, but only if they are constructed well and out of materials which can withstand the force of ongoing wave energy.
Some understanding is needed of the coastal processes and morphodynamics specific to the seawall location. Seawalls can be helpful. Extreme natural events expose weaknesses in the performance of seawalls, analyses of these can lead to future improvements and reassessment. Sea level rise creates an issue for seawalls worldwide as it raises both the mean normal water level and the height of waves during extreme weather events, which the current seawall heights may be unable to cope with; the most recent analyses of long, good-quality tide gauge records indicate a mean rate of sea level rise of 1.6–1.8 mm/yr over the twentieth century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggested that sea level rise over the next 50 – 100 years will accelerate with a projected increase in global mean sea level of +18 cm by 2050 AD; this data is reinforced by Hannah who calculated similar statistics including a rise of between +16-19.3 cm throughout 1900–1988. Super storm Sandy of 2012 is an example of the devastating effects rising sea levels can cause when mixed with a perfect storm.
According to Nabil Ismail, Professor of Coastal En
The Jamestown Glasshouse is located in Jamestown, between Jamestown Island, the location of the first permanent English settlement in North America, Jamestown Settlement. It is a part of the Colonial National Historical Park, associated with Historic Jamestowne, located near the Colonial Parkway; the original glasshouse was built soon after the first glassblowers, Germans Poles, arrived in Jamestown in 1608. A series of small furnaces were built in the area near the current exhibit. A small crew of glassblowers and laborers not only chopped down hardwood trees for fueling the furnace, they collected the ingredients, sand, crushed oyster shells, burned seaweed. Since so much time was required for preparation, it is estimated that actual glassblowing only occurred for five or six days a month; these early glassblowers were successful in that they were able to send a sample of their glassware home to England. However, their operations did not survive the "Starving Time", when the colonist population dropped from around 500 to 60.
A second attempt was made around 1621, when four Italian glassblowers and two assistants attempted to revive operations. However, this attempt was not productive, due to a combination of factors, including bad weather, the Indian massacre of 1622, emigration, it is believed that the furnace was abandoned in 1624. The current glasshouse building and workshop was re-built in the 1970s; the furnace is much larger than the one of 1608, uses natural gas for fuel. Local artists blow glass there daily, as well as explain the art and history of glassblowing at Jamestown; the glass they make is available for purchase via Jamestown Glass, the gift shop, on online. Additional interpreters are available to answer questions. Glasshouse Website NPS Glasshouse Website
The London Company was an English joint-stock company established in 1606 by royal charter by King James I with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America. The territory granted to the London Company included the eastern coast of America from the 34th parallel north to the 41st parallel; as part of the Virginia Company and Colony, the London Company owned a large portion of Atlantic and Inland Canada. The company was permitted by its charter to establish a 100-square-mile settlement within this area; the portion of the company's territory north of the 38th parallel was shared with the Plymouth Company, with the stipulation that neither company found a colony within 100 miles of each other. The London Company made landfall on 26 April 1607, at the southern edge of the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, which they named Cape Henry, near present-day Virginia Beach. Deciding to move the encampment, on 4 May 1607, they established the Jamestown Settlement on the James River about 40 miles upstream from its mouth at the Chesapeake Bay.
In 1607, the Plymouth Company established its Popham Colony in present-day Maine, but it was abandoned after about a year. By 1609, the Plymouth Company had dissolved; as a result, the charter for the London Company was adjusted with a new grant that extended from "sea to sea" of the previously-shared area between the 38th and 40th parallel. It was amended in 1612; the London Company struggled financially with labour shortages in its Virginia colony. Its profits improved after sweeter strains of tobacco than the native variety were cultivated and exported from Virginia as a cash crop beginning in 1612. By 1619 a system of indentured service was developed in the colony. In 1624, the company lost its charter, Virginia became a royal colony. A spin-off, The London Company of The Somers Isles, operated until 1684. In Renaissance England, wealthy merchants were eager to find investment opportunities, so they established a number of companies to trade in various parts of the world; each company was made up of investors, known as "adventurers", who purchased shares of company stock.
The Crown granted a charter to each company with a monopoly to explore, settle, or trade with a particular region of the world. Profits were shared among the investors according to the amount of stock. More than 6,300 Englishmen invested in joint stock companies between 1585 and 1630, trading in Russia, Africa, the East Indies, the Mediterranean, North America. Investors in the Virginia Company hoped to profit from the natural resources of the New World. In 1606 Captain Bartholomew Gosnold obtained of King James I a charter for two companies; the first, the Virginia Company of London, covered what are now Maryland and Carolina, between Latitude 34° and Latitude 41° North. Gosnold's principal backers were Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, Edward Wingfield and Richard Hakluyt; the second company, the Plymouth Company of London, was empowered to settle as far as 45° North, encompassing what are present day Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, New England. The Company paid all the costs of establishing each colony, in return controlled all land and resources there, requiring all settlers to work for the Company.
The first leader of the Virginia Company in England was its treasurer, Sir Thomas Smythe, who arranged the 1609 charter. He had been governor of the East India Company since 1603 and continued with one break until 1620. In an extensive publicity campaign, Gosnold and a few others, circulated pamphlets, plays and broadsides throughout England to raise interest in New World investments. Investors could buy stock individually or in groups. 1,700 people purchased shares, including men of different occupations and classes, wealthy women, representatives of institutions such as trade guilds and cities. Proceedes from the sale of stock was used to help finance the costs of establishing overseas settlements, including paying for ships and supplies and recruiting and outfitng laborers. A single share of stock in the Virginia Company cost 12 pounds 10 shillings, the equivalent of more than six months' wages for an ordinary working man; the largest single investor was Thomas West, Lord de la Warre, who served as the first governor of Virginia between 1610 and 1618.
The business of the company was the settlement of the Virginia colony, supported by a labour force of voluntary transportees under the customary indenture system. In exchange for 7 years of labor for the company, the company provided passage, food and land ownership. In December 1606, the Virginia Company's three ships, containing 105 men and boys as passengers and 39 crew members, set sail from Blackwall and made landfall on 26 April 1607 at the southern edge of the mouth of what they named the James River on the Chesapeake Bay, they named this shore as Cape Henry. They were attacked by Native Americans, the settlers moved north. On 14 May 1607, these first settlers selected the site of Jamestown Island, further upriver and on the northern shore, as the place to build their fort. In addition to survival, the early colonists were expected to make a profit for the owners of the Virginia Company. Although the settlers were disappointed that gold did not wash up on the beach and gems did not grow in the tr
The Historic Triangle includes three historic colonial communities located on the Virginia Peninsula of the United States and is bounded by the York River on the north and the James River on the south. The points that form the triangle are Jamestown, Colonial Williamsburg, Yorktown, they feature many restored attractions and are linked by the Colonial Parkway in James City and York counties, the City of Williamsburg. Describing the significance to the United States of the three main points of the Historic Triangle, the Reverend Dr. W. A. R. Goodwin, rector of Bruton Parish Church and co-founder of Colonial Williamsburg, said, "Williamsburg is Jamestown continued, Yorktown is Williamsburg vindicated." The National Park Service's Colonial Parkway was constructed to connect the three historic attractions of Colonial Virginia with a scenic and bucolic roadway shielded from views of commercial development. Intended to help visitors mentally return to the past, it has views of waterway and natural areas, wildlife and waterfowl along the roadway.
The only human development that can be seen from most of the parkway are the two loading piers of Cheatham Annex, part of the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, which borders the inland side of much of the parkway. The peninsula has major military installations. Near the James River and York River ends of the parkway, there are several pull-offs where visitors can admire the view; the Colonial Parkway is free of tolls or user fees. The Parkway passes through Colonial Williamsburg and ends in Jamestown. No commercial vehicles are allowed to use the parkway for transportation, although commuter traffic has increased in the early 21st century; some visitors from the South travel to the area across the James River by ferry from Surry County. State Route 10 and State Route 31 lead to Scotland Wharf. Visitors can take one of the four Jamestown Ferries, which include the Williamsburg; as passengers cross, they can leave their vehicles and can walk about or go up to an enclosed viewing level with restrooms.
During favorable weather and daylight hours, northbound passengers see the Jamestown Island much as the first colonists may have approached it. Replicas of Christopher Newport's three tiny ships, Susan Constant and Discovery are docked near the northern ferry landing at Glass House Point; the state-operated Jamestown Ferry service is toll-free. The first permanent English settlement in the New World was established at Jamestown on May 13, 1607. There are two major heritage sites at Jamestown: Jamestown Settlement, a living history museum which includes a reconstructed Native American village, colonial fort, replica ships, operated by the Commonwealth of Virginia. In 1699, the capital of Virginia was moved from Jamestown to a location on high ground at Middle Plantation at the suggestion of students from the College of William and Mary, established there in 1693. Middle Plantation was soon renamed Williamsburg, in honor of King William III, it was a busy place until the American Revolution. In 1780 during the revolution, the capital and government were moved to a more secure location at Richmond.
Williamsburg became a sleepy little town for 150 years, as many young people left the Tidewater area in search of new lands to the west and other frontiers. In the early 20th century, the town was revived due to the preservation efforts of Reverend Dr. W. A. R. Goodwin, rector of Bruton Parish Church, the generosity of Standard Oil heir John D. Rockefeller Jr. and his family, who shared a dream of restoring the old colonial capital city to its 18th-century state. They worked for decades to develop that vision to honor the colonial capital. Today, the result of those efforts, Colonial Williamsburg, is a large living museum of early American life, it has 88 original dozens of restored and recreated buildings and re-enactors. It is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world; the Visitor's Center features a short movie. It has a parking area. A wheelchair-accessible shuttle bus service is provided; the third point of the triangle is Yorktown, where General Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington in 1781 in the last land battle of the American Revolution.
There are two large visitor centers, battlefield drives, a waterfront area. The historic area of downtown has numerous buildings from the pre-Revolutionary era; the three Historic Triangle areas have been restored to promote a sense of the past. Nearby are many modern hotels, campgrounds, restaurants and stores, gasoline stations, amusements. Other major attractions include: Busch Gardens is a theme park located near in James City County. Williamsburg Pottery Factory is nearby on U. S. Route 60 a few miles west of Williamsburg in James City County. Water Country USA is a water park, located near Williamsburg in York County; the Williamsburg Winery is the Commonwealth of Virginia's largest winery, located on a 320-acre farm in historical Williamsburg, Virginia. Go-Karts Plus is another theme park located near Williamsburg in James City County next to the Williamsburg Pottery Factory on U. S. Route 60. Hampton Roads Colonial Williamsburg Foundation's official site The College of William and Mary APVA web site for the Jamestown Rediscovery project Historic Jamestowne Where are We Digging Now?
Jamestown 2007 Celebration Jamestown Settlement and Yorktown Victory Center Virtual Jamestown National Park Service: Jamestown Nat