Nach Bach

Nach Bach, is a composition for harpsichord or piano by American composer George Rochberg, written in 1966 and dedicated to his friend Igor Kipnis, who premièred the work in Annenberg Auditorium at the University of Pennsylvania on 27 January 1967. Rochberg composed this piece while still serving as chairman of the music department at the University of Pennsylvania, he had just abandoned serialism three years in 1963, the year before his father died, in the spring, in November of the same year his teenage son, died because of brain tumor. The composer said it was after his son died that it became crystal clear to me that I could not continue writing so-called'serial' music... It was finished...hollow...meaningless. It became clearer than before that the only justification for claiming one was engaged in the artistic act was to open one's art to life and its entire gamut of terrors and joys, he said he had found serialism to be a style incapable of expressing "serenity, grace, wit and most joy".

His last serial work was the Trio for violin and piano, written in 1963. Rochberg composed the work at Tanglewood in the summer of 1966, on a commission from the harpsichordist Igor Kipnis. At the time, Rochberg knew nothing about the technical problems of the harpsichord, so before setting to work had a long discussion with Kipnis who demonstrated the use of pedals, the attack and timbral characteristics of the instrument, which enabled the composer to incorporate every possible color combination available on Kipnis's custom-built instrument into the structure of the piece; the manuscript score is dated July 6, 1966, at that point was designated only for the harpsichord. The score was revised for publication, to include registration markings for the harpsichord added by the dedicatee, Igor Kipnis, accommodations for performance on the piano, including dynamic markings, indications for pedaling, ossia passages in which some notes are to be played an octave higher on the piano than in the version for harpsichord.

This work is in free form, like many other fantasias, with long sections with durations in unmeasured notation. The composer describes this form as "open and progressive, i.e. non-repetitive, so akin, in spirit at least, to the old'fantasia' idea of Bach and Mozart". In the score, according to the composer, passages marked in boxes are direct quotes from J. S. Bach's Partita No. 6 in E Minor, BWV 830, should be played as dramatic "inserts". In addition to these direct quotations, all of which occur in the second of its five main sections, there are many non-literal quotations and pitch segments derived from Bach's composition There is a quotation from a Brahms Intermezzo on the last page; the general texture of the work is atonal, with rhythms written in indeterminate notation. One of the most striking features of the work is the contrast between this predominant texture and the quotations from Bach. A free-form composition with an improvisatory character, the work falls into five large sections, with a transitional passage between sections two and three.

The sections are discriminated by the use of strong cadences, long pauses, changes in texture, tempo and dynamics. Dissonances are used to differentiate the sections. Although it does not employ twelve-tone technique, several twelve-tone sets occur in the piece, including one that opens the work: B♭, E, B, C♯, D, C, E♭, F, G♭, A, A♭, G, which divides into a pair of hexachords. Many of the main pitch elements of the piece are derived from this set. Three further twelve-tone sets occur in the second main section, two in the third. Performed on harpsichordThree Sides of George Rochberg. Carnival Music. Alan Mandel, piano. LP recording. 1 disc: 33⅓ rpm. stereo. 12 in. Grenadilla GS-1019.: Grenadilla Records, 1977. Issued on tape, 1 audio cassette, 1⅞ ips. Avery 5250:, 1977. Nach Bach reissued on Norton Recorded Anthology of Western Music, edited by Claude V Palisca and Donald Jay Grout. Classic to Modern, Volume 2, CD 12. With works by Webern, Ives, Crawford Seeger, Still, Crumb, Babbitt and Reich. CD, 1 audio disc.

Sony Music Special Products A 26650. New York: W. W. Norton, Sony Music Special Products, 1996. Performed on pianoGeorge Rochberg: Four Decades of keyboard Music. Twelve Bagatelles. Martha Lynn Thomas, piano. Recorded July 13–26, 1995, at ACA Digital Recording Studio, Atlanta. CD recording, 1 sound disc: digital, 4¾ in. ACA CM 20044. Atlanta: ACA, 1997. George Rochberg: keyboard Music. Partita-Variations. Sally Pinkas, piano. Recorded at Spaulding Auditorium, Dartmouth College, December 1996 and June 1997. CD recording, 2 sound discs: digital. Stereo. Gasparo GSCD-340/2. Peterborough, N. H.: Gasparo, 1999. Fir

AdzopƩ Department

Adzopé Department is a department of La Mé Region in Lagunes District, Ivory Coast. In 2014, its population was 193,518 and its seat is the settlement of Adzopé; the sub-prefectures of the department are Adzopé, Annépé, Assikoi, Bécédi-Brignan, Yakassé-Mé. Adzopé Department was created in 1969 as one of the 24 new departments that were created to take the place of the six departments that were being abolished, it was created from territory, part of Sud Department. Using current boundaries as a reference, the department occupied all of what is today La Mé Region, with the exception of Alépé Department. In 1997, regions were introduced as new first-level subdivisions of Ivory Coast. Adzopé Department was combined with Agboville Department to form Agnéby Region. In 2005, Adzopé Department was divided in order to create Akoupé Department. What remained of Adzopé Department was divided again in 2008 with the split-off creation of Yakassé-Attobrou Department. In 2011, districts were introduced as new first-level subdivisions of Ivory Coast.

At the same time, regions were reorganised and became second-level subdivisions and all departments were converted into third-level subdivisions. At this time, Adzopé Department became part of La Mé Region in Lagunes District. "Monographie du département d’Adzopé: Le renforcement des infrastructures de base et la valorisation de l’agriculture, des enjeux pour le plein essor de ce département",, 28 April 2015