Jan Brueghel the Younger

Jan Brueghel the Younger was a Flemish Baroque painter, the son of Jan Brueghel the Elder. Brueghel was died in the 17th century in Antwerp, he was spent his career producing works in a similar style. Along with his brother Ambrosius, he produced landscapes, allegorical scenes and other works of meticulous detail. Brueghel copied works by his father and sold them with his father's signature, his work is lighter. Jan the Younger was traveling in Italy when his father died of cholera, swiftly returned to take control of the Antwerp studio. After the death of his father he changed his signature from'Brueghel' to'Breughel'; the next year in 1626 he married daughter of Abraham Janssens. He soon established himself and was made dean of the Guild of Saint Luke in 1630; that same year he was commissioned by the French court to paint Adam Cycle. In the following years, he produced paintings for the Austrian court, worked independently in Paris, before returning to Antwerp in 1657, he collaborated with a number of prominent artists including Rubens, Hendrick van Balen, Adriaen Stalbemt, Lucas Van Uden, his brother-in-law David Teniers the Younger and his father-in-law Abraham Janssens.

Jan the Younger's best works are his extensive landscapes, either under his own name or made for other artists such as Hendrick van Balen as backgrounds. His pupils were his older sons Abraham and Jan Peeter, his nephew Jan van Kessel, his younger brother Ambrosius. Jan the Younger has fifteen paintings in National public collections in the United Kingdom. In an episode of BBC's Britain's Lost Masterpieces broadcast in November 2019, a badly damaged picture of a village scene, whose panel has spilt into two pieces, was located at Birmingham Art Gallery. Following a complete restoration by Simon Gillespie, the landscape was attributed to Joos de Momper and the figures were attributed to Jan the Younger. List of Flemish painters "Bruegel". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920


Seth, in Judaism, Mandaeism and Islam, was the third son of Adam and Eve and brother of Cain and Abel, their only other children mentioned by name in the Hebrew Bible. According to Genesis 4:25, Seth was born after Abel's murder, Eve believed God had appointed him as a replacement for Abel. According to the Book of Genesis, Seth was born when Adam was 130 years old, or 230 years old, "a son in his likeness and image"; the genealogy is repeated at 1 Chronicles 1:1–3. Genesis 5:4–5 states that Adam fathered "sons and daughters" before his death, aged 930 years. According to Genesis, Seth lived to the age of 912. Seth figures in the pseudepigraphical texts of the Life of Eve, it recounts the lives of Adam and Eve from after their expulsion from the Garden of Eden to their deaths. While the surviving versions were composed from the early 3rd to the 5th century, the literary units in the work are considered to be older and predominantly of Jewish origin. There is wide agreement that the original was composed in a Semitic language in the 1st century AD/CE.

In the Greek versions Seth and Eve travel to the doors of the Garden to beg for some oil of the Tree of Mercy. On the way Seth is bitten by a wild beast, which goes away when ordered by Seth. Michael refuses to give them the oil at that time, but promises to give it at the end of time, when all flesh will be raised up, the delights of paradise will be given to the holy people and God will be in their midst. On their return, Adam says to Eve: "What hast thou done? Thou hast brought upon us great wrath, death." Only Seth can witness the taking-up of Adam at his funeral in a divine chariot, which deposits him in the Garden of Eden. Rashi refers to Seth as the ancestor of Noah and hence the father of all mankind, all other humans having perished in the Great Flood. Seth is seen by Eve as a replacement given by God for Abel, it is said. The Zohar refers to Seth as "ancestor of all the generations of the tzaddikim". According to Seder Olam Rabbah, based on Jewish reckoning, he was born in 130 AM. According to Aggadah, he had 23 daughters.

According to the Seder Olam Rabbah, he died in 1042 AM. In the Antiquities of the Jews, Josephus refers to Seth as virtuous and of excellent character, reports that his descendants invented the wisdom of the heavenly bodies, built the "pillars of the sons of Seth", two pillars inscribed with many scientific discoveries and inventions, notably in astronomy, they were built by Seth's descendants based on Adam's prediction that the world would be destroyed at one time by fire and another time by global flood, in order to protect the discoveries and be remembered after the destruction. One was composed of brick, the other of stone, so that if the pillar of brick should be destroyed, the pillar of stone would remain, both reporting the ancient discoveries, informing men that a pillar of brick was erected. Josephus reports. William Whiston, a 17/18th-century translator of the Antiquities, stated in a footnote that he believed Josephus mistook Seth for Sesostris, king of Egypt, the erector of the pillar in Siriad.

He stated that there was no way for any pillars of Seth to survive the deluge, because the deluge buried all such pillars and edifices far underground in the sediment of its waters. The Perennialist writer Nigel Jackson identifies the land of Siriad in Josephus' account with Syria, citing related Mandaean legends regarding the "Oriental Land of Shyr" in connection with the visionary mytho-geography of the prophetic traditions surrounding Seth; the 2nd-century BC Book of Jubilees, regarded as noncanonical except in the Alexandrian Churches dates his birth to 130 AM. According to it, in 231 AM Seth married his sister, four years younger than he was. In the year 235 AM, Azura gave birth to Enos. Seth is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with Adam and others, with a feast day on July 26, he is included in the Genealogy of Jesus, according to Luke 3:23–38. The Sethians were a Christian Gnostic sect, their influence spread throughout the Mediterranean into the systems of the Basilideans and the Valentinians.

Their thinking, although it is predominantly Judaic in foundation, is arguably influenced by Platonism. Sethians are so called for their veneration of the biblical Seth, depicted in their creation myths as a divine incarnation. Although the Quran makes no mention of Seth he is revered within Islamic tradition as the third and righteous son of Adam and Eve and seen as the gift bestowed on Adam after the death of Abel; the Sunni scholar and historian ibn Kathir in his tarikh, Al-Bidāya wa-n-nihāya, records that Seth, a prophet like his father Adam, transfers God's Law to mankind after the death of Adam. and places him among the exalted antediluvian patriarchs of the Generations of Adam. Some sources say; these scriptures are said to be the "first scriptures" mentioned in Q 87:18. Medieval historian and exegete al-Tabari and other scholars say that Seth buried Adam and the secret texts in the tomb of Adam, i.e. the "Ca

Card Sound Bridge

Card Sound Bridge is a high-rise toll causeway connecting southern Miami-Dade County and northern Monroe County. It is one of only two ways that motorists can enter the Florida Keys; the toll for two-axle automobiles is USD $1.50. An additional $2.50 surcharge is assessed for vehicles tolled via license plate photo. The all-electronic tolling system replaced the previous manned toll booth on October 20, 2018; the toll fee is waived upon evacuating the Keys for hurricanes or in instances in which US 1 is impassable. The primary responsibility for operating Card Sound Bridge lies with Monroe County, but maintenance of the bridge itself is shared between Monroe County and the Florida Department of Transportation; the bridge itself is on Card Sound Road, constructed by then-Dade County in 1926 for the original Card Sound Bridge. Toll employees are locals, living in a small town along Card Sound Road on the north side of the bridge, according to toll operators, a portion of the proceeds from the toll go to fund parts of their community.

Effective August, 2017, the toll booth was closed and all employees were laid off. In December, 2017, the toll booth was removed in preparation for an automated toll booth to be installed in the spring of 2018; this is expected to save Monroe county $300,000 per year in employee wages. Like the Overseas Highway, the history of Card Sound Bridge begins with the Overseas Railway - although at no time was the bridge part of Henry M. Flagler's plans; the concept of an Overseas Highway began with the Miami Motor Club in 1921. At that time, southern Florida was undergoing a land boom, the club wanted to attract new tourists to an reached fishing area. In addition, the real estate interests wanted access to thousands of acres of wilderness in the Upper Keys to develop and sell. Commissioners from Dade and Monroe Counties agreed to build a highway connecting Florida City to Key Largo, they preferred to build it alongside the Overseas Railroad, completed in 1912. In 1922, Monroe County residents approved the issuance of $300,000 of bonds for a new bridge.

Construction of both the road and the drawbridge went slowly. The money ran out in 1925 and Monroe County voters were asked to approve the issuance of $2.6 million in bonds in early 1926. The vote—passing the measure with only two dissenting votes—enabled construction to continue; the swing span drawbridge and road were both nearly ready for opening when, on September 18, 1926 a major hurricane damaged both. The bridge was redesigned and rebuilt, raising the water clearance from five feet to nine feet to accommodate storm surge. On January 25, 1928, the 2,800-foot, Card Sound Bridge was opened to traffic; when Card Sound Bridge was opened, the State Road Department, extended the State Road 4A designation from downtown Homestead to Key West though there was still a 40-mile gap in the road between Lower Matecumbe Key and No Name Key. After the Great Labor Day Hurricane destroyed sections of the Overseas Railroad on September 3, 1935, the State of Florida bought the remnants for $640,000 and proceeded to construct road bridges on top of the railroad trestles.

The "Overseas Highway" was completed and opened on March 29, 1938. The following year, US 1 was extended from Miami over Card Sound to Key West. World War II triggered a sequence of events that diminished the importance and usefulness of Card Sound Bridge. In 1941, a water pipeline was constructed from the Everglades to Key Largo along the old railroad right-of-way. In addition to shortening the route by 13 miles, it enabled motorists to avoid the wooden bridges in northern Key Largo - including Card Sound. A 1944 fire damaged Card Sound's drawbridge, subsequently removed to prevent its further use. In the two decades after the removal of the Card Sound wooden drawbridge, various schemes to increase access between the Keys and mainland Florida came and went. A 22-mile -long bridge from Cape Sable to No Name Key did not succeed due to the establishment of Everglades National Park. In the 1960s a plan to connect Key Biscayne to northern Key Largo by way of Elliott Key took root as officials from Dade and Monroe Counties differed on the division of toll revenues.

In the meantime, the United States Department of the Interior started purchasing land in Biscayne Bay with an eye toward creating a new National Park. The 1968 formation of Biscayne National Monument hastened the demise of the "Islandia plan", but one component of the proposal survived: a new 65-foot -high causeway to be the new Card Sound Bridge; the new causeway was completed and open to traffic in 1969. Card Sound Road became State Road 905A, a FDOT designation, modified to SR S-905A in the