Field Marshal Jan Christian Smuts was a South African statesman, military leader, philosopher. In addition to holding various cabinet posts, he served as prime minister of the Union of South Africa from 1919 until 1924 and from 1939 until 1948. Although Smuts had advocated racial segregation and opposed the enfranchisement of black Africans, his views changed and he backed the Fagan Commission's findings that complete segregation was impossible. Smuts subsequently lost the 1948 election to hard-line nationalists, he continued to work for reconciliation and emphasised the British Commonwealth's positive role until his death in 1950. In the Second Boer War, Smuts led a Boer commando for the Transvaal. During the First World War, he led the armies of South Africa against Germany, capturing German South-West Africa, he commanded the British Army in East Africa. From 1917 to 1919 he was one of the members of the British Imperial War Cabinet, he was instrumental in the founding of what became the Royal Air Force.
He was appointed as a field marshal in the British Army in 1941. He was the only person to sign both of the peace treaties ending the Second World wars. A statue of him was erected to commemorate him in London's Parliament Square. Smuts was born on 24 May 1870, at the family farm, near Malmesbury, in the Cape Colony, his parents, Jacobus Smuts and his wife Catharina, were prosperous, traditional Afrikaner farmers, long established and respected. As the second son of the family, rural custom dictated. In this system only the first son was supported for a full, formal education. In 1882, when Jan was twelve, his elder brother died, Jan was sent to school in his place. Jan attended the school in nearby Riebeek West, he made excellent progress despite his late start, caught up with his contemporaries within four years. He was admitted to Victoria College, Stellenbosch, at the age of sixteen. At Stellenbosch, he learned High Dutch and Ancient Greek, immersed himself in literature, the classics, Bible studies.
His traditional upbringing and serious outlook led to social isolation from his peers. He made outstanding academic progress, graduating in 1891 with double first-class honours in Literature and Science. During his last years at Stellenbosch, Smuts began to cast off some of his shyness and reserve. At this time he met Isie Krige, whom he married. On graduation from Victoria College, Smuts won the Ebden scholarship for overseas study, he decided to attend the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom to read law at Christ's College. Smuts found it difficult to settle at Cambridge, he isolated by his age and different upbringing from the English undergraduates. Worries over money contributed to his unhappiness, as his scholarship was insufficient to cover his university expenses, he confided these worries to Professor J. I. Marais, a friend from Victoria College. In reply, Professor Marais enclosed a cheque for a substantial sum, by way of loan, encouraging Smuts to let him know if he found himself in need again.
Thanks to Marais, Smuts's financial standing was secure. He began to enter more into the social aspects of the university, although he retained a single-minded dedication to his studies. During this time in Cambridge, Smuts studied a diverse number of subjects in addition to law, he wrote Walt Whitman: A Study in the Evolution of Personality. But it can be seen that Smuts in this book had conceptualized his thinking for his wide-ranging philosophy of holism. Smuts graduated in 1894 with a double first. Over the previous two years, he had received numerous academic prizes and accolades, including the coveted George Long prize in Roman Law and Jurisprudence. One of his tutors, Professor Maitland, a leading figure among English legal historians, described Smuts as the most brilliant student he had met. Lord Todd, the Master of Christ's College, said in 1970 that "in 500 years of the College's history, of all its members and present, three had been outstanding: John Milton, Charles Darwin and Jan Smuts."In December 1894, Smuts passed the examinations for the Inns of Court, entering the Middle Temple.
His old Cambridge college, Christ's College, offered him a fellowship in Law. Smuts turned his back on a distinguished legal future. By June 1895, he had returned to the Cape Colony, determined to make his future there. Smuts began to practise law in Cape Town. Finding little financial success in the law, he began to divert more and more of his time to politics and journalism, writing for the Cape Times. Smuts was intrigued by the prospect of a united South Africa, joined the Afrikaner Bond. By good fortune, Smuts' father knew the leader of Jan Hofmeyr. Hofmeyr in turn recommended Jan to Cecil Rhodes. In 1895, Smuts became an supporter of Rhodes; when Rhodes launched the Jameson Raid, in the summer of 1895–96, Smuts was outraged. Feeling betrayed by his employer and political ally, he resigned from De Beers, left political life. Instead he became state attorney in the capital of Pretoria. After the Jameson Raid, relations between the British and the Afrikaners had deteriorated steadily. By 1898, war seemed imminent.
Orange Free State President Martinus Steyn called for a peace conference at Bloemfontein to settle each side's grievances. With an intimate knowledge of the British, Smuts took control of the Transvaal delegation. Sir Alfred Milner, head of the British delegati
The Ferrari-Abarth 166 MM/53 is a competition car designed in 1953 by Carlo Abarth for the driver Giulio Musitelli. Its bodywork was a design of Franco Scaglione; the car is a reworking of the Ferrari 166 MM for the only Abarth reworking of a Ferrari. Completed on March 14, 1953, the car is a reworking of Giulio Musitelli's Ferrari 166 MM, chassis number 0262M, his first race dates back to May 14, 1953, the car competed with the number 28 in the Guastalla Scuderia at the XXXVII Targa Florio, driven by Giulio Musitelli and placed 21st out of 45 cars and 22 arrivals. On 26 July of the same year he took part in the 10-hour night in Messina, where he was led by Eugenio Castellotti and Musitelli came in first place, the best position he achieved during his career. On 3 January 1954, during the XIII Grande Prêmio da Cidade de Rio de Janeiro, the car driven by Giulio Musitelli took second place; the last race carried out by the car with the Abarth body was the XXI edition of the Mille Miglia of 2 May 1954, which however was not completed, the car carried the number 608.
After this event due to the lack of spare parts, the body was replaced with one made by Carrozzeria Scaglietti. The car was taken to the United States of America in 1955 by Luigi Chinetti who sold it to Gary Laughlin, who led it in the Palm Springs Preliminaries on December 3, 1955, finishing in fourth place. L'auto fu poi venduta nel 1956 a Lorin McMullen facendola gareggiare altre sei volte The car was sold in 1979 and in the 2000s the Scaglietti body was again replaced with the original Abarth and the car was sold in 2007 during an RM Auctions auction, now RM Sotheby's, for $850000 and today is put on display
The Maule M-4 is an American four-seat cabin monoplane designed by Belford Maule and built by the Maule Aircraft Company. The design of the M-4 was started in 1956 by Belford Maule and the prototype Bee Dee first flew in February 1957. Maule started the Maule Aircraft Company to develop and build the aircraft in Napoleon, Michigan as the Maule M-4; the first M-4 flew on September 8, 1960. The M-4 is a steel-tube and fabric high-wing braced-monoplane with a cantilever tailplane with a single fin and rudder, it has a fixed tailwheel landing gear, the prototype was powered by a nose-mounted 145 hp Continental O-300 engine. It has an enclosed cabin with two rows of side-by-side seating for three passengers; the prototype first flew on September 8, 1961 and production started in 1963. Other variants were introduced including the Rocket, powered by a 210 hp Continental IO-360-A engine, a deluxe Franklin-powered M-4 Astro-Rocket and a Franklin-powered Rocket, known as the M-4 Strata-Rocket. A STOL variant of the Strata Rocket was developed as the Maule M-5 Lunar Rocket.
Bee Dee Prototype with a 145 hp Continental O-300-A piston engine, 11 built. M-4 Jetasen Production version of the earlier Maule Bee Dee with 145 hp Continental O-300A piston engine, 94 built. M-4C Jetasen Fitted with a cargo door, 11 built. M-4S Upgraded equipment, three built. M-4T Dual-control trainer without three built. M-4C-180 Astro-Rocket M-4C with a 180 hp Franklin 6A-335-1A engine, seven built. M-4-210 Rocket M-4 with a 210 hp Continental IO-360-A engine, 45 built. M-4-210C Rocket M-4-210 fitted with 117 built. M-4-220C Strata Rocket M-4C with a 220 hp Franklin 6A-350-C1 engine, 190 built. M-4-220S M-4S with a 220 hp Franklin 6A-350-C1 engine, one built. SADASA Cuahtemoc M-1 License-built M-4 with a 180 hp Lycoming O-360 engine, three built. Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1971–72General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 3 passengers Length: 22 ft 0 in Wingspan: 30 ft 10 in Height: 6 ft 2 1⁄2 in Wing area: 152.5 sq ft Airfoil: USA 35B Empty weight: 1,250 lb Max takeoff weight: 2,300 lb Fuel capacity: 42 US gal Powerplant: 1 × Franklin 6A-350-C1 air-cooled 6-cylinder horizontally-opposed engine, 220 hp Performance Cruise speed: 180 mph Stall speed: 40 mph Range: 680 mi Service ceiling: 19,000 ft Absolute ceiling: 21,000 ft Rate of climb: 1,250 ft/min Take-off run to 50 ft: 600 ft Landing run from 50 ft: 600 ft Taylor, John W. R..
Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1971–72. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0-354-00094-2. Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. Simpson, R. W. Airlife's General Aviation. England: Airlife Publishing. P. 190. ISBN 1-85310-194-X; the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. Orbis Publishing