Jan van Eyck

Jan van Eyck was a painter from the County of Loon active in Bruges. He is one of the early innovators of what became known as Early Netherlandish painting, one of the most significant representatives of Early Northern Renaissance art; the surviving records of his early life indicate that he was born around 1380–1390, most in Maaseik, in present-day Belgium. He took employment in the Hague around 1422, when he was a master painter with workshop assistants, employed as painter and valet de chambre with John III the Pitiless, ruler of Holland and Hainaut, he was employed in Lille as court painter to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy after John's death in 1425, until he moved to Bruges in 1429 where he lived until his death. He was regarded by Philip and undertook a number of diplomatic visits abroad, including to Lisbon in 1428 to explore the possibility of a marriage contract between the duke and Isabella of Portugal. About 20 surviving paintings are confidently attributed to him, as well as the Ghent Altarpiece and the illuminated miniatures of the Turin-Milan Hours, all dated between 1432 and 1439.

Ten are dated and signed with a variation of his motto ALS ICH KAN, a pun on his name, which he painted in Greek characters. Van Eyck painted both secular and religious subject matter, including altarpieces, single-panel religious figures and commissioned portraits, his work includes single panels, diptychs and polyptych panels. He was well paid by Philip, who sought that the painter was secure financially and had artistic freedom so that he could paint "whenever he pleased". Van Eyck's work comes from the International Gothic style, but he soon eclipsed it, in part through a greater emphasis on naturalism and realism, he achieved a new level of virtuosity through his developments in the use of oil paint. He was influential, his techniques and style were adopted and refined by the Early Netherlandish painters. Little is known of Jan van Eyck's early life and neither the date nor place of his birth is documented; the first extant record of his life comes from the court of John of Bavaria at The Hague where, between 1422 and 1424, payments were made to Meyster Jan den malre, a court painter with the rank of valet de chambre, with at first one and two assistants.

This suggests a date of birth of 1395 at the latest. However, his apparent age in the London probable self-portrait of 1433 suggests to most scholars a date closer to 1380, he was identified in the late 16th century as having been born in Maaseik, a borough of the prince-bishopric of Liège. His last name however is related to the place Bergeijk, due to genealogical information related to the coat-of-arms with three millrinds. Elisabeth Dhanens rediscovered in the quarterly state "the fatherly blazon, in gold, three millrinds of lauric acid", similar to other families that descend from the Lords of Rode in the quarter of Peelland in the'meierij van's-Hertogenbosch', his daughter Lievine was in a nunnery in Maaseik after her father's death. The notes on his preparatory drawing for Portrait of Cardinal Niccolò Albergati are written in the Maasland dialect, he had a sister Margareta, at least two brothers, with whom he served his apprenticeship and Lambert, both painters, but the order of their births has not been established.

Another significant, rather younger, painter who worked in Southern France, Barthélemy van Eyck, is presumed to be a relation. It is not known where Jan was educated, but he had knowledge of Latin and used the Greek and Hebrew alphabets in his inscriptions, indicating that he was schooled in the classics; this level of education was rare among painters, would have made him more attractive to the cultivated Philip. Van Eyck served as official to John of Bavaria-Straubing, ruler of Holland and Zeeland. By this time he had assembled a small workshop and was involved in redecorating the Binnenhof palace in The Hague. After John's death in 1425 he moved to Bruges and came to the attention of Philip the Good c. 1425. His emergence as a collectable painter follows his appointment to Philip's court, from this point his activity in the court is comparatively well documented, he served as court artist and diplomat, was a senior member of the Tournai painters' guild. On 18 October 1427, the Feast of St. Luke, he travelled to Tournai to attend a banquet in his honour attended by Robert Campin and Rogier van der Weyden.

A court salary freed him from commissioned work, allowed a large degree of artistic freedom. Over the following decade van Eyck's reputation and technical ability grew from his innovative approaches towards the handling and manipulating of oil paint. Unlike most of his peers his reputation never diminished and he remained well regarded over the following centuries, his revolutionary approach to oil was such that a myth, perpetuated by Giorgio Vasari, arose that he had invented oil painting. His brother Hubert van Eyck collaborated on Jan's most famous works, the Ghent Altarpiece art historians believe it was begun c. 1420 by Hubert and completed by Jan in 1432. Another brother, Lambert, is mentioned in Burgundian court documents, may have overseen his brother's workshop after Jan's death. Considered revolutionary within his lifetime, van Eyck's designs and methods were copied and reproduced, his motto, one of the first and still most distinctive signatures in art history, ALS ICH KAN, a pun on his name, first appeared in 1433 on Portr


Månegarm is a Swedish Viking/black/folk metal band from Norrtälje. Its name is derived from a wolf in Norse mythology; the band was formed by Svenne Rosendal, Jonas Almqui, Pierre Wilhelmsson in 1995. After finding another guitarist and a drummer, they began rehearsing as "Antikrist". By 1996, they had changed their name to Månegarm, after the wolf of Norse legend, apt for a band concentrating on Viking metal, early that year, they began recording their first demo collection, Vargaresa. After the recording and Matsson left to be replaced by Jonny Wranning and Markus Andé. With a second demo, Ur Nattvindar, folk metal became part of their sound, including violins and female vocals for the first time, they were signed by Displeased Records. Soon afterwards, Wranning was replaced by Viktor Hemgren. At the end of the year, they went back into Sunlight studios to record their first full-length album, Nordstjärnans Tidsålder. In summer 1999, they began recording Havets Vargar; because of some difficulty with the recording studio, they took some time off from recording the album, during which, Viktor Hemgren was fired.

Grawsiö took over as vocalist along with his drumming. During this time, Janne Liljekvist was added as a full member. With the line up now set, they finished recording the album and released it in 2000; the band's two demos were remastered and released as an album in 2004, with a fourth studio album, Vredens Tid, issued in 2005, followed by performances on the European festival circuit that summer. After one further EP on Displeased, a acoustic folk music EP, Urminnes Hävd, the band moved to the Swedish label Black Lodge, which issued the group's sixth album, Vargstenen in 2007. A new album called Nattväsen was released on October 2009, by Regain Records. At the end of June/beginning of July 2013 they released a new album, Legions of the North, through Napalm Records. Erik Grawsiö - Drums, Bass Markus Andé - Guitar Jacob Hallegren - Drums Martin Björklund - Guitar, Violin Tobias Rydsheim - Guitar Svenne Rosendal – Vocals Jonny Wranning - Vocals Georgios "Gogge" Karalis - Vocals Viktor Hemgren - Vocals Mårten Matsson – Guitars, Vocals Pierre Wilhelmsson – Bass Guitar Jan Liljekvist - Cello, Violin Jonas "Rune" Almquist - Guitars Rereleased albums 2006: Urminnes hävd Rereleased 2007: "Genom världar nio" 1996: Vargaresa 1997: Ur Nattvindar Official Manegarm home page

Indonesia–South Korea relations

Indonesia–South Korea relations are the bilateral foreign relations between the two nations of Indonesia and South Korea. The two countries sharing a common vision and the will to contribute to the international community as middle powers. Both countries are members of G-20 and APEC. Indonesia and South Korea established diplomatic relations on 17 September 1973. South Korea has an embassy in Jakarta and Indonesia has an embassy in Seoul. According to a 2014 BBC World Service Poll, 48% of Indonesians view South Korea's influence positively, with 27% expressing a negative view. Fast growing trade and investment enabled the two governments to agree on a strategic partnership in 2006. Indonesia and South Korea have invested in multiple joint military development projects, including the KFX/IFX fighter jet. South Korean firm Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering is in final contract negotiations to supply Indonesia with three Type-209 submarines; this will be the largest bilateral defense deal, valued at USD1.1 billion.

In 2012, there were about 38,000 Indonesian citizens living in South Korea. In the past, the relations were only developed around trade and investments, such as the forestry and garment sectors. Today the cooperation has been expanded to a number of advanced industries. With US$27 billion in bilateral trade, South Korea became the fourth biggest trading partner of Indonesia in 2012, it became the third-biggest foreign investor with US$1.94 billion in investment. There are large numbers of South Korean companies that have been investing and operating in Indonesia, such as Miwon, Yong Ma, Hankook Tire, Samsung, LG, Kia Motors, Hyundai. In 2011, Hankook announced an US$353 million investment into a production plant located in Bekasi, West Java, Indonesia. Numerous Korean bands and artists performances, such as SMTown Live World Tour III and Music Bank World Tour, have performed in Indonesia. Korean pop culture has inspired Indonesian artists such as a male I-pop group named "S4" that has trained in Korea and has had performances there.

President Chun Doo Hwan visited Indonesia in July 1981, in the next year President Soeharto visited South Korea in October 1982. In November 1988 President Roh Tae Woo visited Indonesia. President Kim Young Sam visited Indonesia in November 1994. Indonesian President Abdurrahman Wahid visited South Korea twice in 2000, on February and on October, in the same year, President Kim Dae Jung visited Indonesia in November. President Megawati Soekarnoputri visited South Korea in March 2002. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono visited South Korea during an APEC Summit in November 2005. In December 2006, President Roh Moo Hyun visited Indonesia to sign a Joint Strategic Partnership between Indonesia and South Korea. President Yudhoyono visited Korea as a state guest in March 2012 and President Lee Myung-bak visited Bali to attend the Bali Democracy Forum in November 2012. Koreans in Indonesia Indonesians in South Korea The Embassy of Republic of Indonesia in Seoul, South Korea The Embassy of Republic of Korea in Jakarta, Indonesia