Jan van Goyen

Jan Josephszoon van Goyen was a Dutch landscape painter. Van Goyen was an prolific artist. Jan van Goyen was the son of a shoemaker and started as an apprentice in Leiden, the town of his birth. Like many Dutch painters of his time, Jan van Goyen studied art in the town of Haarlem with Esaias van de Velde. At age 35, he established a permanent studio at Den Haag. Crenshaw tells that van Goyen's landscape paintings fetched high prices, but he made up for the modest value of individual pieces by increasing his production, painting thinly and with a limited palette of inexpensive pigments. Despite his market innovations, he always sought more income, not only through related work as an art dealer and auctioneer but by speculating in tulips and real estate. Although the latter was a safe avenue of investing money, in van Goyen's experience it led to enormous debts. Paulus Potter rented one of his houses. Though he seems to have kept a workshop, his only registered pupils were Nicolaes van Berchem, Jan Steen, Adriaen van der Kabel.

The list of painters he influenced is much longer. In 1652 and 1654 he was forced to sell his collection of paintings and graphic art, he subsequently moved to a smaller house, he died in 1656 in The Hague, still unbelievably 18,000 guilders in debt, forcing his widow to sell their remaining furniture and paintings. Van Goyen's troubles may have affected the early business prospects of his student and son-in-law Jan Steen, who left The Hague in 1654. A Dutch painter of the 17th century will fall into one of four categories, a painter of portraits, still-lifes, or genre. Dutch painting was specialized and could an artist hope to achieve greatness in more than one area in a lifetime of painting. Jan van Goyen would be classified as a landscape artist with an eye for the genre subjects of everyday life, he painted many of the canals in and around Den Haag as well as the villages surrounding countryside of Delft, Rotterdam and Gouda. Other popular Dutch landscape painters of the sixteenth and seventeenth century were Jacob van Ruisdael, Aelbert Cuyp, Hendrick Avercamp, Ludolf Backhuysen, Meindert Hobbema, Aert van der Neer.

Jan van Goyen would begin a painting using a support of thin oak wood. To this panel, he would scrub on several layers of a thin animal hide glue. With a blade, he would scrape over the entire surface a thin layer of tinted white lead to act as a ground and to fill the low areas of the panel; the ground was tinted sometimes reddish, or ochre in colour. Next, van Goyen would loosely and rapidly sketch out the scene to be painted with pen and ink without going into the small details of his subject; this walnut ink drawing can be seen in some of the thinly painted areas of his work. For a guide, he would have turned to a detailed drawing; the scene would have been drawn from life outdoors and kept in the studio as reference material. Drawings by artists of the time were works of art in their own right as they are viewed today. On his palette he would grind out a colour collection of neutral grays, umbers and earthen greens that looked like they were pulled from the soil he painted. A varnish oil medium was used as vehicle to grind his powered pigments into paint and used to help apply thin layers of paint which he could blend.

The dark areas of the painting were kept thin and transparent with generous amounts of the oil medium. The light striking the painting in these sections would be lost and absorbed into the painting ground; the lighter areas of the picture were treated heavier and opaque with a generous amount of white lead mixed into the paint. Light falling on the painting in a light section is reflected back at the viewer; the effect is three-dimensional quality. The surface of a finished painting resembles a fluid supple mousse, masterfully whipped and modeled with the brush. According to the art historian H.-U. Beck, "In his composed seascapes of the 1650s he reached the apex of his creative work, producing paintings of striking perfection."Some of Van Goyen's Works can be seen at the Thyssen Bornemisza Museum in Madrid, one from the public collection and others from the Carmen Thyssen Collection shown there. Jan van Goyen was famously influential on the landscape painters of his century, his tonal quality was a feature.

According to the Netherlands Institute for Art History, he influenced Cornelis de Bie, Jan Coelenbier, Cornelis van Noorde, Abraham Susenier, Herman Saftleven, Pieter Jansz van Asch, Abraham van Beijeren. 69 paintings by or after Jan van Goyen at the Art UK site View of Dordrecht 1644 Works and literature on Jan van Goyen Vermeer and The Delft School, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which has material on Jan van Goyen Five artworks by Jan van Goyen, at the online collection of Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen. Dutch and Flemish paintings from the Hermitage, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Jan van Goyen Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Goyen, Jan Josephszoon van". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press

Arapovo Monastery

The Arapovo Monastery of Saint Nedelya is a Bulgarian Orthodox monastery lying some six kilometres east of the town of Asenovgrad in central southern Bulgaria. Founded in the mid-19th century, it belongs to the Plovdiv eparchy of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and was named after the nearby village of Arapovo, today known as Zlatovrah. Construction of the monastery was initiated by the hieromonk Sophronius; the location was selected due to the presence of a holy spring nearby. The monastical school was founded in the same year the monastery's main church was completed. Architecturally, the Arapovo Monastery bears a strong resemblance to the Gorni Voden Monastery; the main painter was Vasil Levski's associate Georgi Danchov, assisted by Aleksi Atanasov. The monastery's main church, dedicated to Saint Nedelya, is a large three-naved, three-apsed and cross-domed church. Another feature of the monastery is the sizable stone tower in its inner yard; the rectangular tower has been linked to the famous hajduk leader Angel Voyvoda, known to have been a ktitor of the monastery.

The tower has three storeys. The lower two were constructed of stone and feature narrow windows intended for defensive purposes, while the top storey is a wooden bay-windowed construction with four rooms designed for habitation

Burpengary railway station

Burpengary railway station is located on the North Coast line in Queensland, Australia. It serves the suburb of Burpengary in the Moreton Bay Region. Burpengary station is served by all City network services from Nambour and Caboolture to Central, many continuing to Springfield Central and Rosewood. Kangaroo Bus Lines operate one route to and from Burpengary station: 664: Burpengary loop service Media related to Burpengary railway station at Wikimedia Commons Burpengary station Queensland Rail Burpengary station Queensland's Railways on the Internet