Speedo International Ltd. is a British Australian manufacturer and distributor of swimwear and swim-related accessories based in Nottingham, England. Founded in Sydney, Australia in 1914 by Alexander MacRae, a Scottish emigrant, the industry-leading company is now a subsidiary of the British Pentland Group. Today, the Speedo brand can be found on products ranging from swimsuits and goggles to wrist watches; the Speedo brand is manufactured for and marketed in North America as Speedo USA by PVH under an exclusive perpetual licence, who acquired prior licensee Warnaco Group in 2013. In accordance with its Australian roots, Speedo uses a boomerang as their symbol. Due to their success in the swimwear industry, the word "Speedo" has become synonymous with racing bathing suits. Company founder Alexander MacRae emigrated from Loch Kishorn in the western Highlands of Scotland to Sydney, Australia in 1910. Working as a milkman, he founded MacRae and Company Hosiery four years manufacturing underwear under the brand name Fortitude.
The Australian Army's need for socks during the First World War provided MacRae with enough business to expand and in 1927 his first line of swimwear, called a "racer-back costume" was introduced. The following year, a naming contest held among the MacRae staff yielded the slogan "Speed on in your Speedos." The brand name was born. The contest winner, Captain Parsonson, was awarded £5 for his slogan and the company was renamed Speedo Knitting Mills; the controversial yet revolutionary racerback style's open shoulder and exposed back allowed greater range of motion in water and was adopted by competitive swimmers, despite being banned by some beaches. In 1932, Speedo made its Olympic debut when 16-year old Australian Clare Dennis won the Women's 200 Meter Breaststroke at the Los Angeles Olympic Games. After nearly being disqualified for "showing too much shoulder" in her regulation silk Speedo brand swimsuit, Dennis went on to set a world record time of 3:06.3. The 1936 Berlin Summer Games saw some controversy as the men's Australian swim team featured shirtless swim trunks for the first time.
In 1936, Alexander MacRae became involved in the Surf Life Saving Association. To this day, Speedo continues to support the Australian volunteer organisation. After devoting most of its resources to the War effort during World War II, Speedo enjoyed a great post-war demand for swimsuits the invented bikini style; the company reestablished itself as a leader in swimwear manufacturing and once again drew controversy when its two-piece was banned by Australian beach inspectors. In 1951, Speedo Knitting Mills Ltd. incorporated and went public, selling its stock on the Sydney Stock Exchange. In 1955, nylon was used for the first time in the company's swimsuits and the next year, the popular swimsuit brand returned to the Olympics when its home country hosted the Melbourne Summer Games; the Speedo sponsored Australian men's swim team took home eight gold medals and brought a new worldwide level of notoriety to the company which debuted the swim briefs that would become synonymous with the brand name.
By 1957, Speedo had the exclusive licence to manufacture and distribute Jockey brand men's underwear in Australia. The company finished off the 1950s by exporting to the United States and exploring potential opportunities in South America, New Zealand and Japan; the end of the 1950s saw the beginning of a long-lasting business partnership which continues to this day. In 1958, Speedo began the manufacture of American Warnaco's White Stag ski-wear line. In exchange, in 1961, White Stag became the exclusive US distributor of Speedo swimwear. Through White Stag, Speedo's product line expanded to include women's sportswear. By the middle of the 1960s, Speedo had acquired 30% of Nottingham, UK textile manufacturer Robert Shaw and Company Ltd. and had established a European subsidiary. Licences were granted to Japanese and South American corporations; the 1968 Mexico City Summer Olympics saw 27 of the 29 gold medalists—22 of which set world records—wearing Speedo brand swimsuits. Speedo began the next decade by completing its acquisition of Robert Shaw and Company in 1971.
The 1970s saw the company pioneer the use of elastane and the brand's use in Olympic record breaking continued at the 1972 Munich and 1976 Montreal games, the latter of which Speedo was an official swimwear licensee. On Australia Day, 26 January 1981 the Australian Institute of Sport opened in Canberra, with Speedo as its first official sponsor. Early in the decade, Speedo provided equipment and training to China to aid the communist country's return to the Olympics for first time since 1958. Throughout the decade, the brand expanded its reach in Europe by licensing production in Italy, Spain and other nations, bringing its total distribution to 112 countries. In 1990, British sportswear firm Pentland Group, which had just sold its shares of sneaker company Reebok, acquired a significant stake in Warnaco offshoot Authentic Fitness, the exclusive North American licensee of Speedo. Pentland followed this move with the purchase of 80% of Speedo Ltd. Early the next year, Pentland completed its aggressive entrance into the global swimwear market by wholly acquiring Speedo Australia and Speedo International.
Under Pentland's ownership, Speedo expanded its line of swimwear to include more fashion-oriented beachwear as well as triathlon accessories. Under the new corporate command, Speedo continued its winning tradition of utilising cutting edge technology to decrease drag in the water and increase speed into the 1990s; the decade saw the creation of the low-drag S2000 suit, the chlorine resistant Endurance line as well as the Aquablade serie
Campbell Soup Company
The Campbell Soup Company known as just Campbell's, is an American producer of canned soups and related products that are sold in 120 countries around the world. It is headquartered in New Jersey. Campbell's divides itself into three divisions: the "simple meals" division, which consists of soups that are either condensed or ready-to-serve; the company was started in 1869 by Joseph A. Campbell, a fruit merchant from Bridgeton, New Jersey, Abraham Anderson, an icebox manufacturer from South Jersey, they produced canned tomatoes, jellies, soups and minced meats. In 1876, Anderson left the partnership and the company became the "Joseph A. Campbell Preserve Company". Campbell reorganized into "Joseph Campbell & Co." in 1896. In 1897, John T. Dorrance, a nephew of the general manager Arthur Dorrance, began working for the company at a wage of $7.50 a week. Dorrance, a chemist with degrees from MIT and Göttingen University, developed a commercially viable method for condensing soup by halving the quantity of its heaviest ingredient: water.
He went on to become president of the company from 1914 to 1930 buying out the Campbell family. In 1898, Herberton Williams, a Campbell's executive, convinced the company to adopt a carnelian red and bright white color scheme, because he was taken by the crisp carnelian red color of the Cornell University football team's uniforms. To this day, the layout of the can, with its red and white design and the metallic bronze medal seal from the 1900 Paris Exhibition, has changed little, with the exception of the French phrase on the top of the bronze seal that said "Exposition-Universelle-Internationale", changed to the English name of the exhibition as "Paris International Exposition". Campbell Soup became one of the largest food companies in the world under the leadership of William Beverly Murphy, he was elected executive vice president of Campbell Soup in 1949 and was President and CEO from 1953 to 1972. While at Campbell's Soup Company, he took the corporation public and increased its brand portfolio to include Pepperidge Farm's breads and crackers, Franco-American's gravies and pastas, V8 vegetable juices, Swanson broths, Godiva's chocolates.
David Johnson was President and CEO from 1990 until 1997. Campbell Soup invested in advertising since its inception, many of its promotional campaigns have proven value in the Americana collectible advertising market. Best known are the "Campbell Kids" designed by illustrator Grace Drayton. Ronald Reagan was a spokesman for V8 when Campbell's acquired the brand in 1948. In addition to collectible advertising, the company has had notable commercial sponsorships. Among these was Orson Welles's The Campbell Playhouse, The Mercury Theatre on the Air. After the program's adaptation of The War of the Worlds became a sensation for accidentally starting a mass panic due to its realism, Campbell's took over as sponsor of the radio theater program in December 1938. In the UK and Ireland, Campbell Soup was rebranded as Batchelors Condensed Soup and Erin in March 2008, when the license to use the brand name expired. Premier Foods, St. Albans, Hertfordshire bought the Campbell Soup Company in the UK and Ireland, for £450m in 2006, but was licensed to use the brand only until 2008.
Under this agreement, the US-based Campbell Soup Company continued to produce Campbell's Condensed Soup but could not sell the product in the UK for a further five years. Campbell's continues to be a major part of Camden, New Jersey participating in charity events in the community. In 2009, Campbell's completed the building of a expanded headquarters in the city. In January 2010, Campbell's Canadian subsidiary began selling a line of soups that are certified by the Islamic Society of North America as being halal. Although Campbell does not have any plans to sell its halal soups in the United States, the move has drawn criticism from anti-Muslim critics in the United States. Blogger Pamela Geller called for a boycott of the company. In July 2011, Campbell's Soup decided to once again sell its product in the UK after being absent since 2008. Symingtons began manufacturing the brand under license; the new line-up comprised twelve cup soups, five simmer soups designed to be cooked in a pot of water, four savoury rice lines, four savory pasta and sauce packets.
The new range were not sold in cans, but instead in boxes. In 2011, the canned varieties returned to supermarket shelves with refreshed labels and new lines. In 2012, Campbell announced plans to buy Bolthouse Farms, a maker of juices, salad dressings and baby carrots, for $1.55 billion. Analysts saw this as an attempt to reach more affluent consumers. From 2012, Campbell Soup has been focused on updating their image and digital marketing to increase visibility among younger generations, they hired Umang Shah to lead global digital marketing. He led record social engagement campaigns including #DeclareRecess and #BIGFiveO. In June 2013, Campbell acquired the Danish multinational baked goods company Kelsen Group for an undisclosed amount. Kelsen has an 85-country distribution network and is seen as providing Campbell with opportunities for international expansion into China and other Asian markets. In June 2015, Campbell Soup acquired salsa maker Garden Fresh Gourmet for a sum of $231 million as it looked to expand into the fresh and organic packaged foods business.
In December 2017, Campbell's completed the acquisition of Pacific Foods of Oregon, LLC for $700 million and announced the agreement to
2028 Summer Olympics
The 2028 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXXIV Olympiad, known as LA 2028, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event, scheduled to take place from July 21 to August 6, 2028, in Los Angeles, United States. The process of bidding for the host city was scheduled to begin in 2019, with the winning bid due to be announced in 2021. However, following the withdrawal of a number of cities from the bidding process for both the 2022 Winter Olympics and the 2024 Summer Olympics, the International Olympic Committee resolved in July 2017 to jointly award both the 2024 and 2028 Games, thus on July 31, 2017, an agreement was reached wherein Los Angeles would bid for the 2028 Games with $1.8 billion of additional funding from the IOC, which cleared the way for Paris to be confirmed as host of the 2024 Games. Both cities were formally announced as winners of their respective Games at the 131st IOC Session in Lima, Peru, on September 13, 2017; the bid was praised by the IOC for using a record-breaking number of existing and temporary facilities and relying on corporate money.
This is the third time that Los Angeles will have hosted the Summer Olympics, making it the third city after London and Paris to host the Games three times and the first American city to do so. These will be the fifth Summer Olympic Games to be hosted in the United States, the previous four occasions being St. Louis 1904, Los Angeles 1932, Los Angeles 1984, Atlanta 1996; these will be the fourth Olympics to be held in the U. S. state of California, the ninth Olympics to be held in the U. S. overall. On September 16, 2015, the International Olympic Committee announced five candidate cities for the 2024 Games: Budapest, Los Angeles and Rome; the candidature process was announced at the same time. Budapest and Rome withdrew their bids, leaving only Los Angeles and Paris. A similar situation had occurred during the bidding for the 2022 Winter Olympics when Krakow, Lviv and Stockholm withdrew, resulting in a two-way race between Beijing and Almaty, where Beijing was declared the winner. On April 3, 2017 at the IOC convention in Denmark, Olympic officials met with bid committees from both Los Angeles and Paris to discuss the possibility of naming two winners in the competition to host the 2024 Summer Games.
After these withdrawals, the IOC Executive Board met in Lausanne, Switzerland to discuss the 2024 and 2028 bid processes on June 9, 2017. The IOC formally proposed electing the 2024 and 2028 Olympic host cities at the same time in 2017, a proposal, approved by an Extraordinary IOC Session on July 11, 2017 in Lausanne; the IOC set up a process where the Los Angeles and Paris 2024 bid committees, the IOC held meetings in July 2017 to decide which city would host in 2024 and who would host in 2028. Following the decision to award the 2024 and 2028 Games Paris was understood to be the preferred host for the 2024 Games. On July 31, 2017, the IOC announced Los Angeles as the sole candidate for the 2028 Games, allowing Paris to be confirmed as the host city for the 2024 Games. On August 11, 2017, the Los Angeles City Council voted unanimously to approve the bid. On September 11, 2017, Los Angeles received formal approval to host the 2028 Games from the IOC's evaluation commission. On September 13, 2017, Los Angeles was formally awarded the 2028 Games following a unanimous vote by the IOC.
On October 16, 2017, Los Angeles 2028 received official support from the state of California. On August 29, 2018, Olympic officials arrived for a two-day visit that included meetings with local organizers and a tour of the city's newest venues. On October 9, 2018, a movement called NOlympics LA released poll results stating that 45% of respondents from Los Angeles County and 47% from across California oppose bringing the 2028 Summer Games to Los Angeles. However, a different poll suggests that more than 88% of Angelenos are in favor of the city's hosting the 2028 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Los Angeles was elected as host city for the 2028 Summer Olympics at the 131st IOC Session in Lima, Peru on September 13, 2017; the three American IOC members, Anita DeFrantz, Angela Ruggiero and Larry Probst, were not eligible to vote in this election under the rules of the Olympic Charter. This was the third time that Los Angeles had been selected as an Olympics host city without facing a competitive bidding process, following similar outcomes in 1932 and 1984.
Los Angeles submitted bids for the Summer Olympics in 1924, 1928, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1976 and 1980, but lost out to Paris, London, Melbourne and Moscow respectively. More Los Angeles applied to be the U. S. candidate city for the 2016 Summer Olympics, but on that occasion Chicago was chosen as U. S. candidate by the United States Olympic Committee. While most host cities have seven years to prepare for the Olympic Games, Los Angeles will see an additional four years, giving the city eleven years for preparations; the Los Angeles bid relied on a majority of existing venues. Banc of California Stadium, which opened in 2018 as the home of Major League Soccer's Los Angeles FC, will host football and several events in athletics. Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park, home of the NFL's Los Angeles Rams and Los Angeles Chargers upon its completion in 2020, will host the main opening ceremony and archery. A
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de
Fullerton is a city located in northern Orange County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 135,161. Fullerton was founded in 1887, it secured the land on behalf of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway. It was a center of agriculture, notably groves of Valencia oranges and other citrus crops, it is home to numerous higher educational institutions California State University and Fullerton College. From the mid-1940s through the late 1990s, Fullerton was home to a large industrial base made up of aerospace contractors, paper products manufacturers, is considered to be the birthplace of the electric guitar, due in a large part to Leo Fender; the headquarters of Vons, owned by Albertsons, is located in Fullerton near the Fullerton-Anaheim line. Evidence of prehistoric animal habitation, such as saber-toothed cats and mammoths, is present in Ralph B. Clark Regional Park in the northwest of the city. Europeans first passed through the area in 1769 when Gaspar de Portolà led a Spanish expedition north to Monterey.
From the description recorded in the diary of Father Juan Crespi, it seems that the party camped on July 29 near present-day Laguna Lake, in the Sunny Hills area. After establishment of Mission San Gabriel Arcangel in 1771, the local Tongva people were dubbed "Gabrieliños" by the Spanish. In 1837, the Fullerton area became part of Rancho San Juan Cajón de Santa Ana, granted to Juan Pacifico Ontiveros, a Spanish soldier. Ontiveros began to sell parcels of the Rancho to migrant Americans settling and developing California in the aftermath of the 1849 Gold Rush, including Massachusetts native Abel Stearns. In the 1860s, Stearns sold in turn to a Basque shepherd. In 1886 while in the area on a duck hunting vacation, Malden brothers George and Edward Amerige, heard rumors that the California Central Railroad, a subsidiary of the Santa Fe Railway, was looking for land. Sensing opportunity, they arranged to buy 430 acres north of Anaheim for $68,000, they began negotiations with George H. Fullerton, president of the Pacific Land and Improvement Company a Santa Fe subsidiary.
They offered free right-of-way and half interest in the land to the railroad if Fullerton's survey were revised to include the proposed town site, on July 5, 1887 Edward Amerige formally staked his claim at what is now the intersection of Harbor Boulevard and Commonwealth Avenue. In 1894 Charles Chapman, a retired Chicago publisher and a descendant of John "Johnny Appleseed" Chapman, purchased an orange orchard in eastern Fullerton; the Valencia variety of oranges he promoted from his Santa Ysabel Ranch, well suited to the local climate, proved a boon to producers. Cultivation of walnuts and avocados flourished, the Western railroad town became an agricultural center. Fullerton was incorporated in 1904, but not recognized until 1907, due to conflicts at that time. Drilling for petroleum began in 1880 with the discovery of the Brea-Olinda Oil Field and fueled the first real boom, peaking in the 1920s. Construction reflected the vogue for Spanish Colonial and Italian Renaissance-inspired architecture, as in the historic Fox Fullerton Theatre.
Fullerton College was established at its present location at Chapman Avenue and Lemon Street in 1913. Meanwhile, the city banned all overnight street parking in 1924— a law enforced to the present day, unless an area is exempted; the period from 1910-1950 represented a golden age for the city which like other Southern California cities were marked with elegant architecture ranging from the Beaux Arts Movement to the distinctive California Mediterranean architecture, which in turn were surrounded by bucolic farms and parks. Significant public works projects were constructed during this period, including the conversion of a southwestern sewer farm into Fullerton Municipal Airport at the behest of Placentia ranchers and aviators William and Robert Dowling in 1927. Following the depression, concentration of industry, a depressed farming economy, cheap land development shattered the earlier period quality of life. Through the mid-1900s the economy shifted toward food processing rather than food production, as well as manufacturing.
Val Vita Food Products began operating a citrus juice plant in western Fullerton in 1932. By 1941 it had become the largest food processing company in the US. In 1934 A. W. Leo, Tom Yates and Ralph Harrison developed the first Hawaiian Punch recipe in a converted garage in Fullerton; the city became a producer of aerospace equipment and electronic components, navigation systems, laboratory instruments. In 1949 Dick Riedel and Bill Barris piloted the Sunkist Lady, a modified Aeronca Sedan, out of the Fullerton airport to set an endurance flight record of 1,008 hours and 2 minutes. In 1949, Fullerton was the setting in which Leo Fender developed and refined the design of the Fender Telecaster, a guitar which would be used among some of the greatest musicians of the 20th and 21st Century. Among them were Bruce Springsteen, Keith Richards, Joe Strummer, Waylon Jennings, Dwight Yoakam, Greg Camp, Jimmy Page, Kurt Cobain, James Burton, Jonny Greenwood and many others. Although Fullerton, like other Southern California cities, had experienced an expansion of population due to housing
Xerox Corporation is an American global corporation that sells print and digital document and services in more than 160 countries. Xerox is headquartered in Norwalk, though its largest population of employees is based around Rochester, New York, the area in which the company was founded; the company purchased Affiliated Computer Services for $6.4 billion in early 2010. As a large developed company, it is placed in the list of Fortune 500 companies. On December 31, 2016, Xerox separated its business process service operations into a new publicly traded company, Conduent. Xerox focuses on its document technology and document outsourcing business, continues to trade on the NYSE. On January 31, 2018, Xerox announced that it would sell a controlling stake to Fujifilm, which has maintained a joint venture in the Asia-Pacific region known as Fuji Xerox. Researchers at Xerox and its Palo Alto Research Center invented several important elements of personal computing, such as the desktop metaphor GUI, the computer mouse and desktop computing.
These concepts were frowned upon by the board of directors, who ordered the Xerox engineers to share them with Apple technicians. The concepts were adopted by Apple and Microsoft. With the help of these innovations and Microsoft came to dominate the personal computing revolution of the 1980s, whereas Xerox was not a major player. Xerox was founded in 1906 in Rochester as The Haloid Photographic Company, which manufactured photographic paper and equipment. In 1938 Chester Carlson, a physicist working independently, invented a process for printing images using an electrically charged photoconductor-coated metal plate and dry powder "toner". However, it would take more than 20 years of refinement before the first automated machine to make copies was commercialized, using a document feeder, scanning light, a rotating drum. Joseph C. Wilson, credited as the "founder of Xerox", took over Haloid from his father, he saw the promise of Carlson's invention and, in 1946, signed an agreement to develop it as a commercial product.
Wilson remained as President/CEO of Xerox until 1967 and served as Chairman until his death in 1971. Looking for a term to differentiate its new system, Haloid coined the term xerography from two Greek roots meaning "dry writing". Haloid subsequently changed its name to Haloid Xerox in 1958 and Xerox Corporation in 1961. Before releasing the 914, Xerox tested the market by introducing a developed version of the prototype hand-operated equipment known as the Flat-plate 1385; the 1385 was not a viable copier because of its speed of operation. As a consequence, it was sold as a platemaker for the Addressograph-Multigraph Multilith 1250 and related sheet-fed offset printing presses in the offset lithography market, it was little more than a high quality, commercially available plate camera mounted as a horizontal rostrum camera, complete with photo-flood lighting and timer. The glass film/plate had been replaced with a selenium-coated aluminum plate. Clever electrics turned this into reusable substitute for film.
A skilled user could produce fast and metal printing plates of a higher quality than any other method. Having started as a supplier to the offset lithography duplicating industry, Xerox now set its sights on capturing some of offset's market share; the 1385 was followed by the first automatic xerographic printer, the Copyflo, in 1955. The Copyflo was a large microfilm printer which could produce positive prints on roll paper from any type of microfilm negative. Following the Copyflo, the process was scaled down to produce the 1824 microfilm printer. At about half the size and weight, this still sizable machine printed onto hand-fed, cut-sheet paper, pulled through the process by one of two gripper bars. A scaled-down version of this gripper feed system was to become the basis for the 813 desktop copier; the company came to prominence in 1959 with the introduction of the Xerox 914, "the most successful single product of all time." The 914, the first plain paper photocopier was developed by John H. Dessauer.
The product was sold by an innovative ad campaign showing that monkeys could make copies at the touch of a button - simplicity would become the foundation of future Xerox products and user interfaces. Revenues leaped to over $500 million by 1965. In the 1960s, Xerox held a dominant position in the photocopier market, the company expanded making millionaires of some long-suffering investors who had nursed the company through the slow research and development phase of the product. In 1960, a xerography research facility called the Wilson Center for Research and Technology was opened in Webster, New York. In 1961, the company changed its name to Xerox Corporation. Xerox common stock was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1961 and on the Chicago Stock Exchange in 1990. In 1963 Xerox introduced the Xerox 813, the first desktop plain-paper copier, realizing Carlson's vision of a copier that could fit on anyone's office desk. Ten years in 1973, a basic, color copier, based on the 914, followed.
The 914 itself was sped up to become the 420 and 720. The 813 was developed into the 330 and 660 products and also the 740 desktop microfiche printer. Xerox's first foray into duplicating, as distinct from copying, was with the Xerox 2400, introduced in 1966; the model number denoted the number of prints produced in an hour. Although not as fast as offset printing, this machine introduced the industry's first automatic document feeder, paper slitter and perforator, collato
Laguna Beach, California
Laguna Beach is a seaside resort city located in southern Orange County, California, in the United States. It is known for a mild year-round climate, scenic coves, environmental preservation, an artist community; the population in the 2010 census was 22,723. As per population estimate in July 2017 the total population of Laguna Beach city was 23,174. A territory of Paleoindians, the Tongva people and Mexico, the location became part of the United States following the Mexican–American War. Laguna Beach was settled in the 1870s founded in 1887 and, in 1927 its current government was incorporated as a city. In 1944, the city adopted a council-manager form for its government; the city has remained isolated from urban encroachment by its surrounding hills, limited highway access, a dedicated greenbelt. The Laguna Beach coastline is protected by 5.88 miles of state marine reserve and an additional 1.21 miles of state conservation area. Tourism is the primary industry with an estimated six million people visiting the community annually.
Annual large events include the Pageant of the Masters, Festival of Arts, Sawdust Art Festival, Art-A-Fair, Bluewater Music Festival, Kelpfest. Laguna Beach was the site of a prehistoric paleoindian civilization. In 1933, the first fossilized skull of a paleoindian found in California was uncovered during construction on St. Ann's Drive. Known as "Laguna Woman", the skull was radiocarbon dated to more than 17,000 BP, revised measurements suggest it originated during the Holocene era 11,700 years before present. Subsequent research has found several prehistoric encampment sites in the area; the indigenous people of the Laguna Beach area were the Tongva. Aliso Creek served as a territorial boundary between Gabrieleno and Acjachemen groups, or Juanenos, named by Spanish missionaries who first encountered them in the 1500s; the area of Laguna Canyon was named on an 1841 Mexican land grant map as Cañada de las Lagunas. After the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, the area of Alta California was ceded to the United States.
The treaty provided that Mexican land grants be honored and Rancho San Joaquin, which included north Laguna Beach, was granted to José Antonio Andres Sepúlveda. Following a drought in 1864, Sepúlveda sold the property to James Irvine; the majority of Laguna Beach was one of the few parcels of coastal land in Southern California that never was included in any Mexican land grant. Settlers arrived after the American Civil War, they were encouraged by the Homestead Act and Timber Culture Act, which granted up to 160 acres of land to a homesteader who would plant at least 40 acres of trees. In Laguna Beach, settlers planted groves of eucalyptus trees. In 1871, the first permanent homestead in the area was occupied by the George and Sarah Thurston family of Utah on 152 acres of Aliso Creek Canyon. In 1876, the brothers William and Lorenzo Nathan "Nate" Brooks purchased tracts of land in Bluebird Canyon at present-day Diamond Street, they built homes and initiated the small community of Arch Beach. In his book, History of Orange County, Samuel Armor cited the permanent homestead of Nate Brooks as the beginning of the modern day town and described Brooks as the "Father of Laguna Beach."The community in Laguna Canyon and around the main beach expanded during the 1880s.
The city founded a post office in 1887 under the name Lagona, but the postmaster in 1904, Nicholas Isch petitioned for a name correction to Laguna Beach. By Laguna Beach had developed into a tourist destination. Hubbard Goff built a large hotel at Arch Beach in 1886, moved and added to Joseph Yoch's Laguna Beach Hotel built in 1888 on the main beach. Visitors from local cities pitched tents on the beaches for vacation during the warm summers; the scenic beauty of the isolated coastline and hills attracted plein-air painters in the early 1900s. William Wendt, Frank Cuprien, Edgar Payne among others settled there and formed the Laguna Beach Art Association; the first art gallery opened in 1918 and became the Laguna Beach Art Museum. Precursors to The Festival of Arts and the Pageant of the Masters began in 1921, were established in their present-day form by Roy Ropp in 1936. Due to its proximity to Hollywood, Laguna became a favorite filming location. Starting in 1913, dozens of silent films were made at local coves with Harold Lloyd, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks Jr. and others.
Actors and film crews stayed during long production shoots at the Arch Beach Tavern on the hillside above Moss Street. The arrival of painters, photographers and writers established Laguna Beach as a noted artist community. Although there only were 300 residents in 1920, a large proportion of them worked in creative fields; the small town remained isolated until 1926 because the long winding Laguna Canyon road served as the only access. With the completion of the Pacific Coast Highway in 1926, a population boom was expected. In order to protect the small town atmosphere of the art colony, residents who called themselves "Lagunatics" pushed for incorporation; the municipal government for Laguna Beach incorporated as a city on June 29, 1927. The city has experienced steady population growth since that time, rising from 1900 residents in 1927 to more than 10,000 in 1962, becoming four times larger in area. Many creative and wealthy people have made Laguna Beach their home, they have added to the local culture by providing a theme for the small town.
The adventurer Richard Halliburton built his Hangover House on the slopes of South Laguna. Hildegarde Hawthorne, granddaughter of the novelist Nathani