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Japanese Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group

The Japanese Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group or known as the Japan Self-Defense Forces Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group refers to a battalion-sized humanitarian contingent of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, sent to Samawah, Southern Iraq in early January 2004 and withdrawn by late July 2006. However, the last JASDF forces left Kuwait on December 18, 2008. 5,500 Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force members were present in Samawah between 2004 and 2006. Their duties had included tasks such as water purification and reestablishment of public facilities for the Iraqi people. While required to remain within noncombat zones, GSDF records revealed that Japanese troops were present in areas of active hostilities; the Koizumi administration ordered the controversial formation and deployment of the JIRSG at the request of the United States. This marks a significant turning point in Japan's history, as it represents the first foreign deployment of Japanese troops since the end of World War II, excluding those deployments conducted under United Nations auspices.

Public opinion regarding the deployment was divided given that Article 9 of the Constitution of Japan prohibits the use of military forces unless for self-defence purposes. In order to legalize the deployment of Japanese forces in Samawah, the Koizumi administration legislated the Humanitarian Relief and Iraqi Reconstruction Special Measures Law on December 9, 2003, in the Diet though the opposition opposed it. Two Japanese diplomats were shot and killed near Tikrit, Iraq on November 29, 2003, while preparations for the deployment were in their final stages. In early April 2004, three Japanese- a journalist and two aid workers- were kidnapped, but they were released several days on April 15; the following day, another two Japanese- an aid worker and a journalist- were kidnapped and released within 24 hours. The kidnappers of the original three had threatened to burn the hostages alive if Japanese troops were not removed from Iraq within three days. A spokeswoman for the Islamic Clerics Committee, which negotiated their release, said that growing public calls in Japan for the SDF troops to be withdrawn from Iraq led to the release of three Japanese.

In a statement released on July 20, 2004, Al Zarqawi warned Japan and Bulgaria to withdraw their troops, demanding that the Japanese government:'...do what the Philippines has done...', threatening that:'Lines of cars laden with explosives are awaiting you...' if the demands were not met. The body of a Japanese backpacker, Shosei Koda, was found in Baghdad on October 30, 2004, several days after he had been kidnapped, his captors had promised to execute him. According to Channel NewsAsia, the killing renewed domestic pressure on Prime Minister Koizumi to bring the contingent home. One Japanese private security guard, Akihiko Saito, was killed in an ambush on his convoy on May 25, 2005. Analysts differ as to the political ramifications of the deployment. One view is that it represents the emergence of Japan as a close military ally of the United States, strategically positioned as a counterweight to China's growing regional power; this position asserts that the Iraq deployment offers a constitutional model for future overseas deployment in circumvention of Article 9.

Another interpretation is that the deployment is symbolic as it comes at little financial or human cost to the Koizumi administration, has a negligible effect on the strategic situation in Iraq, is aimed at maintaining positive relations with the U. S. so as to perpetuate a favorable economic relationship. At the height of the deployment, on September 19, 2005, a senior Defense Agency official succinctly gave his opinion on the future prospects for overseas Japanese military deployments, drawing on his opinion of the Iraq mission: "It isn’t worth it". Analysts said that the restrictive rules of engagement and reliance on the constant protection of others renders meaningful Japanese participation in international operations impossible for the foreseeable future. One opposition member had said that the JIRSG deployment "wouldn't be a problem if it were for humanitarian reasons, but it is first and foremost a show of support to the U. S; the U. S. invaded Iraq without a U. N. resolution, Japan is now aiding in that act."

Since the beginning of the war in Iraq, the city of Samawah has continuously been a stable city, in what is the most peaceful and sparsely populated province of non-Kurdish Iraq. The first elements of the contingent arrived in Kuwait on January 9 and January 17, 2004, after an advance team from the Japanese Air Self-Defense Forces assessed the security situation in Samawah in late December 2003 and to Kuwait for the arrival of other JSDF forces to Iraq; the first JGSDF troops arrived at the Dutch military base in Samawah on January 19. Prime Minister Koizumi decided on December 8, 2005 to renew the contingent's mandate for another year, despite a poll by the Asahi newspaper which found that 69% of respondents were against renewing the mandate, up from 55% in January. A total of nine JIRSG scheduled rotations took place between 2004 and 2006. Protection for the unit was provided by Australian troops, as the Japanese soldiers were prohibited from engaging Iraqi guerrillas unless they came under fire.

However, a small number of Japanese Special Forces Group, Western Army Infantry Regiment, 1st Airborne Brigade personnel were deployed to provide protection. Mortars and rockets were lobbed at the Japanese camp several times, causing injuries. Although Defense

USNS Big Horn (T-AO-198)

USNS Big Horn is a Henry J. Kaiser-class fleet replenishment oiler of the United States Navy. Big Horn, the twelfth ship of the Henry J. Kaiser class, was laid down at Avondale Shipyard, Inc. at New Orleans, Louisiana, on 9 October 1989 and launched on 2 February 1991. She entered non-commissioned U. S. Navy service under the control of the Military Sealift Command with a civilian crew on 21 May 1992, she serves in the United States Atlantic Fleet. This ship was one of several participating in disaster relief after the 2010 Haiti earthquake; the Big Horn brought relief supplies to Haiti. During Operation Unified Response, Big Horn transferred 618 pallets of cargo and humanitarian assistance/disaster relief supplies and over 2,000,000 gallons of fuel. USNS Big Horn got underway from Naval Station Norfolk the day after the earthquake struck, arrived on scene in Haiti on January 17 and worked until being relieved by USNS Leroy Grumman on 11 February. In 2015, she refuelled RFA Gold Rover in the South Atlantic.

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U. S. government publication, is in the public domain. The entry can be found here. NavSource Online: Service Ship Photo Archive: USNS Leroy Grumman USNS Big Horn Wildenberg, Thomas. Gray Steel and Black Oil: Fast Tankers and Replenishment at Sea in the U. S. Navy, 1912-1995. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. Retrieved 2009-04-28

Jim Pothecary

James Edward Pothecary was a South African cricketer who played in three Tests in 1960. He died there too. Jim Pothecary showed early promise when as a 16-year-old he took all 20 wickets in a match: 10 for 18 and 10 for 36 for his club Seapoint against Lansdowne in Cape Town in the 1950–51 season, he matured into a useful right-handed lower-order batsman and a right-arm medium pace bowler who played for several seasons for Western Province in South African domestic cricket without particular distinction. But in 1959–60, he took 25 wickets at the low average of 14 runs per wicket, was selected for the 1960 South African tour to England, he had a disappointing tour, as did most of the South African side, was not in the first-choice team that contested the first two Test matches. But the controversy that blew up over the fast bowler Geoff Griffin, called by several umpires for throwing, meant there was a vacancy to partner opening bowler Neil Adcock in the last three Tests, Pothecary was called up.

He failed to take a wicket in his first match, at Trent Bridge, but at Old Trafford he took five wickets in the drawn match. Better followed at The Oval, where Pothecary took four wickets in the England first innings, Adcock took six, as the home team were bowled out for just 155, but though South Africa had a first innings lead of 264, they were unable to force victory, Pothecary failed to take a wicket in England's second innings, which opened with a partnership of 290 by Geoff Pullar and Colin Cowdrey. Pothecary was chosen for no more Tests. Jim Pothecary at Cricinfo Jim Pothecary at CricketArchive

1986 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament

The 1986 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament involved 64 schools playing in single-elimination play to determine the national champion of men's NCAA Division I college basketball. It began on March 13, 1986, ended with the championship game on March 31 in Dallas, Texas. A total of 63 games were played. Louisville, coached by Denny Crum, won the national title with a 72–69 victory in the final game over Duke, coached by Mike Krzyzewski. Pervis Ellison of Louisville was named the tournament's Most Outstanding Player. Louisville became the first team from outside a power conference to win the championship since the expansion to 64 teams, remains one of only two teams to do so; the 1986 NCAA Men's Basketball Championship Tournament was the first tournament to use a shot clock limiting the amount of time for any one offensive possession by a team prior to taking a shot at the basket. Beginning with the 1986 tournament, the shot clock was set at 45 seconds, which it would remain until being shortened to 35 seconds beginning in the 1994 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament, further shortened to 30 seconds starting with the 2016 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament.

The 1986 tournament was the last to not feature the three-point shot. LSU's 1985–86 team is tied for the lowest-seeded team to make the Final Four with the 2005–06 George Mason Patriots, the 2010–11 VCU Rams, the 2017-18 Loyola-Chicago Ramblers; as of 2018, they are the only team in tournament history to beat the top 3 seeds from their region. LSU began its run to the Final Four by winning two games on its home court, the LSU Assembly Center, leading to a change two years which prohibited teams from playing NCAA tournament games on a court which they have played four or more games in the regular season. Cleveland State University became the first #14 seed to reach the Sweet Sixteen, losing to their fellow underdog, Navy, by a single point; this was the first year in which two #14 seeds reached the second round in the same year, as Arkansas-Little Rock beat #3-seed Notre Dame. Both feats have only occurred one other time. Chattanooga reached the Sweet Sixteen as a 14-seed in 1997, Old Dominion and Weber State both reached the second round as 14-seeds in 1995.

Every regional final featured a # 2 seed playing a team seeded # 6 or lower. The lone #1 seed to not reach the Elite Eight, St. John's, was knocked out in the second round by #8 Auburn, which lost to #2 Louisville in the regional final, it can be argued that these upsets by the 14-seeds launched the NCAA Tournament's reputation for having unknown teams surprise well-known basketball powers, both happened on the same day. Indiana's stunning loss would be part of the climax in the best-selling book A Season On The Brink. Another story of the tournament was when Navy reached the Elite 8 thanks to stunning performances by David Robinson; this tournament had no Pac 10 teams advance beyond the round of 64. This did not occur again until 2018. Dallas became the 22nd host city, Reunion Arena the 24th host venue, for the Final Four. While the city itself has not hosted another Final Four, the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex would host again in 2014 at AT&T Stadium. Three of the four venues used for regional sites, all four host cities, were Final Four host cities.

This marked the first time that domed stadiums were used in the opening rounds, with Syracuse's Carrier Dome and the Metrodome in Minneapolis hosting games. The Metrodome and the Long Beach Arena were the only new venues this year. While the city of Long Beach itself had not hosted games before, it is part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area which has hosted multiple times. Since 1986, every tournament has included at least one domed stadium, something that had only happened five times beforehand. LSU's Assembly Center, renamed for NCAA career scoring leader and LSU legend Pete Maravich in 1988, hosted for the third and final time, having hosted the Mideast regional semifinals and finals in 1976 and the Mideast regional quarterfinals in 1977. * – Denotes overtime period Brent Musburger and Billy Packer Dick Stockton and Larry Conley Gary Bender and Doug Collins Verne Lundquist and James Brown Jim Nantz and Bill Raftery Tim Ryan and Lynn Shackleford Bob Carpenter and Joe Dean Stockton and Packer 1986 NCAA Division II Men's Basketball Tournament 1986 NCAA Division III Men's Basketball Tournament 1986 NCAA Division I Women's Basketball Tournament 1986 NCAA Division II Women's Basketball Tournament 1986 NCAA Division III Women's Basketball Tournament 1986 National Invitation Tournament 1986 National Women's Invitation Tournament 1986 NAIA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament 1986 NAIA Division I Women's Basketball Tournament

Pierre Gaspard-Huit

Pierre Gaspard-Huit was a French film director and screenwriter. He directed the 1963 film Shéhérazade, he was once married to actress Claudine Auger when she was 18, he was 41 years old. She acted in several of his films. La Vie tragique d'Utrillo L'Herbe à la Reyne La Fugue de Monsieur Perle The Little Czar Sophie et le Crime Paris canaille The Bride Is Much Too Beautiful Les Lavandières du Portugal Christine Captain Fracasse Shéhérazade Gibraltar Living It Up The Last of the Mohicans Pierre Gaspard-Huit on IMDb

St. Oluf's Cemetery

St. Oluf Cemetery is a small public park and historic site in central Aarhus, Denmark; the park is situated by the coast in the city center of Midtbyen, in the Latin Quarter, bounded by the streets of Kystvejen and St. Olufs Stræde, overlooking the Docklands and the Bay of Aarhus in the East, it is one of only two green spaces in the historic inner city, the other one being Frue Kirkeplads at the Church of Our Lady, but is one of five protected scheduled monuments. St. Oluf Cemetery is a decommissioned graveyard turned into a municipal green space, managed by the Nature and Environment department of Aarhus Municipality; the park is named after the St. Oluf Church that used to be here, itself named after the Norwegian king and saint Olaf II. St. Oluf Cemetery functions as a recreational area for locals; the cemetery has not been in use since the early 19th century, but 11 graves from the 17th and 18th centuries are still maintained in the northern section. The park is decorated with trees and crocus and the outline of the former St. Oluf Church is marked in the grassy area, with ceramic plates of red sandstone.

St. Oluf Church is mentioned for the first time in a letter from 14 November 1203 by bishop Peder Vognsen; the church was located outside the ramparts of the Viking Age town, prominently situated by the coastline and isolated from other structures. In 1548, the church collapsed and the congregation was moved to the cathedral, completed in 1300. In 1637, a chapel was constructed on the former site of the church and the cemetery was again in use until 1768, when the chapel was demolished. In 1897, the cemetery was given over to a local charitable organization, looking to beautify areas in the city and it was maintained as a fenced garden until 1938, when Aarhus Municipality took over responsibility. In the early 1950s, archaeological excavations revealed the former church; the cemetery was last changed in 1953, when the iron fence was removed and the church ruin was marked out with stones. On 20 September 1969, the cemetery and church ruin became a scheduled ancient monument, to be protected from any future change.

In the late 17th century, the section of the cemetery along the coast was more than twice the size of the current area, suggesting that the sanctified graveyard area was quite large, but that it has since been reduced by residential developments on the side running along Mejlgade. The southern border was established in 1767 when St. Olufs Street was expanded all the way to the coast, across the southern section of the cemetery. Archaeological excavations of the church ruin and historical records, suggests that the cemetery and the coast, used to extend further east than nowadays. In the 17th century, records shows that skeletal remains were washed out into the sea, but in 1624 a bulwark is mentioned in connection with a flooding. During an expansion of the nearby Cathedral School in the 1760s, stones were collected on the beaches here, contributing to erosion; the problems with flooding and erosion persisted into the 1870s, when Kystvejen was developed and the coastline was properly secured