A deck is a permanent covering over a compartment or a hull of a ship. On a boat or ship, the primary or upper deck is the horizontal structure that forms the "roof" of the hull, strengthening it and serving as the primary working surface. Vessels have more than one level both within the hull and in the superstructure above the primary deck, similar to the floors of a multi-storey building, that are referred to as decks, as are certain compartments and decks built over specific areas of the superstructure. Decks for some purposes have specific names; the main purpose of the upper or primary deck is structural, only secondarily to provide weather-tightness and support people and equipment. The deck serves as the lid to the complex box girder, it resists tension and racking forces. The deck's scantling is the same as the topsides, or might be heavier if the deck is expected to carry heavier loads; the deck will be reinforced around deck fittings such as cleats, or bollards. On ships with more than one level, deck refers to the level itself.
The actual floor surface is called the sole, the term deck refers to a structural member tying the ships frames or ribs together over the keel. In modern ships, the interior decks are numbered from the primary deck, #1, downward and upward. So the first deck below the primary deck will be #2, the first above the primary deck will be #A2 or #S2; some merchant ships may alternatively designate decks below the primary deck machinery spaces, by numbers, those above it, in the accommodation block, by letters. Ships may call decks by common names, or may invent fanciful and romantic names for a specific deck or area of that specific ship, such as the Lido deck of the Princess Cruises' Love Boat. Equipment mounted on deck, such as the ship's wheel, fife rails, so forth, may be collectively referred to as deck furniture. Weather decks in western designs evolved from having structures fore and aft of the ship clear. Eastern designs developed earlier, with efficient middle decks and minimalist fore and aft cabin structures across a range of designs.
In vessels having more than one deck there are various naming conventions, alphabetically, etc. However, there are various common historical names and types of decks: 01 level is the term used in naval services to refer to the deck above the main deck; the next higher decks are referred to as the 02 level, the 03 level, so on. Although these are formally called decks, they are referred to as levels, because they are incomplete decks that do not extend all the way from the stem to the stern or across the ship. Afterdeck an open deck area toward the stern-aft. Berth deck: A deck next below the gun deck, where the hammocks of the crew are slung. Boat deck: Especially on ships with sponsons, the deck area where lifeboats or the ship's gig are stored. Boiler deck: The passenger deck above the vessel's boilers. Bridge deck: The deck area including the helm and navigation station, where the Officer of the Deck/Watch will be found known as the conn An athwartships structure at the forward end of the cockpit with a deck somewhat lower than the primary deck, to prevent a pooping wave from entering through the companionway.
May refer to the deck of a bridge. Flight deck: A deck from which aircraft take off or land. Flush deck: Any continuous unbroken deck from stem to stern. Forecastle deck: A partial deck above the main deck under which the sailors have their berths, extending from the foremast to the bow. Freeboard deck: assigned by a classification society to determine the ship's freeboard. Gun deck: on a multi-decked vessel, a deck below the upper deck where the ships' cannon were carried; the term referred to deck for which the primary function was the mounting of cannon to be fired in broadsides. However, on many smaller and unrated vessels the upper deck and quarterdeck bore all of the cannons but were not referred to as the gun deck. Hangar deck: A deck aboard an aircraft carrier used to store and maintain aircraft. Half-deck: That portion of the deck next below the forecastle or quarterdeck, between the mainmast and the cabin. Helicopter deck: Usually located near the stern and always kept clear of obstacles hazardous to a helicopter landing.
Hurricane deck:, the upper deck a light deck, erected above the frame of the hull. Lido deck: Open area at or near the stern of a passenger ship, housing the main outdoor swimming pool and sunbathing area. Lower deck: the deck over the hold, orig. only of a ship with two decks. Synonym for berth deck. Alternative name for a secondary gun deck Main deck: The principal deck of a vessel. Middle or Waist deck the working area of the deck. Orlop deck: The deck or part of a deck where the cables are stowed below the waterline, it is the lowest deck in a ship. Poop deck: The deck forming the roof of a poop or poop cabin, built on the upper deck and extending from the mizzenmast aft. Promenade deck: A "wrap-around porch" found on passenger ships a
Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii
The overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii began on January 17, 1893, with a coup d'état against Queen Liliʻuokalani on the island of Oahu by subjects of the Kingdom of Hawaii, United States citizens, foreign residents residing in Honolulu. A majority of the insurgents were foreigners, they prevailed upon American minister John L. Stevens to call in the U. S. Marines to protect United States interests, an action that buttressed the rebellion; the revolutionaries established the Republic of Hawaii, but their ultimate goal was the annexation of the islands to the United States, which occurred in 1898. The Kamehameha Dynasty was the reigning monarchy of the Kingdom of Hawaii, beginning with its founding by Kamehameha I in 1795, until the death of Kamehameha V in 1872 and Lunalilo in 1874. On July 6, 1846, U. S. Secretary of State John C. Calhoun, on behalf of President Tyler, afforded formal recognition of Hawaiian independence under the reign of Kamehameha III; as a result of the recognition of Hawaiian independence, the Hawaiian Kingdom entered into treaties with the major nations of the world and established over ninety legations and consulates in multiple seaports and cities.
The kingdom would continue for another 21 years until its overthrow in 1893 with the fall of the House of Kalākaua. Sugar had been a major export from Hawaii since Captain James Cook's arrival in 1778; the first permanent plantation in the islands was on Kauai in 1835. William Hooper began growing sugar cane. Within thirty years there would be plantations on four of the main islands. Sugar had altered Hawaii's economy. United States influence in Hawaiian government began with American-born plantation owners demanding a say in Kingdom politics; this was driven by the economics of the sugar industry. Pressure from these foreign born politicians was being felt by the King and chiefs with demands of land tenure. After a five month occupation by the British in 1843, Kamehameha III relented to the foreign advisors to private land demands with the Great Māhele, distributing the lands as pushed on by the missionaries, including Gerrit P. Judd. During the 1850s, the U. S. import tariff on sugar from Hawaii was much higher than the import tariffs Hawaiians were charging the U.
S. and Kamehameha III sought reciprocity. The monarch wished to lower the tariffs being paid out to the U. S. while still maintaining the Kingdom's sovereignty and making Hawaiian sugar competitive with other foreign markets. In 1854 Kamehameha III proposed a policy of reciprocity between the countries but the proposal died in the U. S. Senate; as early as 1873, a United States military commission recommended attempting to obtain Ford Island in exchange for the tax-free importation of sugar to the U. S. Major General John Schofield, U. S. commander of the military division of the Pacific, Brevet Brigadier General Burton S. Alexander arrived in Hawaii to ascertain its defensive capabilities. United States control of Hawaii was considered vital for the defense of the west coast of the United States, they were interested in Pu'uloa, Pearl Harbor; the sale of one of Hawaii's harbors was proposed by Charles Reed Bishop, a foreigner who had married into the Kamehameha family, had risen in the government to be Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs, owned a country home near Pu'uloa.
He showed the two U. S. officers around the lochs, although his wife, Bernice Pauahi Bishop disapproved of selling Hawaiian lands. As monarch, William Charles Lunalilo, was content to let Bishop run all business affairs but the ceding of lands would become unpopular with the native Hawaiians. Many islanders thought that all the islands, rather than just Pearl Harbor, might be lost and opposed any cession of land. By November 1873, Lunalilo canceled negotiations and returned to drinking, against his doctor's advice. Lunalilo left no heirs; the legislature was empowered by the constitution to elect the monarch in these instances and chose David Kalākaua as the next monarch. The new ruler was pressured by the U. S. government to surrender Pearl Harbor to the Navy. Kalākaua was concerned that this would lead to annexation by the U. S. and to the contravention of the traditions of the Hawaiian people, who believed that the land was fertile and not for sale to anyone. In 1874 through 1875, Kalākaua traveled to the United States for a state visit to Washington DC to help gain support for a new treaty.
Congress agreed to the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 for seven years in exchange for Ford Island. After the treaty, sugar production expanded from 12,000 acres of farm land to 125,000 acres in 1891. At the end of the seven-year reciprocity agreement, the United States showed little interest in renewal. On January 20, 1887, the United States began leasing Pearl Harbor. Shortly afterwards, a group of non-Hawaiians calling themselves the Hawaiian Patriotic League began the Rebellion of 1887, they drafted their own constitution on July 6, 1887. The new constitution was written by Lorrin Thurston, the Hawaiian Minister of the Interior who used the Hawaiian militia as threat against Kalākaua. Kalākaua was forced under threat of assassination to dismiss his cabinet ministers and sign a new constitution which lessened his power, it would become known as the "Bayonet Constitution" due to the threat of force used. The Bayonet Constitution allowed the monarch to appoint cabinet ministers, but had stripped him of the power to dismiss them without approval from the Legislature.
Eligibility to vote for the House of Nobles was altered, stipulating that both candidates and voters were now required to own property valuing at least three thousand dollars, o
Pre-dreadnought battleships were sea-going battleships built between the mid- to late 1880s and 1905, before the launch of HMS Dreadnought. Pre-dreadnoughts replaced the ironclad battleships of the 1880s. Built from steel, protected by hardened steel armour, pre-dreadnought battleships carried a main battery of heavy guns in barbettes supported by one or more secondary batteries of lighter weapons, they were powered by coal-fuelled triple-expansion steam engines. In contrast to the chaotic development of ironclad warships in preceding decades, the 1890s saw navies worldwide start to build battleships to a common design as dozens of ships followed the design of the British Majestic class; the similarity in appearance of battleships in the 1890s was underlined by the increasing number of ships being built. New naval powers such as Germany, the United States, – to a lesser extent – Italy and Austria-Hungary, began to establish themselves with fleets of pre-dreadnoughts, while the navies of Britain and Russia expanded to meet these new threats.
The decisive clash of pre-dreadnought fleets was between the Imperial Russian Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Battle of Tsushima on 27 May 1905. These battleships were abruptly made obsolete by the arrival of HMS Dreadnought in 1906. Dreadnought followed the trend in battleship design to heavier, longer-ranged guns by adopting an "all-big-gun" armament scheme of ten 12-inch guns, her innovative steam turbine engines made her faster. The existing pre-dreadnoughts were decisively outclassed, new and more powerful battleships were from on known as dreadnoughts while the ships, laid down before were designated pre-dreadnoughts; the pre-dreadnought developed from the ironclad battleship. The first ironclads – the French Gloire and HMS Warrior – looked much like sailing frigates, with three tall masts and broadside batteries, when they were commissioned at the start of the 1860s. Only eight years HMVS Cerberus, the first breastwork monitor, was launched. After a further three years followed HMS Devastation, a turreted ironclad which more resembled a pre-dreadnought than previous and contemporary turretless ironclads.
Each ship carried four heavy guns in two turrets fore and aft. Devastation was the first ocean-worthy breastwork monitor, built to attack enemy coasts and harbours. Navies worldwide continued to build masted, turretless battleships which had sufficient freeboard and were seaworthy enough to fight on the high seas; the distinction between coast-assault battleship and cruising battleship became blurred with the Admiral class, ordered in 1880. These ships reflected developments in ironclad design, being protected by iron-and-steel compound armour rather than wrought iron. Equipped with breech-loading guns of between 12-inch and 16 ¼-inch calibre, the Admirals continued the trend of ironclad warships towards gigantic weapons; the guns were mounted in open barbettes to save weight. Some historians see these ships as a vital step towards pre-dreadnoughts; the subsequent Royal Sovereign class of 1889 retained barbettes but were uniformly armed with 13.5-inch guns. Just as the Royal Sovereigns had a higher freeboard, making them unequivocally capable of the high-seas battleship role.
The pre-dreadnought design reached maturity in 1895 with the Majestic class. These ships were built and armoured of steel, their guns were mounted in enclosed barbettes referred to as turrets, they adopted a 12-inch main gun, due to advances in casting and propellant, was lighter and more powerful than the previous guns of larger calibre. The Majestics provided the model for battleship building in the Royal Navy and many other navies for years to come. Pre-dreadnoughts carried guns of several different calibres, for different roles in ship-to-ship combat; the main armament was four heavy guns, mounted in two centre-line turrets fore and aft. Few pre-dreadnoughts deviated from this arrangement; these guns were slow-firing, of limited accuracy. The most common calibre for the main armament was 12-inch, although some ships used smaller guns because they could attain higher rates of fire. Japan, importing most of its guns from Britain, used 12-inch guns; the United States used both 12-inch and 13-inch guns for most of the 1890s until the Maine class, laid down in 1899, after which the 12-inch gun was universal.
The Russians used both 10-inch as their main armament. The first German pre-dreadnought class used an 11-inch gun but decreased to a 9.4-inch gun for the two following classes and returned to 11-inch guns with the Braunschweig class. While the calibre of the main battery remained quite constant, the performance of the guns improved as longer barrels were introduced; the introduction of slow
1-inch Nordenfelt gun
The 1-inch Nordenfelt gun was an early rapid-firing light gun intended to defend larger warships against the new small fast-moving torpedo boats in the late 1870s to the 1890s. The gun was an enlarged version of the successful rifle-calibre Nordenfelt hand-cranked "machine gun" designed by Helge Palmcrantz and was intended to combine its rapid rate of fire with a projectile capable of deterring attacking torpedo boats; the gun fired a solid steel bullet with hardened tip and brass jacket: under the terms of the St. Petersburg Declaration of 1868, exploding shells weighing less than 400 grams were not allowed to be used in warfare between the signatory nations; the gun was used in one and four-barrel versions. The ammunition was fed by gravity from a hopper above the breech subdivided into separate columns for each barrel; the gunner loaded and fired the multiple barrels by moving a lever on the right side of the gun forward and backwards. Pulling the lever backwards extracted the fired cartridges, pushing it forward loaded fresh cartridges into all the barrels, the final part of the forward motion fired all the barrels, one at a time in quick succession.
Hence the gun functioned as a type of volley gun, firing bullets in bursts, compared to the contemporary Gatling gun and the true machine guns which succeeded it such as the Maxim gun, which fired at a steady continuous rate. The gunner was occupied with manually operating the loading and firing lever, while the gun captain aimed the gun and operated the elevation and training handwheels. A 4-barreled gun at United States Army Ordnance Museum, MD, USA A 4-barreled gun in The Gardens, Queensland, Australia A 2-barreled gun in The Gardens, Queensland, Australia A 2-barreled gun at Queens Park, Queensland, AustraliaA 2-barrelled gun at the Australian War Memorial museum,Canberra ACT Australia. A 4-barrelled gun at the Tower of London A 5-barrelled gun at Chatham Historic Dockyard List of naval guns Text Book of Gunnery, 1887. LONDON: PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, BY HARRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTIN'S LANE Handbook for l-in. 2-Barrel, Mark I. 1886 at State Library of Victoria Handbook for the 1" 4-barrel Nordenfelt gun: 1886 at State Library of Victoria Handbook of the 1" 4 barrel Nordenfelt gun, 1889 at State Library of Victoria Handbook of the 1" 4-barrel Nordenfelt gun, 1894 at State Library of Victoria Handbook for Nordenfelt gun, 1-inch, 2 barrel, Mark I, 1895 at State Library of Victoria Description, Ammunition.
Manual for Victorian Naval Forces 1887, pages 41 - 52 from HMVS Cerberus website 1 inch 4-barrel Nordenfelt Mk III Machine-Gun History, technical details, animations 1 inch 2-barrel Nordenfelt Machine-Gun History, technical details, animations
A boiler is a closed vessel in which fluid is heated. The fluid does not boil; the heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications, including water heating, central heating, boiler-based power generation and sanitation. In a fossil fuel power plant using a steam cycle for power generation, the primary heat source will be combustion of coal, oil, or natural gas. In some cases byproduct fuel such as the carbon-monoxide rich offgasses of a coke battery can be burned to heat a boiler. In a nuclear power plant, boilers called steam generators are heated by the heat produced by nuclear fission. Where a large volume of hot gas is available from some process, a heat recovery steam generator or recovery boiler can use the heat to produce steam, with little or no extra fuel consumed. In all cases the combustion product waste gases are separate from the working fluid of the steam cycle, making these systems examples of External combustion engines; the pressure vessel of a boiler is made of steel, or of wrought iron.
Stainless steel of the austenitic types, is not used in wetted parts of boilers due to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. However, ferritic stainless steel is used in superheater sections that will not be exposed to boiling water, electrically-heated stainless steel shell boilers are allowed under the European "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors. In live steam models, copper or brass is used because it is more fabricated in smaller size boilers. Copper was used for fireboxes, because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity. For much of the Victorian "age of steam", the only material used for boilermaking was the highest grade of wrought iron, with assembly by riveting; this iron was obtained from specialist ironworks, such as those in the Cleator Moor area, noted for the high quality of their rolled plate, suitable for use in critical applications such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice moved towards the use of steel, with welded construction, stronger and cheaper, can be fabricated more and with less labour.
Wrought iron boilers corrode far more than their modern-day steel counterparts, are less susceptible to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. That makes the longevity of older wrought-iron boilers far superior to that of welded steel boilers. Cast iron may be used for the heating vessel of domestic water heaters. Although such heaters are termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose is to produce hot water, not steam, so they run at low pressure and try to avoid boiling; the brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high-pressure steam boilers. The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, oil, or natural gas. Electric steam boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is used as a heat source for generating steam, either directly or, in most cases, in specialised heat exchangers called "steam generators". Heat recovery steam generators use. There are two methods to measure the boiler efficiency: Direct method Indirect methodDirect method: Direct method of boiler efficiency test is more usable or more common.
Boiler efficiency = power out / power in = / * 100%Q = rate of steam flow in kg/h Hg = enthalpy of saturated steam in kcal/kg Hf = enthalpy of feed water in kcal/kg q = rate of fuel use in kg/h GCV = gross calorific value in kcal/kg Indirect method: To measure the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we need a following parameter like: Ultimate analysis of fuel Percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas Flue gas temperature at outlet Ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg GCV of fuel in kcal/kg Ash percentage in combustible fuel GCV of ash in kcal/kg Boilers can be classified into the following configurations: Pot boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: A primitive "kettle" where a fire heats a filled water container from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large volumes of low-pressure steam hardly above that of the atmosphere. These could burn wood or most coal. Efficiency was low. Flued boiler with one or two large flues—an early type or forerunner of fire-tube boiler.
Fire-tube boiler: Here, water fills a boiler barrel with a small volume left above to accommodate the steam. This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives; the heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept permanently surrounded by the water in order to maintain the temperature of the heating surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through a second parallel tube or a bundle of multiple tubes. In case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred