Early works of Japanese literature were influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature written in Classical Chinese. Indian literature had an influence through the separation of Buddhism in Japan. Japanese literature developed into a separate style, although the influence of Chinese literature and Classical Chinese remained until the end of the Edo period. Since Japan reopened its ports to Western trading and diplomacy in the 19th century and Eastern literature have affected each other and continue to do so. Before the introduction of kanji from China, the Japanese had no writing system, it is believed that Chinese characters came to Japan at the beginning of the fifth century, brought by immigrants from the mainland of Korean and Chinese descent. Early Japanese texts first followed the Chinese model, before transitioning to a hybrid of Chinese characters used in Japanese syntactical formats, resulting in sentences that looked like Chinese but were read phonetically as Japanese.
Chinese characters were further adapted, creating what is known as man'yōgana, the earliest form of kana, or Japanese syllabic writing. The earliest literary works in Japan were created in the Nara period; these include the Kojiki, a historical record that chronicles ancient Japanese mythology and folk songs. One of the stories they describe is the tale of Urashima Tarō; the Heian period has been referred to as the golden era of literature in Japan. During this era, literature became centered on a cultural elite of nobility and monks; the imperial court patronized the poets, most of whom were courtiers or ladies-in-waiting. Reflecting the aristocratic atmosphere, the poetry was elegant and sophisticated and expressed emotions in a rhetorical style. Editing the resulting anthologies of poetry soon became a national pastime; the iroha poem, now one of two standard orderings for the Japanese syllabary, was developed during the early Heian period. Genji Monogatari, written in the early 11th century by a woman named Murasaki Shikibu, is considered the pre-eminent novel of Heian fiction.
Other important writings of this period include the Kokin Wakashū, a waka-poetry anthology, Makura no Sōshi. The Pillow Book was written by Sei Shōnagon, Murasaki Shikibu's contemporary and rival, as an essay about the life and pastimes of nobles in the Emperor's court. Another notable piece of fictional Japanese literature was Konjaku Monogatarishū, a collection of over a thousand stories in 31 volumes; the volumes cover various tales from India and Japan. The 10th-century Japanese narrative, Taketori Monogatari, can be considered an early example of proto-science fiction; the protagonist of the story, Kaguya-hime, is a princess from the Moon, sent to Earth for safety during a celestial war, is found and raised by a bamboo cutter. She is taken back to her extraterrestrial family in an illustrated depiction of a disc-shaped flying object similar to a flying saucer. During the Kamakura period, Japan experienced many civil wars which led to the development of a warrior class, subsequent war tales and related stories.
Work from this period is notable for its more somber tone compared to the works of previous eras, with themes of life and death, simple lifestyles, redemption through killing. A representative work is Heike Monogatari, an epic account of the struggle between the Minamoto and Taira clans for control of Japan at the end of the twelfth century. Other important tales of the period include Kamo no Chōmei's Hōjōki and Yoshida Kenkō's Tsurezuregusa. Despite a decline in the importance of the imperial court, aristocratic literature remained the center of Japanese culture at the beginning of the Kamakura period. Many literary works were marked by a nostalgia for the Heian period; the Kamakura period saw a renewed vitality of poetry, with a number of anthologies compiled, such as the Shin Kokin Wakashū compiled in the early 1200s. However, there were fewer notable works by female authors during this period, reflecting the lowered status of women; as the importance of the imperial court continued to decline, a major feature of Muromachi literature was the spread of cultural activity through all levels of society.
Classical court literature, the focal point of Japanese literature up until this point disappeared. New genres such as renga, or linked verse, Noh theater developed among the common people, setsuwa such as the Nihon Ryoiki were created by Buddhist priests for preaching; the development of roads, along with a growing public interest in travel and pilgrimages, brought rise to the greater popularity of travel literature from the early 13th to 14th centuries. Notable examples of travel diaries include Fuji Tsukushi michi no ki. Literature during this time was written during the peaceful Tokugawa Period. Due in large part to the rise of the working and middle classes in the new capital of Edo, forms of popular drama developed which would evolve into kabuki; the jōruri and kabuki dramatist Chikamatsu Monzaemon became popular at the end of the 17th century, he is known as Japan's Shakespeare. Many different genres of literature made their début during the Edo Period, helped by a rising literacy rate among the growing population of townspeople, as well as the development of lending libraries.
Ihara Saikaku (16
Savina Yannatou is a Greek singer. After taking classical guitar lessons and participating in the children's choir of Yannis Nousias for some years, she studied singing with Gogo Georgilopoulou and Spiros Sakkas in Athens, attended postgraduate studies at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in London. In 1979 she began working as a professional and two years participated in the recording of the critically acclaimed album Εδώ Λιλιπούπολη. In the mid-1990s, she joined forces with select jazz / traditional musicians forming a band known as Primavera en Salonico, which started by interpreting Sephardic and Mediterranean songs, but expanded to music from various areas of the world, she has extended her vocal techniques to include throat singing and ululations among others. Besides that, her repertoire consists of Greek music, although she has been a founding member of an Early music ensemble, has always displayed a keen interest in exploring free jazz and avant-garde music. Said explorations have led her to on- and off-stage collaborations and sessions with international musicians such as Barry Guy, Peter Kowald, Floros Floridis, Günther Pitscheider, Gerald Preinfalk of the band BPM, Ken Vandermark, Sussan Deyhim, Damo Suzuki of the krautrock group Can, Kiya Tabassian of the Ensemble Constantinople.
Yannatou is a songwriter, as well as a composer for theatre, dance theatre and video art. She participates in select workshops, teaching vocal improvisations to actors and musicians. Most all of her early albums were published by Greek music label Lyra, she is from Sumiglia album on an ECM artist. Releases: Official Site Upcoming Concerts from Songkick Interview for rootsworld.com
Zenovie Pâclișanu was an Austro-Hungarian-born Romanian historian and cleric. A native of Transylvania, he completed a doctorate at Vienna, during the 1910s was active in the cultural and religious life of Blaj. Following the creation of Greater Romania, which he enthusiastically supported, he became a civil servant, twice taking part in treaty negotiations. After World War II, the new communist regime suppressed his Greek-Catholic Church and threw Pâclișanu in prison, where he died, his work, banned under communism but re-edited in the years since, focuses on the history of Transylvania between the 17th and 19th centuries in the religious sphere. Born into a family of Greek-Catholic peasants in Straja, Alba County, in the Transylvania region, he attended the Romanian high school in Blaj. Upon graduating in 1906, he enrolled in the theology faculty of Budapest University, which he completed in 1910. In 1912, he defended a doctoral thesis at the University of Vienna's theology faculty. Written in Latin and titled Relatio Rumenorum e terris coronae S Stephani ad Reformationem saec XVI et XVII, it dealt with interconfessional relations in Transylvania during the Reformation.
It was a pioneering work, both due to the archival investigations the author undertook as well as to the new historiographical and cultural vision of Pâclișanu. The thesis had a decisive impact on his view of history, he continued using his research for this document in subsequent studies. In 1913, he took a study trip to Switzerland and Germany. Between 1911 and 1920, Pâclișanu taught history and theology at the seminary in Blaj, was the first director of the town's central library, working there from 1916 to 1919. By this time an ordained priest, he served at the Holy Trinity Cathedral. For a time, he directed Unirea newspaper. Writing history at a constant pace for Cultura Creștină magazine from its first numbers in 1911–1912, Pâclișanu showed a firm grasp of his material while criticizing both earlier and contemporary historiography, he participated in the province's cultural life, using his oratorical talent to deliver lectures under the aegis of Astra. He maintained ties to the Romanian Old Kingdom, joining the Cultural League for the Unity of All Romanians and attending the summer courses taught by Nicolae Iorga at Vălenii de Munte.
There, his interactions with other historians helped shape his ideas, he forged a close friendship with Vasile Pârvan. In 1916, the Austro-Hungarian authorities arrested Pâclișanu on a charge of high treason, they alleged he had spied for Romania, which had entered World War I, by offering information to its army. One of twelve Romanian intellectuals arrested in Transylvania, he was freed after five weeks. A committed supporter of the union of Transylvania with Romania, ratified in December 1918 at Alba Iulia, he was present at the occasion as secretary of the Blaj Romanian National Council's executive committee. In 1919, he was elected a corresponding member of the Romanian Academy, becoming one of several Transylvanians admitted that June. From 1920 to 1922, he headed the Cluj branch of the State Archives. Pâclișanu worked as a manager at the Education and Religious Affairs Ministry from 1922 to 1948, he helped draft the 1927 Concordat, in 1929 led a Romanian delegation to the Vatican on a diplomatic mission.
For his efforts in improving church-state relations, Pope Pius XI named Pâclișanu a monsignor. During the 1930s and'40s, Pâclișanu held a number of other government posts, heading the Education Ministry's arts office, the minorities section of the prime minister's press bureau, the minorities office at the Education Ministry and the Religious Affairs and Arts Ministry, leaving in March 1942. For the following two years, he directed the studies and documentaries department of the Propaganda Ministry heading a section of the Institute of National History. After a ministerial reorganization in the summer of 1944, he and his department were transferred to the Foreign Ministry. There, he was given the title of cultural adviser within the press and information cultural directorate, he headed the minister's office of studies. A member Romanian delegation to the 1946 Paris Peace Conference, he sat on the political-judicial committee. In this capacity, he served as adviser on Transylvanian history. In 1948, the new communist regime stripped him of Academy membership.
The same year, the Greek-Catholic Church was outlawed, after the arrest of Tit Liviu Chinezu and Vasile Aftenie, the papal nuncio named him general metropolitan vicar over the church members in Wallachia and Moldavia. Arrested, Pâclișanu was brutally tortured by the Securitate secret police in the Interior Ministry building and at Jilava prison, he was sentenced for clandestine religious activity. During the trial, where he had no lawyer, he retracted the confessions. One account suggests. Pâclișanu was interred at Jilava, his son, sentenced to death in absentia, managed to flee to the United States, where he became a psychiatrist in Philadelphia. His daughter married a scion of the Wallachian boyar Miclescu family, the couple settled in France, his widow died in Bucharest. Pâclișanu's research interests included ecclesiastical history, the Romanian national move
Panther Racing was an American open wheel auto racing team. It was one of the oldest continually operating teams in the IndyCar Series. Four years in a row, the team finished second at the Indianapolis 500; the team was formed in late 1997, to compete in the Pep Boys Indy Racing League, by six owners: open-wheel racing team manager John Barnes, Indianapolis car dealer Gary Pedigo, former radio personality Mike Griffin, television production executive Terry Lingner, Indianapolis Colts quarterback Jim Harbaugh and Indianapolis director of corporate government affairs Doug Boles. For their first season in 1998, the team fielded the #4 Pennzoil G-Force GF01B-Oldsmobile Aurora L47 V8 for Scott Goodyear; the car had an unusual yellow and black paint scheme, as Pennzoil did not use its traditional all-yellow livery in favor of a Sam Bass design as part of changes by the company when they added NASCAR sponsorship to Dale Earnhardt, Inc. in 1998. The car used # 4; the team would debut at the Indy 200 at Walt Disney World Speedway.
Goodyear would start in 21st place. Goodyear would finish in 17th place due to a suspension failure after 132 laps. Goodyear would finish in 6th place at the following race, the Dura Lube 200 at Phoenix International Raceway. Over the next seven races, Goodyear would finish in the top 6 five times and would get a best finish of 2nd place at the New England 200 at New Hampshire International Speedway. Goodyear was ranked in 5th place following the Atlanta 500 Classic at Atlanta Motor Speedway and would finish in 7th place with 244 points due to 22nd-place finishes at the last two races of the season, the Lone Star 500 at Texas Motor Speedway and the Las Vegas 500K at Las Vegas Motor Speedway; the team would field the #43 Pennzoil G-Force GF01B-Oldsmobile Aurora L47 V8 for Dave Steele at Texas and Las Vegas. Steele would finish in 27th place at Las Vegas. Steele would finish in 36th place in points with 22 points. In 1999, Goodyear continued to drive for the team in the #4 Pennzoil G-Force GF01C-Oldsmobile Aurora L47 V8.
At the season-opening TransWorld Diversified Services Indy 200 at Walt Disney World Speedway, Goodyear started in 4th place and finished in 2nd place after leading 36 laps. Goodyear would win the MCI WorldCom 200 at Phoenix International Raceway after starting in 3rd place and leading for a race-high 134 laps. Goodyear would take the points lead following the race. Goodyear would finish in a disappointing 27th place at the Indianapolis 500 due to an engine failure after 101 laps before winning the following race, the Longhorn 500 at Texas Motor Speedway, after leading the final 43 laps of the race. Following Texas, Goodyear would get a best finish of 12th place at the Radisson 200 at Pikes Peak International Raceway in the remaining six races of the season. Goodyear continued to hold the points lead following the MBNA Mid-Atlantic 200 at Dover Downs International Speedway. Goodyear would finish in 9th place in the final standings with 217 points. Steele would drive the #43 Pennzoil G-Force GF01C-Oldsmobile Aurora L47 V8 as a second car for the team at Indianapolis.
Steele would crash in practice on May 19 and would suffer a concussion, causing him and the car to fail to qualify. For 2000, Goodyear drove the #4 Pennzoil Dallara IR00-Oldsmobile Aurora L47 V8; the team began to use an all-yellow Pennzoil livery after using the Sam Bass-designed black and yellow livery the previous two seasons. At the season-opening Delphi Indy 200 at Walt Disney World Speedway, Goodyear started in 8th place and finished in 4th place. Goodyear would finish in 2nd place at the MCI WorldCom Indy 200 at Phoenix International Raceway and was ranked in 3rd place in points. Following Phoenix, Goodyear only had one finish outside of the top 12 and was always ranked inside the top 4 in points. Goodyear would win the pole position at the Belterra Resort Indy 300 at Kentucky Speedway and finish in 2nd place to Buddy Lazier after leading a race-high 65 laps. Following the race, Goodyear was 38 points behind Lazier. At the season-ending Excite 500 at Texas Motor Speedway, Goodyear started in 2nd place and won the race after leading for 39 laps.
Eddie Cheever would finish in 2nd place and Lazier would finish in 4th place. Goodyear would finish in 2nd place in the championship to Lazier by 18 points. Goodyear went into semi-retirement starting in 2001 and second-year driver Sam Hornish, Jr. became the new driver of the #4 Pennzoil Dallara IR01-Oldsmobile Aurora L47 V8. Hornish would win the season-opening Pennzoil Copper World Indy 200 at Phoenix International Raceway after starting in 2nd place and leading 140 of 200 laps. Hornish would win the Infiniti Grand Prix of Miami at Homestead-Miami Speedway after leading 142 of 200 laps. Hornish would only have one finish outside of the top 10 during the season and his worst finish in the top 10 was a 6th-place finish at the Harrah's 200 at Nashville Superspeedway. Hornish would al
The 2017–18 Japan Figure Skating Championships were held in Tokyo, in December 2017. It was the 86th edition of the event. Medals were awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, ice dancing; the senior competitions took place on 20–24 December 2017 at the Musashino Forest Sports Plaza, Tokyo. Shoma Uno won his second consecutive national title. * Hanyu withdrew to continue recovering from an ankle injury he sustained in practice at the 2017 NHK Trophy. Miyahara won the national title for the fourth year in a row; the junior men's singles, ladies' singles, ice dancing competitions took place on 24–26 November 2017 in Gunma. The Japan Skating Federation selected skaters for international competitions in the second half of the 2017–18 season based on the results of the national championships as well as international ISU-sanctioned competitions; the 2018 Winter Olympics will be held in Pyeongchang, South Korea, February 9-25 2018. Yuzuru Hanyu was chosen to compete despite missing the national championships, by virtue of his status as reigning World and Olympic champion, his first place in the ISU World Standings at the time of the championships.
The 2018 World Figure Skating Championships will be held in Milan, Italy, 19-25 March, 2018. Japan's entries were announced in late December 2017; the 2018 Four Continents Figure Skating Championships will be held on 22-28 January 2018, in Taipei City, Chinese Taipei. Japan's entries were announced in late December 2017. Referred to as "Junior Worlds", the 2018 World Junior Figure Skating Championships will take place in Sofia, Bulgaria, 5-11 March 2018. Japan's entries were announced in late December 2017. Japan Skating Federation official results & data site Starting order/results details Starting order/results details
"Straight to Hell" is a song by the Clash, from their album Combat Rock. It was released as a double A-side single with "Should I Stay or Should I Go" on 17 September 1982 in 12" and 7" vinyl format. "Straight to Hell" was written and recorded towards the end of the Clash's New York recording sessions for the Combat Rock album. Mick Jones' guitar technician Digby Cleaver describes the sessions as "a mad, creative rush" that occurred on 30 December 1981, the day before the Clash was due to fly out of New York on New Year's Eve 1981. Joe Strummer reflected on this creative process in a 1991 piece about the track: I'd written the lyric staying up all night at the Iroquois Hotel. I went down to Electric Lady and I just put the vocal down on tape, we finished about twenty to midnight. We took the E train from the Village up to Times Square. I'll never forget coming out of the subway exit, just before midnight, into a hundred billion people, I knew we had just done something great. "Straight to Hell" has been described by writer Pat Gilbert as being saturated by a "colonial melancholia and sadness".
Like many songs by the Clash, the lyrics of "Straight to Hell" decry injustice. The first verse refers to the shutting down of steel mills in Northern England and unemployment spanning generations, it considers the alienation of non-English speaking immigrants in British society; the second verse concerns the abandonment of children in Vietnam who were fathered by American soldiers during the Vietnam War. The reference to "Amerasian Blues" describes the abandonment of children fathered by American soldiers stationed in Vietnam during the Vietnam War: an Amerasian child is portrayed as presenting an absent American father, "papa-san," with a photograph of his parents, pleading with his father to take him home to America; the child's plea is rejected. "-San" is a Japanese rather than Vietnamese honorific, but it was used by US troops in Vietnam who referred to Vietnamese men and women older men and women, as "mama-san" or "papa-san". When Strummer sings of a "Volatile Molotov" thrown at Puerto Rican immigrants in Alphabet City as a message to encourage them to leave, he is referring to the arson that claimed buildings occupied by immigrant communities – notably Puerto Rican – before the area was subject to gentrification.
The song has a distinctive drum beat. "You couldn't play roll to it. It's a Bossa Nova." said Topper Headon. Joe Strummer has said "Just before the take, Topper said to me "I want you to play this" and he handed me an R Whites lemonade bottle in a towel, he said "I want you to beat the bass drum with it." The Combat Rock version of the song had a duration of 5:30 minutes. This version was edited down from the original track, which lasted 7 minutes; the original track featured a more prominent violin part. The decision to edit the song down from 7:00 down to 5:30 was part of the early 1982 mixing sessions whereby The Clash and Glyn Johns edited Combat Rock down from a 77-minute double album down to a 46-minute single album; the full, unedited version of "Straight to Hell" can be found on the Clash on Broadway and Sound System box sets. Joe Strummer - vocal Mick Jones - guitars, sound effects Paul Simonon - bass guitar Topper Headon - drums This song was featured in the 2000 comedy film, Kevin & Perry Go Large and in Complicity from that same year.
"Straight to Hell" has been sampled by many artists. Heather Nova and Moby covered the song in 1999 for the Clash tribute album Burning London. In 2007, British singer M. I. A. Sampled "Straight to Hell" in her song "Paper Planes" and as a result the songwriters of "Straight To Hell" were credited with writing T. I.'s 2008 song "Swagga Like Us". Philadelphia punk rock band the Menzingers covered the song on their album A Lesson in the Abuse of Information Technology. Several folk artists have covered the song, including Josh Rouse, Emm Gryner, Dylan Walshe and Will Kimbrough; the song's opening melody has been sampled by Fall Out Boy for their song "Wilson", on their 2018 album Mania. The song was refashioned by Mick Jones and Lily Allen for the War Child: Heroes album, released in the UK on 16 February 2009, in the U. S. on 24 February 2009 by Astralwerks. Jakob Dylan and Elvis Costello performed a cover of the song on season 1, episode 12 of Costello's show Spectacle: Elvis Costello with... entitled "She & Him, Jenny Lewis and Jakob Dylan" and aired on Channel 4 in the UK, CTV in Canada, the Sundance Channel in the United States in 2008–2009.
Bụi đời Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics