NTT Docomo Inc. is the predominant mobile phone operator in Japan. The name is an abbreviation of the phrase, "do communications over the mobile network", is from a compound word dokomo, meaning "everywhere" in Japanese. Docomo provides phone, video phone, i-mode, mail services; the company's headquarters are in the Sanno Park Tower, Nagatachō, Tokyo. Docomo was spun off from Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in August 1991 to take over the mobile cellular operations, it provides 3G W-CDMA services and 4G LTE services. Its businesses included PHS, satellite. Docomo ceased offering a PHS service on January 7, 2008. NTT Docomo is a subsidiary of Japan's incumbent telephone operator, NTT; the majority of NTT Docomo's shares are owned by NTT. While some NTT shares are publicly traded, control of the company by Japanese interests is guaranteed by the number of shares available to buyers, it provides wireless voice and data communications to subscribers in Japan. NTT Docomo is the creator of W-CDMA technology as well as mobile i-mode service.
In late 1995, Docomo CEO hired the consulting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers for strategy development, at that time worked on the first design of data services on mobile for NTT Docomo CEO. NTT Docomo has more than 53 million customers, more than half of Japan's cellular market; the company provides a wide variety of mobile multimedia services. These include i-mode which provides e-mail and internet access to over 50 million subscribers, FOMA, launched in 2001 as the world's first 3G mobile service based on W-CDMA, Xi, a 4G LTE mobile service, launched on December 24, 2010, Premium 4G, a LTE Advanced service, launched on March 27, 2015. In addition to wholly owned subsidiaries in Europe and North America, the company is expanding its global reach through strategic alliances with mobile and multimedia service providers in Asia-Pacific and Europe. NTT Docomo is listed on the Tokyo and New York stock exchanges. On April 19, 2008, it was announced that Ryuji Yamada, the current co-president of NTT Docomo, will be promoted as the president of NTT Docomo in June 2008.
Masao Nakamura will stay in NTT Docomo as a director and the senior adviser. Since October 2006, when the introduction to the service which allows the user to carry their original phone number with a new provider was made, NTT Docomo has lost many users to KDDI and SoftBank; this promotion was made in order to get more users for NTT Docomo. The company was the last major global mobile carrier to offer Apple's iPhone, which it did with the release of the iPhone 5s and 5c; this has been cited as one of the reasons for the steady stream of its customers switching for competing networks. In June 2011, the company announced that they were teaming up with McAfee to provide McAfee VirusScan Mobile for its Android mobile users. In July 2012, NTT Docomo acquired Italy's Buongiorno in a deal worth 209 million euros. On October 2007, the prototype Wellness mobile phone of Japan's NTT Docomo Inc. and Mitsubishi Electric Corp. was launched at CEATEC. It checks health with a motion sensor that detects body movement and measures calories, includes a breathalyzer.
On January 24, 2008, NTT Docomo announced a partnership with Google, which allowed all models after the FOMA904i models to view YouTube videos. NTT Docomo is a founding member of the Symbian Foundation. From 2008, Docomo began offering a service called the "Area Mail Disaster Information Service" which broadcasts Earthquake Early Warning messages produced by the Japan Meteorological Agency to its subscribers with compatible handsets; this service is provided free of charge and messages are limited to those areas affected by each particular alert. These alerts have a unique ring tone so they can be distinguished from incoming calls or messages. From 2014, under Civil Protection Law of Japan, Docomo began offering a service called the "Area Mail Disaster and Evacuation Information Service" which broadcasts J-Alert messages produced by the Japan Fire and Disaster Management Agency to its subscribers with compatible handsets; the message is broadcast when the military threat is imminent, volcanic eruptions, or approaching tsunami.
The company's mascot is Docomodake, a mushroom, quite a celebrity in Japan. He is the hero of a Nintendo DS puzzle and platforming video game, Boing! Docomodake DS on 2007 and 2009, he has a wide variety of merchandising such as cell phone straps and plush dolls. As one type of advertising method, there are many types of Docomodakes such as mother and father, which symbolizes the plans that NTT Docomo offers. Emoji, a pictographic language being adopted around the world was first created by NTT DoCoMo; the first emoji was created in 1998 or 1999 by Shigetaka Kurita, part of the team working on NTT DoCoMo's i-mode mobile Internet platform. The first set of 176 12×12 pixel emoji was created as part of i-mode's messaging features to help facilitate electronic communication, to serve as a distinguishing feature from other services. NTT Docomo has a wide range of foreign investments. However, NTT Docomo was not successful in investing in foreign carriers. Docomo had invested large multibillion-dolla
Final Fantasy is a Japanese science fantasy media franchise created by Hironobu Sakaguchi, developed and owned by Square Enix. The franchise centers on a series of science fantasy role-playing video games; the first game in the series was released in 1987, with 14 other main-numbered entries being released since then. The franchise has since branched into other video game genres such as tactical role-playing, action role-playing, massively multiplayer online role-playing, third-person shooter and rhythm, as well as branching into other media, including CGI films, anime and novels. Final Fantasy installments are stand-alone stories, each with different settings and main characters, however, as a corpus they feature some identical elements that help to define the franchise; these recurring elements include plot themes, character names, game mechanics. Each plot centers on a particular group of heroes who are battling a great evil, but explores the characters' internal struggles and relationships.
Character names are derived from the history, pop culture, mythologies of cultures worldwide. The mechanics of each game involve similar battle maps; the Final Fantasy video game series has been both critically and commercially successful, selling more than 142 million games worldwide, making it one of the best-selling video game franchises of all time. The series is well known for its innovation and music, such as the inclusion of full-motion videos, photorealistic character models, music by Nobuo Uematsu, it has been a driving force in the video game industry, the series has affected Square Enix's business practices and its relationships with other video game developers. It has popularized many features now common in role-playing games popularizing the genre as a whole in markets outside Japan; the first installment of the series was released in Japan on December 18, 1987. Subsequent games are numbered and given a story unrelated to previous games, so the numbers refer to volumes rather than to sequels.
Many Final Fantasy games have been localized for markets in North America and Australia on numerous video game consoles, personal computers, mobile phones. Future installments will appear on eighth generation consoles; as of November 2016, the series includes the main installments from Final Fantasy to Final Fantasy XV, as well as direct sequels and spin-offs, both released and confirmed as being in development. Most of the older games have been re-released on multiple platforms. Three Final Fantasy installments were released on the Nintendo Entertainment System. Final Fantasy was released in Japan in 1987 and in North America in 1990, it introduced many concepts to the console RPG genre, has since been remade on several platforms. Final Fantasy II, released in 1988 in Japan, has been bundled with Final Fantasy in several re-releases; the last of the NES installments, Final Fantasy III, was released in Japan in 1990. The Super Nintendo Entertainment System featured three installments of the main series, all of which have been re-released on several platforms.
Final Fantasy IV was released in 1991. It introduced the "Active Time Battle" system. Final Fantasy V, released in 1992 in Japan, was the first game in the series to spawn a sequel: a short anime series, Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals. Final Fantasy VI was released in Japan in 1994, titled Final Fantasy III in North America; the PlayStation console saw the release of three main Final Fantasy games. Final Fantasy VII moved away from the two-dimensional graphics used in the first six games to three-dimensional computer graphics, it introduced a more modern setting, a style, carried over to the next game. It was the second in the series to be released in Europe, with the first being Final Fantasy Mystic Quest. Final Fantasy VIII was published in 1999, was the first to use realistically proportioned characters and feature a vocal piece as its theme music. Final Fantasy IX, released in 2000, returned to the series' roots by revisiting a more traditional Final Fantasy setting rather than the more modern worlds of VII and VIII.
Three main installments, as well as one online game, were published for the PlayStation 2. Final Fantasy X introduced full 3D areas and voice acting to the series, was the first to spawn a direct video game sequel; the first massively multiplayer online role-playing game in the series, Final Fantasy XI, was released on the PS2 and PC in 2002, on the Xbox 360. It introduced real-time battles instead of random encounters. Final Fantasy XII, published in 2006 includes real-time battles in large, interconnected playfields; the game is the first in the main series to utilize a world used in a previous game, namely the land of Ivalice, which had featured in Final Fantasy Tactics and Vagrant Story. In 2009, Final Fantasy XIII was released in Japan, in North America and Europe the following year, for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, it is the flagship installment of the Fabula Nova Crystallis Final Fantasy series and became the first mainline game to spawn two direct sequels. It was the first game released in Chinese & High Definition along with being released on two consoles at once.
Final Fantasy XIV, a MMORPG, was released worldwide on Microsoft Windows in 2010, but it received heavy criticism when it was launched, prompting
A mobile phone, cell phone, cellphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network. Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, Internet access, short-range wireless communications, business applications, video games, digital photography. Mobile phones offering only those capabilities are known as feature phones; the first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c. 2 kilograms.
In 1979, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone launched the world's first cellular network in Japan. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to over seven billion—enough to provide one for every person on Earth. In first quarter of 2016, the top smartphone developers worldwide were Samsung and Huawei, smartphone sales represented 78 percent of total mobile phone sales. For feature phones as of 2016, the largest were Samsung and Alcatel. A handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a "pocket-size folding telephone with a thin carbon microphone". Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from trains; the race to create portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive "generations", starting with the early zeroth-generation services, such as Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service and its successor, the Improved Mobile Telephone Service.
These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, were expensive. The first handheld cellular mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing 2 kilograms; the first commercial automated cellular network analog was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in 1979. This was followed in 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone system in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Several other countries followed in the early to mid-1980s; these first-generation systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. In 1991, the second-generation digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard; this sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators. Ten years in 2001, the third generation was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard.
This was followed by 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications, such as streaming media; the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard, offered in North America by Sprint, the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera. 5G is a technology and term used in research papers and projects to denote the next major phase in mobile telecommunication standards beyond the 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. The term 5G is not used in any specification or official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP, WiMAX Forum or ITU-R.
New standards beyond 4G are being developed by standardization bodies, but they are at this time seen as under the 4G umbrella, not for a new mobile generation. Smartphones have a number of distinguishing features; the International Telecommunication Union measures those with Internet connection, which it calls Active Mobile-Broadband subscriptions. In the developed world, smartphones have now overtaken the usage of earlier mobile systems. However, in the developing world, they account for around 50% of mobile telephony. Feature phone is a term used as a retronym to describe mobile phones which are limited in capabilities in contrast to a modern smartphone. Feature phones provide voice calling and text messaging functionality, in addition to basic multimedia and Internet capabilities, other services offered by the user's wireless service provider. A feature phone has additional functions over and above a basic mobile phone, only capable of voice calling and text messaging. Feature phones and basic mobile phones tend to use a proprietary, custom-designed software and user interface.
By contrast, smartphones use a mobile operating system that shares common traits across devices. There are Orthodox Jewish religious re
Mobile payment refer to payment services operated under financial regulation and performed from or via a mobile device. Instead of paying with cash, cheque, or credit cards, a consumer can use a mobile to pay for a wide range of services and digital or hard goods. Although the concept of using non-coin-based currency systems has a long history, it is only that the technology to support such systems has become available. Mobile payment is being adopted all over the world in different ways; the first patent defined "Mobile Payment System" was filed in 2000. In 2008, the combined market for all types of mobile payments was projected to reach more than $600 billion globally by 2013, which would be double the figure as of February 2011; the mobile payment market for goods and services, excluding contactless payments using near field communication and money transfers, is expected to exceed $300 billion globally by 2013. Investment on mobile money services is expected to grow by 22.2% during the next two years across the globe.
It will result in revenue share of mobile money reaching up to 9% by 2018. Asia and Africa will observe significant growth for mobile money with technological innovation and focus on interoperability emerging as prominent trends by 2018. In developing countries mobile payment solutions have been deployed as a means of extending financial services to the community known as the "unbanked" or "underbanked", estimated to be as much as 50% of the world's adult population, according to Financial Access' 2009 Report "Half the World is Unbanked"; these payment networks are used for micropayments. The use of mobile payments in developing countries has attracted public and private funding by organizations such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, United States Agency for International Development and Mercy Corps. Mobile payments are becoming a key instrument for PSPs and other market participants, in order to achieve new growth opportunities, according to the European Payments Council; the EPC states that "new technology solutions provide a direct improvement to the operations efficiency resulting in cost savings and in an increase in business volume".
There are five primary models for mobile payments: Mobile wallets Card-based payments Carrier billing Contactless payments NFC Direct transfers between payer and payee bank accounts in near real-time There can be combinations: Direct carrier/bank co-operation, emerging in Haiti. Both bank account and card, like Vipps and MobilePay Financial institutions and credit card companies as well as Internet companies such as Google and a number of mobile communication companies, such as mobile network operators and major telecommunications infrastructure such as w-HA from Orange and smartphone multinationals such as Ericsson and BlackBerry have implemented mobile payment solutions. A mobile wallet is an app that contain your debit and credit card information so that users can pay for goods and services digitally by using their mobile devices. Online companies like PayPal, Amazon Payments, Google Wallet and Apple Pay have mobile options; this is the process:First payment: User registers, inputs their phone number, the provider sends them an SMS with a PIN User enters the received PIN, authenticating the number User inputs their credit card info or another payment method if necessary and validates paymentSubsequent payments: The user re enters their PIN to authenticate and validates paymentRequesting a PIN is known to lower the success rate for payments.
These systems can be integrated with directly or can be combined with operator and credit card payments through a unified mobile web payment platform. A simple mobile web payment system can include a credit card payment flow allowing a consumer to enter their card details to make purchases; this process is familiar but any entry of details on a mobile phone is known to reduce the success rate of payments. In addition, if the payment vendor can automatically and securely identify customers card details can be recalled for future purchases turning credit card payments into simple single click-to-buy giving higher conversion rates for additional purchases; the consumer uses the mobile billing option during checkout at an e-commerce site—such as an online gaming site—to make a payment. After two-factor authentication involving a PIN and One-Time-Password, the consumer's mobile account is charged for the purchase, it is a true alternative payment method that does not require the use of credit/debit cards or pre-registration at an online payment solution such as PayPal, thus bypassing banks and credit card companies altogether.
This type of mobile payment method, prevalent and popular in Asia, provides the following benefits: Security – Two-factor authentication and a risk management engine prevents fraud. Convenience – No pre-registration and no new mobile software is required. Easy – It's just another option during the checkout process. Fast – Most transactions are completed in less than 10 seconds. Proven – 70% of all digital content purchased online in some parts of Asia uses the Direct Mobile Billing method Premium SMS / Premium MMS In the predominant model for SMS payments, the consumer sends a payment request via an SMS text message or an USSD to a short code and a premium charge is applied to their phone bill o
Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force. It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the weak GPS signals; the GPS does not require the user to transmit any data, it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. The GPS provides critical positioning capabilities to military and commercial users around the world; the United States government created the system, maintains it, makes it accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. The GPS project was launched by the U. S. Department of Defense in 1973 for use by the United States military and became operational in 1995.
It was allowed for civilian use in the 1980s. Advances in technology and new demands on the existing system have now led to efforts to modernize the GPS and implement the next generation of GPS Block IIIA satellites and Next Generation Operational Control System. Announcements from Vice President Al Gore and the White House in 1998 initiated these changes. In 2000, the U. S. Congress authorized the modernization effort, GPS III. During the 1990s, GPS quality was degraded by the United States government in a program called "Selective Availability"; the GPS system is provided by the United States government, which can selectively deny access to the system, as happened to the Indian military in 1999 during the Kargil War, or degrade the service at any time. As a result, several countries have developed or are in the process of setting up other global or regional satellite navigation systems; the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System was developed contemporaneously with GPS, but suffered from incomplete coverage of the globe until the mid-2000s.
GLONASS can be added to GPS devices, making more satellites available and enabling positions to be fixed more and to within two meters. China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is due to achieve global reach in 2020. There are the European Union Galileo positioning system, India's NAVIC. Japan's Quasi-Zenith Satellite System is a GPS satellite-based augmentation system to enhance GPS's accuracy; when selective availability was lifted in 2000, GPS had about a five-meter accuracy. The latest stage of accuracy enhancement uses the L5 band and is now deployed. GPS receivers released in 2018 that use the L5 band can have much higher accuracy, pinpointing to within 30 centimetres or 11.8 inches. The GPS project was launched in the United States in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems, integrating ideas from several predecessors, including classified engineering design studies from the 1960s; the U. S. Department of Defense developed the system, which used 24 satellites, it was developed for use by the United States military and became operational in 1995.
Civilian use was allowed from the 1980s. Roger L. Easton of the Naval Research Laboratory, Ivan A. Getting of The Aerospace Corporation, Bradford Parkinson of the Applied Physics Laboratory are credited with inventing it; the work of Gladys West is credited as instrumental in the development of computational techniques for detecting satellite positions with the precision needed for GPS. The design of GPS is based on similar ground-based radio-navigation systems, such as LORAN and the Decca Navigator, developed in the early 1940s. Friedwardt Winterberg proposed a test of general relativity – detecting time slowing in a strong gravitational field using accurate atomic clocks placed in orbit inside artificial satellites. Special and general relativity predict that the clocks on the GPS satellites would be seen by the Earth's observers to run 38 microseconds faster per day than the clocks on the Earth; the GPS calculated positions would drift into error, accumulating to 10 kilometers per day. This was corrected for in the design of GPS.
Winterberg, Friedwardt. “Relativistische Zeitdilatation eines künstlichen Satelliten ” When the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite in 1957, two American physicists, William Guier and George Weiffenbach, at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory decided to monitor its radio transmissions. Within hours they realized that, because of the Doppler effect, they could pinpoint where the satellite was along its orbit; the Director of the APL gave them access to their UNIVAC to do the heavy calculations required. Early the next year, Frank McClure, the deputy director of the APL, asked Guier and Weiffenbach to investigate the inverse problem—pinpointing the user's location, given that of the satellite; this led them and APL to develop the TRANSIT system. In 1959, ARPA played a role in TRANSIT. TRANSIT was first tested in 1960, it used a constellation of five satellites and could provide a navigational fix once per hour. In 1967, the U. S. Navy developed the Timation satellite, which proved the feasibility of placing accurate clocks in space, a technology required for GPS.
In the 1970s, the ground-based OMEGA navigation system, based on phase comparison of signal transmission from pairs of stations
Shift JIS art
Shift_JIS art is artwork created from characters within the Shift JIS character set, a Japanese Industrial Standards superset of JIS X 0201 intended for Japanese usage. There are many similarities between Shift_JIS artwork and ASCII art. Shift_JIS has become popular on web-based bulletin boards, notably 2channel, has made its way into mainstream media and commercial advertising in Japan. Within the Japanese community, Shift_JIS art is sometimes abbreviated as SJIS art, but is most referred to as "AA" meaning ASCII art, although it restricts itself to the 95 printable characters within the ASCII standard; as with ANSI art, SJIS art is sometimes used for animation. However, due to technical advances, SJIS art appears in the form of Adobe Flash files and animated GIFs. Unlike Western ASCII art, designed to be viewed with a monospaced font, Shift_JIS art is designed around the proportional-width MS PGothic font supplied with Microsoft Windows, the default font for web sites in Japanese versions of Windows.
This dependency has led to the development of the free Mona Font, in which each character is the same width as its counterpart in MS PGothic. This is useful on operating systems lacking the PGothic font, such as Linux; the Japanese movie and television show, Densha Otoko included Shift_JIS art, both during screen transitions and within the story itself. One of the recurring characters in the TV series was a Shift_JIS artist who would draw full-screen Shift_JIS works of art as a way of expressing his support and encouraging the lead character; when they got engaged, posts began flowing in congratulating the new couple, extravagant Shift JIS art pictures were posted. The Touhou Project meme "Yukkuri shite itte ne!" comes from a Shift_JIS attempt to draw the lead characters of Touhou and Marisa. ASCII art ANSI art Japanese emoticons Mona Font Soy Sauce Warrior Kikkoman Tarou, Maruheso, ed. 2ちゃんねる AA大辞典 ISBN 4-7973-2275-6. Tokyo, Japan: Softbank Publishing, 2003. 2-ten Project, ed. 2典 ～2ちゃんねる辞典～ ISBN 4-8354-4033-1.
Virtual Cluster / Book-ing, 2002. A collection of Shift_JIS art at text-mode.tumblr.com "顔文字の起源". Archived from the original on 2014-07-27. 2ch.net AA Saloon 4-ch.net ASCII Art board Japanese Ascii Art.image
ASCII art is a graphic design technique that uses computers for presentation and consists of pictures pieced together from the 95 printable characters defined by the ASCII Standard from 1963 and ASCII compliant character sets with proprietary extended characters. The term is loosely used to refer to text based visual art in general. ASCII art can be created with any text editor, is used with free-form languages. Most examples of ASCII art require a fixed-width font such as Courier for presentation. Among the oldest known examples of ASCII art are the creations by computer-art pioneer Kenneth Knowlton from around 1966, working for Bell Labs at the time. "Studies in Perception I" by Ken Knowlton and Leon Harmon from 1966 shows some examples of their early ASCII art. ASCII art was invented, in large part, because early printers lacked graphics ability and thus characters were used in place of graphic marks. To mark divisions between different print jobs from different users, bulk printers used ASCII art to print large banners, making the division easier to spot so that the results could be more separated by a computer operator or clerk.
ASCII art was used in early e-mail when images could not be embedded. Since 1867 typewriters have been used for creating visual art. TTY stands for "TeleTYpe" or "TeleTYpewriter" and is known as Teleprinter or Teletype. RTTY stands for Radioteletype. According to a chapter in the "RTTY Handbook", text images have been sent via teletypewriter as early as 1923. However, none of the "old" RTTY art has been discovered yet. What is known is that text images appeared on radioteletype in the 1960s and the 1970s. In the 1960s, Andries van Dam published a representation of an electronic circuit produced on an IBM 1403 line printer. At the same time, Kenneth Knowlton was producing realistic images on line printers, by overprinting several characters on top of one another. Note that it was not ASCII art in a sense that the 1403 was driven by an EBCDIC-coded platform and the character sets and trains available on the 1403 were derived from EBCDIC rather than ASCII, despite some glyphs commonalities; the widespread usage of ASCII art can be traced to the computer bulletin board systems of the late 1970s and early 1980s.
The limitations of computers of that time period necessitated the use of text characters to represent images. Along with ASCII's use in communication, however, it began to appear in the underground online art groups of the period. An ASCII comic is a form of webcomic. In place of images in a regular comic, ASCII art is used, with the text or dialog placed underneath. During the 1990s, graphical browsing and variable-width fonts became popular, leading to a decline in ASCII art. Despite this, ASCII art continued to survive through online MUDs, an acronym for "Multi-User Dungeon", Internet Relay Chat, E-mail, message boards and other forms of online communication which employ the needed fixed-width. ASCII and more ANSI were staples of the early technological era. Over the years, warez groups began to enter the ASCII art scene. Warez groups release.nfo files with their software, cracks or other general software reverse-engineering releases. The ASCII art will include the warez group's name and maybe some ASCII borders on the outsides of the release notes, etc.
BBS systems were based on ASCII and ANSI art, as were most DOS and similar console applications, the precursor to AOL. ASCII art is used wherever text can be more printed or transmitted than graphics, or in some cases, where the transmission of pictures is not possible; this includes typewriters, non-graphic computer terminals, printer separators, in early computer networking, e-mail, Usenet news messages. ASCII art is used within the source code of computer programs for representation of company or product logos, flow control or other diagrams. In some cases, the entire source code of a program is a piece of ASCII art – for instance, an entry to one of the earlier International Obfuscated C Code Contest is a program that adds numbers, but visually looks like a binary adder drawn in logic ports; some electronic schematic archives represent the circuits using ASCII art. Examples of ASCII-style art predating the modern computer era can be found in the June 1939, July 1948 and October 1948 editions of Popular Mechanics."0verkill" is a 2D platform multiplayer shooter game designed in color ASCII art.
MPlayer and VLC media player can display videos as ASCII art through the AAlib library. ASCII art is used in the making of DOS-based ZZT games. Many game walkthrough guides come as part of a basic.txt file. Such as below, word art is created using backslashes and other ASCII values in order to create the illusion of 3D. Different techniques could be used in ASCII art to obtain different artistic effects. Electronic circuits and diagrams were implemented by typewriter or teletype and provided the pretense for ASCII. "Typewriter-style" lettering, made from individual letter characters: H H EEEEE L L OOO W W OOO RRRR L DDDD!! H H E L L O O W W W O O R R L D D!! HHHHH EEEEE L L O O W W W O O RRRR L D D!! H H E L L O O, W W O O R R L D D