A zaru is a draining basket made from bamboo used in the preparation and presentation of Japanese cuisine. It can be used in a similar fashion to a sieve or colander, both of which are common in western cooking. Additionally, well-designed zaru are used to present food directly, as for example zarusoba. Plastic and metal versions of the zaru have come into use, but are used to present food. Similar to the makisu, zaru are dried, stored after use to extend the lifespan of the tool, prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi on the mat. However, drying in harsh sunlight can cause the bamboo of the zaru to crack. Reflecting the zaru's capacity to soak up liquid, this term is used as slang for a person who can drink a lot of alcohol without showing signs of inebriation. Sokuri List of Japanese cooking utensils
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Noodles are unleavened dough, stretched, extruded, or rolled flat and cut into one or a variety of shapes which include long, thin strips, or waves, tubes, strings, or shells, or folded over, or cut into other shapes. Noodles are cooked in boiling water, sometimes with cooking oil or salt added, they are pan-fried or deep-fried. Noodles can be served in a soup. Noodles can be dried and stored for future use; the material composition or geocultural origin must be specified. Noodles are a staple food in many cultures; the word derives from the late 18th century German word Nudel. The origin of noodles is Chinese, the earliest written record of noodles is found in a book dated to the Eastern Han period. Noodles were made from wheat dough, it became a staple food for the people of the Han dynasty. A Nature article claimed the oldest evidence of noodle consumption was from 4,000 years ago in China. In 2005, a team of archaeologists reported finding an earthenware bowl that contained 4000-year-old noodles at the Lajia archaeological site.
These noodle were said to resemble lamian, which are a type of Chinese noodle, made by pulling and stretching the dough by hand. Analyzing the husk phytoliths and starch grains present in the sediment associated with the noodles, it was determined that the noodles were made from millet, identified as belonging to Panicum miliaceum and Setaria italica specifically. However, looking at the production process of making noodles from millet, other researchers determined that it is not feasible to stretch millet dough into noodles, concluding that the analyzed husk phytoliths and starch grains did not originate from the noodles that were found, they criticized the sampling method, the morphological observations of the starch granule samples, the exclusion of wheat and barley as components. It has been noted that millet dough cannot be hand-pulled into noodles, as the absence of gluten in millet causes the dough to be not elastic and thus not malleable. Wheat noodles in Japan were adapted from a Chinese recipe by a Buddhist monk as early as the 9th century.
Reshteh noodles were eaten by the people of Persia by the 13th century. Innovations continued, as for example, noodles made from buckwheat were developed in the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. Ramen noodles, based on Chinese noodles, became popular in Japan by 1900. In the 1st century BCE, Horace wrote of fried sheets of dough called lagana. However, the method of cooking these sheets of dough, does not correspond to the current definition of either a fresh or dry pasta product, which only had similar basic ingredients and the shape. In the 2nd century CE, the Greek physician Galen mentioned itrion, referring to all homogenous mixtures from flour and water; the Latinized itrium was used as a reference to a kind of boiled dough. The Jerusalem Talmud records that itrium was common in Israel from the 3rd to 5th centuries CE. Arabs adapted noodles for long journeys in the first written record of dry pasta; the ninth-century Arab physician Isho bar Ali defines itriyya, the Arabic cognate of the Greek word, as string-like shapes made of semolina and dried before cooking.
Muhammad al-Idrisi wrote in 1154 that itriyya was exported from Norman Sicily. Itriya was known by the Aramaic speakers under the Persian sphere and during the Islamic rule referred to a small soup noodle prepared by twisting bits of kneaded dough into shape; the first concrete information on pasta products in Italy dates to 14th centuries. Pasta has taken on a variety of shapes based on regional specializations. Since at least the 20th century, pasta has become a staple in elsewhere. In the area that would become Germany, written mention of Spätzle has been found in documents dating from 1725, although medieval illustrations are believed to place this noodle at an earlier date. Zacierki is a type of noodle found in Polish cuisine, it was part of the rations distributed in the Łódź Ghetto in German-occupied Poland. The diary of a young girl from Łódź recounts a fight she had with her father over a spoonful of zacierki taken from the family's meager supply of 200 grams. Baked noodles: Boiled and drained noodles are combined with other ingredients and baked.
Popular examples include many casseroles. Basic noodles: These are cooked in water or broth drained. Other foods can be added or the noodles are added to other foods or the noodles can be served plain with a dipping sauce or oil to be added at the table. In general, noodles absorb flavors. Chilled noodles: noodles that are served cold, sometimes in a salad. Examples include cold udon. Fried noodles: dishes made of noodles stir fried with various meats, seafood and dairy products. Typical examples include chow mein, lo mein, mie goreng, hokkien mee, some varieties of pancit, Curry Noodles, pad thai. Noodle soup: noodles served in broth. Examples are phở, beef noodle soup, chicken noodle soup, laksa and batchoy. Instant noodles Frozen noodles The dictionary definition of noodle at Wiktionary Media related to Nood
Mixian is a type of rice noodle from the Yunnan Province, China. It is made from ordinary non-glutinous rice, it is sold fresh rather than dried; the processing of mixian in Yunnan is unique, involving a fermentation process. In many areas there are at least two distinct thicknesses produced, a thinner form and a thicker form. Mixian is served in broth or stir-fried. Stir-fried preparation is rapid, most common in the evening, is popular at road-side BBQ stands throughout Yunnan. Egg, meat, spring onion and chilli are utilized; the most famous prepared dish is guoqiao mixian. More when mixian is served in broth in Yunnanese restaurants, it is an popular breakfast and day-time dish. Broths are chicken or beef, though others exist, it is common for a range of individual condiments to be presented for the customer to add to their bowl themselves. The noodles are first added to the broth, but sometimes the customer is presented the noodles in a separate bowl. In this latter case, condiments are added directly to the broth prior to adding the noodles.
Meat is added to the broth and may be in the form of larger, chunkier pieces or thin-sliced fillets. Condiments vary but may include some subset of the following: chicken powder or essence chili pepper chrysanthemum flowers coriander mint garlic ginger pepper salt sesame oil Sichuan pepper oil soy sauce spring onion suan cai tomato vinegar wood ear mushroom zhe'ergen; the creation of a rich, personal broth is a quintessential part of the mixian experience. Mixian is popular in Yunnan Province, where it can be found in many streets and villages, is available in other mainland Chinese cities, it is very difficult to obtain outside of mainland China since the fresh method of preparation could be seen to necessitate a certain minimum volume of consumption in order to be commercially viable. It is similar to noodles consumed in neighbouring Laos and Vietnam, with the key difference that the base mixian broth is heavily personalized by the customer in Yunnanese tradition, the establishment's own pre-made broth is less adulterated and more appreciated/judged as a key factor of the in Vietnam.
Dishes like nan gyi thohk and baik kut kyee kaik in various parts of Myanmar are similar dimension rice noodle based but different broadly in flavour profile and preparatory method. It is more common in unadulterated Yunnanese form in commercial centers of Myanmar with growing Chinese populations, such as Mandalay. Dishes in Thailand such as pad thai rely on rice noodles, though they are flat and therefore more similar to Chinese juanfen or Yunnanese migan. A Tibetan broth-based noodle dish using wheat-flour instead of rice-flour noodles, thukpa, is thought to have originated in eastern Tibet is made and enjoyed throughout Bhutan, northeast India, Sikkim, Tibet. Migan Rice, History of domestication and cultivation Yunnan cuisine Khanom chin, a Thai fermented-rice noodle
The Meiji period, or Meiji era, is an era of Japanese history which extended from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912. This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonisation by European powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialised nationstate and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, philosophical, political and aesthetic ideas; as a result of such wholesale adoption of radically-different ideas, the changes to Japan were profound, affected its social structure, internal politics, economy and foreign relations. The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji and was succeeded upon the accession of Emperor Taishō by the Taishō period. On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his father, Emperor Kōmei, to the Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd emperor. On November 9, 1867, then-shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor, formally stepped down ten days later.
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government. The fall of Edo in the summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, a new era, was proclaimed; the first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of: Establishment of deliberative assemblies. Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu, a move toward more democratic participation in government. To implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, ordered new local administrative rules; the Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would act in accordance with international law.
Mutsuhito, to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo, the new name for Edo. In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction. Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors, the central government assumed their administrative expenses and paid samurai stipends; the han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Hizen staffed the new ministries. Old court nobles, lower-ranking but more radical samurai, replaced bakufu appointees and daimyo as a new ruling class appeared.
In as much as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years and Buddhism had been connected with the shogunate, this involved the separation of Shinto and Buddhism and the associated destruction of various Buddhist temples and related violence. Furthermore, a new State Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose. In 1871, the Office of Shinto Worship was established, ranking above the Council of State in importance; the kokutai ideas of the Mito school were embraced, the divine ancestry of the Imperial House was emphasized. The government supported a small but important move. Although the Office of Shinto Worship was demoted in 1872, by 1877 the Home Ministry controlled all Shinto shrines and certain Shinto sects were given state recognition. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored.
Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had its own resurgence. Christianity was legalized, Confucianism remained an important ethical doctrine. However, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods. A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke, a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, he started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. Such movements were called People's Rights Movement. Itagaki and others wrote the Tosa Memorial in 1874, criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for the immediate establishment of representative government. Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather than in k
Champon known as Chanpon, is a noodle dish, a regional cuisine of Nagasaki, Japan. There are different versions in Japan and China; the dish was inspired by the cuisine of China. Champon is made by frying pork and vegetables with lard. Ramen noodles made for champon are added and boiled. Unlike other ramen dishes, only one pan is needed. Depending on the season and the situation, the ingredients differ. Hence the taste and style may depend on the time of year. Although Nagasaki Champon is the most well-known rendition, there are other variations found in Japan. Ankake no Champon is a soy-sauce based variant found in Tottori, Shimane Prefectures, as well as the city of Amagasaki in Hyōgo Prefecture. In the city of Akita, a version with miso broth is served, with the soup filling to the bowl to the point of overflowing. In Okinawa, Champon is a rice dish where assorted vegetables, thinly-sliced meat and scrambled egg are fried and served on top of rice; the Korean Jjamppong is a similar noodle dish with a spicy seafood broth.
Champon was first served by a Chinese restaurant in Nagasaki. According to the restaurant, it was based on a dish in Fujian tonniishiimen. In the middle of the Meiji period, the owner saw a need for a cheap, filling meal that suited the palates of hundreds of Chinese students who came to Japan for school. Nowadays, champon is a popular specialty food of Nagasaki. There are several theories as to the origin of the word champon, its current definition is "to mix a variety of things." One theory is that it was derived from the Hokkien word chia̍h-pn̄g, which means "to eat a meal". Another theory is that the word was derived from the word campur Indonesian, meaning mixed. Jjamppong List of ramen dishes
Yakisoba "fried buckwheat", is a Japanese noodle stir-fry dish. Although soba means buckwheat, yakisoba noodles are made from wheat flour, are flavored with a condiment similar to oyster sauce; the dish first appeared in food stalls in Japan during the early 20th century. Yakisoba is prepared by frying ramen-style wheat noodles with bite-sized pork and finely chopped vegetables like cabbage, bean sprouts and carrots. Flavored with yakisoba sauce and pepper, it can be served with a variety of garnishes, such as aonori, beni shōga, mayonnaise. Yakisoba is most familiarly served as a main dish or a side dish. Another popular way to prepare and serve yakisoba in Japan is to pile the noodles into a bun sliced down the middle in the style of a hot dog, garnish the top with mayonnaise and shreds of pickled ginger. Called yakisoba-pan it is available at konbini. Sometimes, Japanese udon called yakiudon; this variation was started in Kokura in Fukuoka Prefecture. In Okinawa, yakisoba is popular with Okinawans and U.
S. service members stationed on the island alike. After the 1945 hostilities ended on Okinawa, the US military command supplied American food products to the malnourished residents. Yakisoba was prepared from spaghetti, ketchup, any available vegetable, mayonnaise. Mess halls and other on-base eateries serve yakisoba. Chopped hotdogs are a popular addition to yakisoba made on Okinawa, in addition to other meats such as ham and pork. Chow mein Japanese noodle Teppanyaki