Port Orchard, Washington
Port Orchard is a city in and the county seat of Kitsap County, United States. It is located 13 miles due west of West Seattle and connected to Seattle and Vashon Island via the Washington State Ferries run to Southworth, it is named after Port Orchard, the strait that separates Bainbridge Island from the Kitsap Peninsula. According to the 2017 census,the population is 13,997; the first European-Americans to settle in what is now Port Orchard were Wiliam Renton and Daniel Howard, who set up a saw mill there in 1854. The town, to become Port Orchard was platted in 1886 by Frederick Stevens, who named the new location after his father, Sidney; the town of Sidney was incorporated September 15, 1890, was the first in Kitsap County to be both platted and incorporated. Shortly thereafter, the U. S. Navy sought a suitable location for another installation on the west coast, found it with the assistance of Sidney's residents in Orchard Bay; the county seat was in Port Madison, but moved after a popular vote to Sidney in 1892.
In December of that same year, the residents of Sidney petitioned both the state legislature and the Post Office Department to rename the city to "Port Orchard." The legislature refused, as Charleston had requested that name. The Post Office Department, went through with the name change, as a result the Port Orchard post office ended up in Sidney, the Charleston post office ended up in Port Orchard, it wasn't until 1903 that local politician Will Thompson convinced the state legislature to correct this confusing situation, relocated the Charleston post office to Charleston, at the same time renaming Sidney to "Port Orchard," as it is known today. On December 18, 2018, a cul-de-sac in Port Orchard was struck by an EF-2 tornado with winds between 120–130 mph, the strongest tornado in Washington since 1986; the tornado uprooted trees and damaged up to 450 homes and businesses, some of which sustained total roof loss. Some neighborhoods were evacuated due to reported gas leaks. Port Orchard is located at 47°31′54″N 122°38′18″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.52 square miles, of which, 7.24 square miles is land and 1.28 square miles is water. Port Orchard Airport, located northwest of Purdy, is a private airport with an industrial park; as of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $34,020, the median income for a family was $41,946. Males had a median income of $33,610 versus $25,739 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,382. About 10.9% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.2% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 11,144 people, 4,278 households, 2,726 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,539.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,630 housing units at an average density of 639.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 80.8% White, 3.4% African American, 1.3% Native American, 5.8% Asian, 1.4% Pacific Islander, 1.0% from other races, 6.4% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.6% of the population. There were 4,278 households of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.3% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the city was 34.5 years. 23.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.3% male and 49.7% female. Delilah, syndicated radio personality Jason Ellison, Major League Baseball outfielder Jamie Ford, author Karolyn Grimes, actress, It's a Wonderful Life Jason Hammel, Major League Baseball pitcher Debbie Macomber, author Benji Olson, National Football League guard Madelaine Petsch, actress Jason Wade, Lifehouse lead singer Willie Bloomquist, Major League Baseball Player, Retired City of Port Orchard official website The Port Orchard Chamber of Commerce Kitsap Peninsula Visitor & Convention Bureau - Port Orchard Page History of Port Orchard at HistoryLink
The Chicago Cubs are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Cubs compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division; the team plays its home games at Wrigley Field, located on the city's North Side. The Cubs are one of two major league teams in Chicago; the Cubs, first known as the White Stockings, were a founding member of the NL in 1876, becoming the Chicago Cubs in 1903. The Cubs have appeared in a total of eleven World Series; the 1906 Cubs won 116 games, finishing 116–36 and posting a modern-era record winning percentage of.763, before losing the World Series to the Chicago White Sox by four games to two. The Cubs won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first major league team to play in three consecutive World Series, the first to win it twice. Most the Cubs won the 2016 National League Championship Series and 2016 World Series, which ended a 71-year National League pennant drought and a 108-year World Series championship drought, both of which are record droughts in Major League Baseball.
The 108-year drought was the longest such occurrence in all major North American sports. Since the start of divisional play in 1969, the Cubs have appeared in the postseason nine times through the 2017 season; the Cubs are known as "the North Siders", a reference to the location of Wrigley Field within the city of Chicago, in contrast to the White Sox, whose home field is located on the South Side. The Cubs have multiple rivalries. There is a divisional rivalry with the St. Louis Cardinals, a newer rivalry with the Milwaukee Brewers and an interleague rivalry with the Chicago White Sox; the Cubs began playing in 1870 as the Chicago White Stockings, joining the National League in 1876 as a charter member. Owner William Hulbert signed multiple star players, such as pitcher Albert Spalding and infielders Ross Barnes, Deacon White, Adrian "Cap" Anson, to join the team prior to the N. L.'s first season. The White Stockings played their home games at West Side Grounds and established themselves as one of the new league's top teams.
Spalding won forty-seven games and Barnes led the league in hitting at.429 as Chicago won the first National League pennant, which at the time was the game's top prize. After back-to-back pennants in 1880 and 1881, Hulbert died, Spalding, who had retired to start Spalding sporting goods, assumed ownership of the club; the White Stockings, with Anson acting as player-manager, captured their third consecutive pennant in 1882, Anson established himself as the game's first true superstar. In 1885 and'86, after winning N. L. pennants, the White Stockings met the champions of the short-lived American Association in that era's version of a World Series. Both seasons resulted in matchups with the St. Louis Brown Stockings, with the clubs tying in 1885 and with St. Louis winning in 1886; this was the genesis of what would become one of the greatest rivalries in sports. In all, the Anson-led Chicago Base Ball Club won six National League pennants between 1876 and 1886; as a result, Chicago's club nickname transitioned, by 1890 they had become known as the Chicago Colts, or sometimes "Anson's Colts", referring to Cap's influence within the club.
Anson was the first player in history credited with collecting 3,000 career hits. After a disappointing record of 59–73 and a ninth-place finish in 1897, Anson was released by the Cubs as both a player and manager. Due to Anson's absence from the club after 22 years, local newspaper reporters started to refer to the Colts as the "Orphans". After the 1900 season, the American Base-Ball League formed as a rival professional league, incidentally the club's old White Stockings nickname would be adopted by a new American League neighbor to the south. In 1902, who by this time had revamped the roster to boast what would soon be one of the best teams of the early century, sold the club to Jim Hart; the franchise was nicknamed the Cubs by the Chicago Daily News in 1902, although not becoming the Chicago Cubs until the 1907 season. During this period, which has become known as baseball's dead-ball era, Cub infielders Joe Tinker, Johnny Evers, Frank Chance were made famous as a double-play combination by Franklin P. Adams' poem Baseball's Sad Lexicon.
The poem first appeared in the July 1910 edition of the New York Evening Mail. Mordecai "Three-Finger" Brown, Jack Taylor, Ed Reulbach, Jack Pfiester, Orval Overall were several key pitchers for the Cubs during this time period. With Chance acting as player-manager from 1905 to 1912, the Cubs won four pennants and two World Series titles over a five-year span. Although they fell to the "Hitless Wonders" White Sox in the 1906 World Series, the Cubs recorded a record 116 victories and the best winning percentage in Major League history. With the same roster, Chicago won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first Major League club to play three times in the Fall Classic and the first to win it twice. However, the Cubs would not win another World Series until 2016; the next season, veteran catcher Johnny Kling left the team to become a professional pocket billiards player. Some historians think Kling's absence was significant enough to prevent the Cubs from winning a third straight title in 1909, as they finished 6 games out of first place.
When Kling returned the next year, the Cubs won the pennant again, but lost to the Philadelphia Athletics in the 1910 World Series. In 1914, adver
Greenville, South Carolina
Greenville is the largest city in and the seat of Greenville County, South Carolina, United States. The city's mayor is Knox H. White, in that position since December 1995. With an estimated population of 68,219 as of 2017, it is the sixth-largest city in the state; the population of the surrounding area was 400,492 as of 2010, making it the third-largest urban area in South Carolina as well as the fastest growing. Greenville is the largest city in the Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin Metropolitan Statistical Area; the MSA had a population of 895,923 in 2017, making it the largest in South Carolina and the third largest in the Carolinas. Greenville is the largest city in the Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Combined Statistical Area, a 10-county region of northwestern South Carolina known as "The Upstate". According to United States Census Bureau, the CSA had a population of 1,459,766 as of 2017, making it the largest CSA in the state. Greenville is located halfway between Atlanta and Charlotte, North Carolina, along Interstate 85, its metropolitan area includes Interstates 185 and 385.
Greenville has gained recognition in various national publications such as CNN Money, which ranked Greenville as one of the "Top 10 Fastest Growing Cities in the U. S." Bloomberg named Greenville the Third Strongest Job Market for 2010. Greenville earned the No. 3 slot by Condé Nast Traveler's "Best Small Cities in the U. S." in 2017. Greenville was the fourth fastest-growing city in the United States between 2015 and 2016, according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the land of present-day Greenville was once the hunting ground of the Cherokee, forbidden to colonists. A wealthy settler from Virginia named Richard Pearis arrived in South Carolina around 1754 and established relations with the Cherokee. Pearis had a child with a Cherokee woman and received about 100,000 acres from the Cherokee around 1770. Pearis established a plantation on the Reedy River called the Great Plains in present-day downtown Greenville; the American Revolution divided the South Carolina country between the Patriots. Pearis supported the Loyalists and together with their allies.
The Patriots retaliated by jailing him in Charleston. Pearis never returned to his plantation but Paris Mountain is named after him; the Treaty of Dewitt's Corner in 1777 ceded all Cherokee land, including present-day Greenville, to South Carolina. Greenville County was named for its physical appearance. However, other sources say Greenville is named after General Nathanael Greene in honor of his service in the American Revolutionary War. Lemuel J. Alston came to Greenville County in 1788 and bought 400 acres and a portion of Pearis' former plantation. In 1797 Alston used his land holdings to establish a village called Pleasantburg where he built a stately mansion. In 1816, Alston's land was purchased by Vardry McBee, who leased the Alston mansion for a summer resort, before making mansion his home from 1835 until his death in 1864. Considered to be the father of Greenville, McBee donated land for many structures such as churches, a cotton mill. Furman University was funded by McBee who helped bring the university to Pleasantburg from Winnsboro, South Carolina in 1851.
In 1853 McBee and other Greenville County leaders funded a new railroad called the Greenville and Columbia Railroad. Pleasantburg boomed to around 1,000 in the 1850s due to the growth of McBee's donations and the attraction of the town as a summer resort for visitors. In 1831 Pleasantburg was incorporated as Greenville. In December 1860 Greenville supported a convention to debate the issue of secession for South Carolina; the Greenville District sent James Furman, William K. Easley, Perry E. Duncan, William H. Campbell, James P. Harrison as delegates for the convention. On December 20, 1860 the South Carolina state convention, along with the Greenville delegation, voted to secede from the Union. Greenville County provided over 2,000 soldiers to the Confederate States Army; the town supplied food and firearms to the Confederacy. Greenville saw no action from the war until 1865 when Union troops came through the town looking for President Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy who had fled south from Richmond, Virginia.
In June 1865 Andrew Johnson appointed Greenville County native Benjamin Franklin Perry as Governor of South Carolina. In February 1869, Greenville's town charter was amended by the S. C. General Assembly establishing Greenville, the town, as a city. Construction boomed in the 1870s such as the establishment of a bridge over the Reedy River, new mills on the river and new railroads; the Greenville News was established in 1874 as Greenville's first daily newspaper. Southern Bell installed the first telephone lines in the city; the most important infrastructure that came to the city were cotton mills. Prominent cotton mill businesses operated near Greenville making it a cotton mill town. By 1915 Greenville became known as the "Textile Center of the South." During World War I, Greenville served as a training camp center for Army recruits. After World War I commercial activity expanded with new movie theaters and department stores; the Mansion House was demolished and replaced with the Poinsett Hotel in 1925.
The Great Depression hurt the economy of Greenville forcing mills to lay off workers. Furman University and the Greenville Women's College struggled in the crippling economy forcing them to merge in 1933; the Textile Workers Strike of 1934 caused such an uproar in the city and surrounding mill towns that the National Guard had to subdue the chaos. The New Deal established Sirrine S
Harry Hunter Wendelstedt III is a baseball umpire who has worked in the National League in 1998–1999 and throughout both major leagues since 2000. His father Harry Hunter Wendelstedt, Jr. was an NL umpire from 1966 to 1998. Hunter Wendelstedt goes by his middle name to avoid confusion with his father. Wendelstedt has worked one All-Star Game, one Wild Card Game, four Division Series, four League Championship Series, one World Series, he officiated in the 2009 World Baseball Classic. As his career began just as his father was retiring, Hunter Wendelstedt wears the same number as his father did, 21; the Wendelstedts are the only father-son pair to have umpired a Major League game together, an event that occurred over several series in 1998. On October 7, 2010, Wendelstedt ejected Minnesota Twins manager Ron Gardenhire from Game 2 of the American League Division Series after Gardenhire argued a pitch which appeared to be strike three to Lance Berkman. Wendelstedt ruled it a ball, on the next pitch Berkman hit a double scoring a run and putting the Yankees up, 3–2.
It was at least the fourth time. In 2005, Gardenhire was suspended one game and fined after delivering a profanity-laced rant about Wendelstedt, in 2009, Wendelstedt suggested that Gardenhire should attend his umpiring school to "learn what a balk is," after ejecting Gardenhire for arguing a non-balk call; this contentious history fueled questions about the appropriateness of Major League Baseball putting Wendelstedt on a post-season series involving Gardenhire, as there is precedent in baseball for avoiding such confrontations, most notably the American League removing umpire Ron Luciano from games involving the Baltimore Orioles due to a long history of bad blood between the umpire and Orioles manager Earl Weaver. On August 22, 2011, Wendelstedt ejected Twins third baseman Danny Valencia for disputing balls and strikes. Gardenhire came out to argue and his ejection followed. Afterward, Gardenhire said that he and Wendelstedt had gotten along well. Gardenhire stated. Hunter attended Loyola University of New Orleans for two years, where he was a member of Alpha Delta Gamma Fraternity.
After the death of his father, Hunter took over operations of the Wendelstedt Umpire School in Florida and is involved with the YMCA Ormond Beach and YMCA Edgewater Charity Golf Tournaments. List of Major League Baseball umpires Major league profile Interview with Hunter Wendelstedt at Umpire-Empire Retrosheet Wendelstedt Umpire School
Matthew Raymond Lindstrom is an American former professional baseball pitcher. He played in Major League Baseball for the Miami Marlins, Houston Astros, Colorado Rockies, Baltimore Orioles, Arizona Diamondbacks and Chicago White Sox. Lindstrom played college baseball at Ricks College. Lindstrom was selected by the New York Mets in the 10th round of the 2002 Major League Baseball draft, he made his professional debut at Rookie League Kingsport and posted an 0-6 record with a 4.84 ERA in twelve games with eleven games as a starting pitcher. He began next year at Single-A Capital City and was dominant, as his 2.86 ERA and 7.94 K/9 rate showed. This earned him a promotion to Brooklyn where Lindstrom would finish out the 2003 season well, as he compiled a 7-3 record with a 3.44 ERA. In 2004, Lindstrom was promoted to St. Lucie where, at 24, he compiled a 5-5 record with a 3.73 ERA in fourteen starts. His walk rate was staggering, however, at 2.26 BB/9. The righty found himself back at Capital City midway through the season, where his numbers improved as he posted a 3-2 record with a 3.21 ERA and much-improved control, with a 1.61 BB/9.
At age 25, Lindstrom began the 2005 season at Double-A Binghamton, in what was determined to be a make-or-break year for his career. Lindstrom went 2-5 with an ERA of 5.40 with eye-popping walk and home run rates of 6.75 BB/9 and 1.35 HR/9 in thirty-five games. On November 20, 2006, Lindstrom and Henry Owens were traded to the Florida Marlins in exchange for Jason Vargas and Adam Bostick. Both Lindstrom and Owens were regarded as a top closer candidates for the 2007 season. Lindstrom's fastball touches 100 mph and averages in the high 90's. Playing in the Puerto Rican Winter League in the 06-07 offseason, his fastball was clocked at 102 mph. On May 17, 2007, while pitching in the 8th inning against the Pittsburgh Pirates at PNC Park, Lindstrom's fastball was clocked at 102 mph on the stadium scoreboard. Lindstrom picked up his first major league win against the Brewers in Milwaukee on June 2, 2007. In the final game of the 2008 regular season, Lindstrom earned a save versus the New York Mets, he threw the final pitch during actual game-play of Shea Stadium.
On December 9, 2009, Lindstrom was dealt to the Houston Astros for minor leaguers Robert Bono, Luis Bryan and a player to be named which became Rule 5 draft pick Jorge Jimenez, a third baseman selected from the Red Sox organization. On March 30, 2010, Lindstrom was named the Astros' closer for the 2010 season. After the 2010 season, Lindstrom was traded to the Colorado Rockies for two minor league pitchers: Wes Musick and Jonnathan Aristil. On February 6, 2012, Lindstrom was traded with Jason Hammel to the Baltimore Orioles for starter Jeremy Guthrie, he had early success, not giving up an earned run on the season until May 10, the day before he was placed on the disabled list with an injury to his right middle finger. He began his minor league rehab assignment on June 22. Lindstrom returned on June 27 and had a 2.72 ERA on the season when he was dealt to the Arizona Diamondbacks. On August 26, 2012, Lindstrom was traded to the Arizona Diamondbacks for Joe Saunders. On November 1, 2012 Lindstrom's option was declined by the Arizona Diamondbacks.
On January 19, 2013, Lindstrom was signed to a 1-year deal by the Chicago White Sox with a 2014 option. His 2014 option was picked up on October 31, 2013, worth $4 million. On February 17, 2015, Lindstrom signed a minor league contract with the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, he was released by the Angels on March 28. On April 2, 2015 he signed a minor league deal with the Chicago White Sox. On April 9, 2015 he was assigned to AAA Charlotte Knights, he was released on July 10. Lindstrom pitched for Team USA in the 2009 World Baseball Classic. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference
2007 New York Yankees season
The New York Yankees' 2007 season was the Yankees' 105th in New York and their 107th overall dating back to their origins in Baltimore. The season started with the Yankees trying to win the AL East championship, a title they had won every season since after the 1997 season, but they came in second place to the Boston Red Sox; the Yankees instead won the American League wild card, beating out the Seattle Mariners and the Detroit Tigers. The offseason started with news of the unexpected death of Cory Lidle, an occupant in his own plane that crashed into a Manhattan high rise shortly after the Yankees were eliminated in the 2006 ALDS; the Yankees made news by trading right fielder Gary Sheffield to the Detroit Tigers in exchange for pitching prospects. The Yankees traded away pitcher Jaret Wright to the Baltimore Orioles in exchange for reliever Chris Britton. On December 21, 2006, Andy Pettitte signed as a Free Agent with the Yankees. However, no offseason move was bigger for the team than trading Randy Johnson back to the Arizona Diamondbacks, the team who he was with when he won the 2001 World Series against the Yankees, for pitcher Luis Vizcaíno and three minor league prospects.
Joe Torre is managing the team for the 12th consecutive season. On May 6, Roger Clemens announced his return to the Yankees after a three-year absence from the team. Injuries sidelined starting pitchers Mike Mussina, Carl Pavano, Chien-Ming Wang, leaving only original starters Andy Pettitte and Kei Igawa active; the team set a major league record with 10 different starters in the first 30 games, including a record 6 rookies. The rookie hurlers were not immune in the early going. Jeff Karstens was hit by a line drive off his first pitch on April 28. Phil Hughes pitched a hitless 6⅓ innings against the Rangers on May 1 before leaving the game with a pulled hamstring. Closer Mariano Rivera struggled in other appearances. Kei Igawa, acquired during the off-season for $46 million from Japan's Hanshin Tigers, allowed 26 earned runs in 6 appearances for an ERA of 7.63. He was sent to the Tampa Yankees, the Single A affiliate of the Yankees. Meanwhile, the offense led the American League in hits, home runs, runs scored.
Alex Rodríguez tied a record, by hitting 14 home runs in April. Nonetheless, the Yankees suffered a seven-game losing streak after sweeping the Cleveland Indians at Yankee Stadium and ended April with a record of 9–14, last place in the AL East and 6½ games behind the Red Sox. By early May, Mike Mussina and Chien-Ming Wang joined Andy Pettitte with newcomers Darrell Rasner and Matt DeSalvo filling in the remaining two positions in the rotation. Alex Rodriguez's remarkable April had come to an end, but the bats kept up their pace and, with the bullpen getting some needed rest, the Yankees began May 7–2. However, at the end of the month, the Yankees were tied for last place with the Devil Rays and were 22–29, 13½ games behind the Red Sox in the AL East. On May 6, Roger Clemens announced his return to the Yankees after a three-year absence from the team; the Yankees began June with a strong 8–2 start. They opened with a series victory over the Red Sox in Boston, including a game-winning home run by Alex Rodriguez off closer Jonathan Papelbon in the final game of the set with Boston.
They were struck by injuries again that weekend, as Doug Mientkiewicz was injured in a collision at first with Mike Lowell and Roger Clemens's first start was delayed by a groin injury. Nonetheless, the Yankees took 3 of 4 from the White Sox heading into an interleague series with the Pirates. Roger Clemens earned the victory; the Yankees swept the Pirates and took a 9-game winning streak, their longest since May 2005, into a subway series with the Mets. Roger Clemens pitched in the series opener, but the Yankees were shut out 2-0; the Yankees would rebound and take the next game 11–8. That day, the Yankees received news that Kei Igawa would be ready to return to the Major Leagues. On July 1, they were 11 games behind the division-leading Red Sox and 8 games behind the Wild Card-leading Tigers; the Yankees began the first week of July strongly. They lost the final game of a series with Oakland before taking 3 out of 4 from the Minnesota Twins and 2 of 3 from the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. Alex Rodriguez was injured during the series with Minnesota.
He missed one game before returning to action that weekend against the Angels. After winning the weekend series with the Angels, the Yankees went into the break with a 42–43 record and a 10-game deficit in the division behind the Boston Red Sox; this is the first time since 1995 that the New York Yankees were under.500 before the All Star Break. After the break, the Yankees took three out of four games from the Toronto Blue Jays and the last place Tampa Bay Devil Rays, twice. In the month of July, the Yankees traded Scott Proctor for Wilson Betemit of the Los Angeles Dodgers; the Yankees traded Jeff Kennard for Jose Molina. The beginning of August saw the Yankees, along with all of Major League Baseball, eagerly awaiting home run number 500 from Alex Rodriguez. During the home run milestone chase George Steinbrenner's health once again came into question when the New York Post and the New York Daily News each reported that Steinbrenner, during a recent interview, appeared to be suffering from dementia.
On August 4, 2007, during the first inning Alex Rodriguez hit his 500th career home run. Rodriguez became the youngest player to do so at 32 years, 8 days. On August 6, 2007, the Yankees brought up Jim Brower, they had just completed a season sweep of the Cleveland Indians, winning all 6 games th
Earned run average
In baseball statistics, earned run average is the mean of earned runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings pitched. It is determined by dividing the number of earned runs allowed by the number of innings pitched and multiplying by nine. Runs resulting from defensive errors are recorded as unearned runs and omitted from ERA calculations. Henry Chadwick is credited with devising the statistic, which caught on as a measure of pitching effectiveness after relief pitching came into vogue in the 1900s. Prior to 1900—and, in fact, for many years afterward—pitchers were expected to pitch a complete game, their win-loss record was considered sufficient in determining their effectiveness. After pitchers like James Otis Crandall and Charley Hall made names for themselves as relief specialists, gauging a pitcher's effectiveness became more difficult using the traditional method of tabulating wins and losses; some criterion was needed to capture the apportionment of earned-run responsibility for a pitcher in games that saw contributions from other pitchers for the same team.
Since pitchers have primary responsibility for putting opposing batters out, they must assume responsibility when a batter they do not retire at the plate moves to base, reaches home, scoring a run. A pitcher is assessed an earned run for each run scored by a batter who reaches base while batting against that pitcher; the National League first tabulated official earned run average statistics in 1912, the American League accepted this standard and began compiling ERA statistics. Written baseball encyclopedias display ERAs for earlier years, but these were computed retroactively. Negro League pitchers are rated by RA, or total runs allowed, since the statistics available for Negro League games did not always distinguish between earned and unearned runs; as with batting average, the definition of a good ERA varies from year to year. During the dead-ball era of the 1900s and 1910s, an ERA below 2.00 was considered good. In the late 1920s and through the 1930s, when conditions of the game changed in a way that favored hitters, a good ERA was below 4.00.
In the 1960s, sub-2.00 ERAs returned, as other influences such as ballparks with different dimensions were introduced. Today, an ERA under 4.00 is again considered good. The all-time single-season record for the lowest ERA is held by Dutch Leonard, who in 1914 had an earned run average of 0.96, pitching 224.2 innings with a win-loss record of 19-5. The all-time record for the lowest single season earned run average by a pitcher pitching 300 or more innings is 1.12, set by Bob Gibson in 1968. The record for the lowest career earned run average is 1.82, held by Ed Walsh, who played from 1904 through 1917. Some researchers dissent from the official Major League Baseball record and claim that the pitcher with the all-time lowest earned run average is Tim Keefe, who had an earned run average of 0.86 in 1880 while appearing in 12 of his team's 83 games and pitching 105 innings. But a purported record based on so few innings pitched is misleading. Over the years, more than a dozen part-time pitchers have pitched 105 or more innings and had an earned run average lower than 0.86.
Major League Baseball recognizes many records from the 19th century—including Will White's 1879 record of 680 innings pitched, Charles Radbourne's 1884 record of 59 wins, Pud Galvin's 1883 record for 75 games started, but does not recognize Keefe as the pitcher having the all-time lowest single season earned run average. Some sources may list players with infinite ERAs; this can happen. Additionally, an undefined ERA occurs at the beginning of a baseball season, it is sometimes incorrectly displayed as zero or as the lowest ranking ERA though it is more akin to the highest. At times it can be misleading to judge relief pitchers on ERA, because they are charged only for runs scored by batters who reached base while batting against them. Thus, if a relief pitcher enters the game with his team leading by 1 run, with 2 outs and the bases loaded, gives up a single which scores 2 runs, he is not charged with those runs. If he retires the next batter, his ERA for that game will be 0.00 despite having surrendered the lead.
Starting pitchers operate under the same rules but are not called upon to start pitching with runners on base. In addition, relief pitchers know beforehand that they will only be pitching for a short while, allowing them to exert themselves more for each pitch, unlike starters who need to conserve their energy over the course of a game in case they are asked to pitch 7 or more innings; the reliever's freedom to use their maximum energy for a few innings, or for just a few batters, helps relievers keep their ERAs down. ERA, taken by itself, can be misleading when trying to objectively judge starting pitchers, though not to the extent seen with relief pitchers; the advent of the designated hitter rule in the American League in 1973 made the pitching environment different. Since pitchers spending all or most of their careers in the AL have been at a disadvantage in maintaining low ERAs, compared to National League pitchers who can get an easy