Parks Canada, known as the Parks Canada Agency, is an agency of the Government of Canada run by a chief executive who answers to the Minister of the Environment. Parks Canada manages 38 National Parks, three National Marine Conservation Areas,171 National Historic Sites, and one National Landmark, the agency administers lands and waters set aside as potential national parklands, including eight National Park Reserves and one National Marine Conservation Area Reserve. The Canadian Register of Historic Places is supported and managed by Parks Canada, in collaboration with provincial and territorial governments, the agency is the working arm of the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which recommends National Historic Sites and Persons. Parks Canada was established on May 19,1911, as the Dominion Parks Branch under the Department of the Interior, the services activities are regulated under the provisions of the Canada National Parks Act, which was enacted in 1930, and amended in 2000.
To mark the 150th anniversary of Confederation in 2017, Parks Canada is offering free passes to national parks, the Parks Canada Agency was established as a separate service entity in 1998, and falls under the responsibility of Environment Canada. Before 2003, Parks Canada fell under the jurisdiction of the Department of Canadian Heritage, from 1979 to 1994, Parks Canada was part of the Department of Environment, and before it was part of the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, and the Department of the Interior. With the organizational shifts and political leadership in Canada, the priorities of Parks Canada have shifted over the years more towards conservation, starting in the 1960s, Parks Canada has moved to decentralize its operations. S. C. Marie Canal, Saint-Ours Canal, Chambly Canal, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue Canal, Carillon Canal, Lachine Canal, the Department of Canadian Heritage, which runs federal Museums and more cultural affairs, falls under the control of the Minister of Heritage.
They are designated under section 18 of the Canada National Parks Act and have the authority of peace officers and they carry firearms and have access to other use of force options. The Minister may designate provincial and local enforcement officers under section 19 of the Act for the purpose of enforcing laws within the specified parks and these officers have the power of peace officers only in relation to the Act. In May 2012, it was reported that Park Wardens may be designated to enforce certain wildlife acts administered by Environment Canada. Should the designations go ahead it would only be for Park Wardens that are stationed near existing migratory bird sanctuaries, historical Analysis of Parks Canada and Banff National Park, 1968–1995 List of legislation for which Parks Canada is responsible Lothian, W. F. A History of Canadas National Parks Volumes I-IV Lothian, W. F, a Brief History of Canadas National Parks Lothian, W. F. Histoire des parcs nationaux du Canada Volumes I-IV Lothian, W.
F, a Century of Parks Canada, 1911–2011, Free eBook Parks Canada article in the Canadian Encyclopedia National Parks of Canada Electronic Library
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,196,457 as of July 1,2015, it is Canadas fourth-most populous province and its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1,1905, the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, and the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. About 290 km south of the capital is Calgary, the largest city in Alberta and Edmonton centre Albertas two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Alberta is named after Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Victoria, Queen of Canada, and Albert, Prince Consort.
Princess Louise was the wife of John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the US state of Montana. The province extends 1,223 km north to south and 660 km east to west at its maximum width, with the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous rivers and lakes used for swimming, there are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, and Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan. The longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca, the largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s. The Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, Albertas capital city, Edmonton, is located approximately in the geographic centre of the province.
It is the most northerly city in Canada, and serves as a gateway. The region, with its proximity to Canadas largest oil fields, has most of western Canadas oil refinery capacity, Calgary is located approximately 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. Almost 75% of the population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the served as a means to populate the province in its early years
Pyramid Mountain (Alberta)
Pyramid Mountain is a mountain in Jasper National Park, Canada, named for its pyramid-like shape. James Hector named the mountain in 1859 due to its appearance from the Athabasca River valley on the side of the peak. Part of the Victoria Cross Ranges in the Athabasca River Valley the mountain is in the headwater for the Athabasca River. The peak is just under 10 km north-west of the town of Jasper, the mountain is a relatively easy scramble on the eastern slopes. These slopes can be reached by following a fire road from the parking lot at Pyramid Lake,4.5 km South-East of the peak
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than four million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is a component of the Pacific Northwest and the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U. S. states of Idaho, Oregon and Alaska. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Port Moody is named after him, in 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, and Victoria became the united colonys capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu, the capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original European colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, in October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371.
British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871, First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties and the question of Aboriginal Title, the Tsilhqotin Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BCs economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the provinces GDP and it is the endpoint of transcontinental railways, and the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Though less than 5% of its vast 944,735 km2 land is arable and its climate encourages outdoor recreation and tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging and mining. Vancouver, the provinces largest city and metropolitan area, serves as the headquarters of many western-based natural resource companies and it benefits from a strong housing market and a per capita income well above the national average.
The Northern Interior region has a climate with very cold winters. The climate of Vancouver is by far the mildest winter climate of the major Canadian cities, the provinces name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i. e. the Mainland, became a British colony in 1858. The current southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, British Columbias land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbias rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres and it is the only province in Canada that borders the Pacific Ocean. British Columbias capital is Victoria, located at the tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of the Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is significantly populated, much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by thick and sometimes impenetrable temperate rainforest
The Athabasca River originates from the Columbia Glacier of the Columbia Icefield in Jasper National Park in Alberta, Canada. The impressive and scenic Athabasca Falls is located upstream about 30 km from the Jasper townsite, the name Athabasca comes from the Woods Cree word aðapaskāw, which means there are plants one after another, likely a reference to the spotty vegetation along the river. Sekani, Kootenay, Salish and Cree tribes hunted and fished along the river prior to the European colonization, david Thompson and Thomas the Iroquois travelled through Athabasca Pass in 1811. In 1862, the Athabasca Springs area was crossed during the Cariboo Goldrush by the Overlander Party. This river was designated a Canadian Heritage River for its importance to the fur trade, the river flows along icefields and through gorges, offering wildlife habitat on its shores and adjacent marshes. Its course is marked by rapids, impeding navigation southwest of Fort McMurray, the Athabasca River travels 1,231 km before draining into the Peace-Athabasca Delta near Lake Athabasca south of Fort Chipewyan.
The cumulative drainage area is 95,300 km2, numerous communities are located on the banks of the Athabasca River, including Jasper, Entrance, Whitecourt, Fort Assiniboine, Athabasca, Fort McMurray, and Fort MacKay. An independent study has concluded that the Athabasca River contains elevated levels of pollution downstream of the Athabasca oil sands, testing has shown this portion of the river contains mercury, lead and 11 other toxic elements. On October 31,2013, one of Obed Mountain coal mines pits failed, the plume of waste products joined the Athabasca River, travelling downstream for a month before settling in Lake Athabasca near Fort Chipewyan, over 500 km away. Owing to its proximity to the Athabasca Oil Sands, the river has significant amounts of energy infrastructure constructed along its course. On June 6,1970, a pipeline operated by Great Canadian Oil Sands, the precursor to Suncor, the total spill volume was estimated by Great Canadian Oil Sands at approximately 1,190 barrels of oil.
The Canadian Heraldic Authority named the position of Athabaska Herald after the river, Oil sands development contributes elements toxic at low concentrations to the Athabasca River and its tributaries
Fort Vancouver was a 19th-century fur trading post that was the headquarters of the Hudsons Bay Companys Columbia Department, located in the Pacific Northwest. Named for Captain George Vancouver, the fort was located on the bank of the Columbia River in present-day Vancouver. The fort was a center of the regional fur trading. Every year trade goods and supplies from London arrived either via ships sailing to the Pacific Ocean or overland from Hudson Bay via the York Factory Express and trade goods were exchanged with a plethora of Indigenous cultures for fur pelts. Furs from Fort Vancouver were often shipped to the Chinese port of Guangzhou where they were traded for Chinese manufactured goods for sale in the United Kingdom, at its pinnacle, Fort Vancouver watched over 34 outposts,24 ports, six ships, and 600 employees. Today, a replica of the fort, with internal buildings, has been constructed and is open to the public as Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. During the War of 1812, the Pacific Northwest was a distant region of the conflict, two rival fur trading outfits, the Canadian North West Company and the American Pacific Fur Company, had until both operated in the region peaceably.
Funded largely by John Jacob Astor, the PFC operated without many opportunities for defense by the United States Navy. News of the war and of a coming British warship put the American company into a difficult position, in October 1813, management met at Fort Astoria and agreed to liquidate its assets to the NWC. The HMS Racoon arrived the following month and in honor of George III of the United Kingdom, Fort Astoria was renamed to Fort George. Frederick Merk has argued the definition used by the negotiators of the Gulf of Georgia included the entirety of the Puget Sound, in addition to the Straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca. This would have given the United Kingdom the most favorable location for ports north of Alta California, robinson didnt agree to the proposal and subsequent talks didnt focus on establishing a permanent border west of the Rocky Mountains. The Treaty of 1818 made the resources of the vast region were to be free, the treaty wasnt made to combine American and British interests against other colonial powers in the region.
Rather, the document states that the joint occupancy of the Pacific Northwest was intended to prevent disputes between the two nations from arising, in the ensuing years, the North West Company would continue to expand its operations in the Pacific Northwest. Skirmishes with its competitor, the Hudsons Bay Company, had already flared into the Pemmican War. The end of the conflict in 1821 saw the NWC mandated by the British Government to merge into the HBC, throughout 1825 and 1826, British officials would continue to offer Americans partition plans for the Pacific Coast of North America. These largely originated in part from correspondence with the NWC and HBC, the border would continue to extend west on the 49th parallel to the Rocky Mountains, where the Columbia would be used as the border until it reached the Pacific Ocean. Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs George Canning has been appraised by historians most supportive British Foreign minister in securing a border along the Columbia
Jasper National Park
Jasper National Park is the largest national park in the Canadian Rockies, spanning 10,878 km2. It is located in the province of Alberta, north of Banff National Park, the park includes the glaciers of the Columbia Icefield, hot springs, lakes and mountains. Jasper was named after Jasper Hawes, who operated a trading post in the region for the North West Company, before this it was referred to as Fitzhugh. The park was established on September 14,1907 as Jasper Forest Park, in 2014, Jasper National Park had 2,154,710 visitors. The most common birds that fly around this park including raptors are bald eagles, golden eagles, Great horned owls, spruce grouses, white-tailed ptarmigans, bohemian waxwings, Canada geese and red-necked grebes mostly float on Maligne Lake. Major river systems originating in the include the Athabasca and Smoky rivers. Some of the scenic attractions include Mount Edith Cavell, Pyramid Lake with Pyramid Mountain, Maligne Lake, Medicine Lake. The Miette Hot Springs are located close to the northeast entrance, the Miette Hot Springs are created by an extremely hot spring cooled by the mountain to temperatures suitable for humans.
The Icefields Parkway is a highway 230 km in length from Lake Louise, Alberta in Banff National Park, to Jasper, the highway parallels the continental divide, providing motor and cycle access to the mountains. The Athabasca and Sunwapta Falls are both accessible by the road, Jasper National Park is featured in the 2010 3D animated comedy-drama film Alpha and Omega as the location the two wolf protagonists are taken from and struggle to return to. A KLM Boeing 777-300 is named after Jasper National Park, dark-sky preserve Ecology of the Rocky Mountains List of historic places in Albertas Rockies List of trails in Alberta List of mountains in Alberta List of waterfalls of Alberta Parks Canada
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia, Canada and it flows northwest and south into the US state of Washington, turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state of Oregon before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The river is 1,243 miles long, and its largest tributary is the Snake River and its drainage basin is roughly the size of France and extends into seven US states and a Canadian province. By volume, the Columbia is the fourth-largest river in the United States, the rivers heavy flow and relatively steep gradient gives it tremendous potential for the generation of electricity. The Columbia and its tributaries have been central to the regions culture and they have been used for transportation since ancient times, linking the many cultural groups of the region. The river system hosts many species of fish, which migrate between freshwater habitats and the saline waters of the Pacific Ocean.
In the following decades, fur trading companies used the Columbia as a key transportation route, steamships along the river linked communities and facilitated trade, the arrival of railroads in the late 19th century, many running along the river, supplemented these links. Since the late 19th century and private sectors have developed the river. The development, commonly referred to as taming or harnessing of the river, has been massive, to aid ship and barge navigation, locks have been built along the lower Columbia and its tributaries, and dredging has opened and enlarged shipping channels. Since the early 20th century, dams have been built across the river for the purposes of power generation, navigation and flood control. Today, a reservoir lies along nearly every US mile of the once free-flowing river. Production of nuclear power has taken place at two sites along the river, plutonium for nuclear weapons was produced for decades at the Hanford Site, which is now the most contaminated nuclear site in the US.
All these developments have had a impact on river environments, mainly through industrial pollution. The Columbia begins its 1, 243-mile journey in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench in British Columbia, Columbia Lake –2,690 feet above sea level – and the adjoining Columbia Wetlands form the rivers headwaters. The trench is a broad and long glacial valley between the Canadian Rockies and the Columbia Mountains in BC. Rounding the northern end of the Selkirk Mountains, the river turns south through a region known as the Big Bend Country, passing through Revelstoke Lake. Revelstoke, the Big Bend, and the Columbia Valley combined are referred to in BC parlance as the Columbia Country. Below the Arrow Lakes, the Columbia passes the cities of Castlegar, located at the Columbias confluence with the Kootenay River, the Pend Oreille River joins the Columbia about 2 miles north of the US–Canada border
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the modern period, furs of boreal, polar. Historically the trade stimulated the exploration and colonization of Siberia, northern North America, today the importance of the fur trade has diminished, it is based on pelts produced at fur farms and regulated fur-bearer trapping, but has become controversial. Animal rights organizations oppose the fur trade, citing that animals are brutally killed, Fur has been replaced in some clothing by synthetic imitations, for example, as in ruffs on hoods of parkas. Before the European colonization of the Americas, Russia was a supplier of fur pelts to Western Europe. Its trade developed in the Early Middle Ages, first through exchanges at posts around the Baltic, the main trading market destination was the German city of Leipzig. Originally, Russia exported raw furs, consisting in most cases of the pelts of martens, wolves, foxes and hares.
Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Russians began to settle in Siberia, in a search for the prized sea otter pelts, first used in China, and for the northern fur seal, the Russian Empire expanded into North America, notably Alaska. From the 17th through the half of the 19th century. The fur trade played a role in the development of Siberia, the Russian Far East. As recognition of the importance of the trade to the Siberian economy, the sable is a symbol of the Ural Sverdlovsk Oblast. Fur was relied on to make clothing, a critical consideration prior to the organization of coal distribution for heating. Portugal and Spain played major roles in fur trading after the 15th century with their business in fur hats and they began by establishing trading posts along the Volga and Vychegda river networks and requiring the Komi people to give them furs as tribute. Novgorod, the chief fur-trade center prospered as the easternmost trading post of the Hanseatic League, Novgorodians expanded farther east and north, coming into contact with the Pechora people of the Pechora River valley and the Yugra people residing near the Urals.
Both of these native tribes offered more resistance than the Komi, as Muscovy gained more power in the 15th century and proceeded in the gathering of the Russian lands, the Muscovite state began to rival the Novgorodians in the North. During the 15th century Moscow began subjugating many native tribes, one strategy involved exploiting antagonisms between tribes, notably the Komi and Yugra, by recruiting men of one tribe to fight in an army against the other tribe. Campaigns against native tribes in Siberia remained insignificant until they began on a larger scale in 1483 and 1499. Besides the Novgorodians and the indigenes, Muscovites had to contend with the various Muslim Tatar khanates to the east of Muscovy, at this point the phrase ruler of Obdor and all Siberian lands became part of the title of the Tsar in Moscow
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway
The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway was a historical Canadian transcontinental railway running from Winnipeg to the Pacific coast at Prince Rupert, British Columbia. The entire line was managed and operated by Grand Trunk Railway, the CPR and CNoR both ran southern routes along the Canada–US border in order to serve existing markets as well as US shipping. GTR had been approached on several occasions to build the original Canadian Pacific Survey route through Yellowhead Pass, Construction began in 1905 and was completed by 1913. In 1918, CNoR failed and was nationalized as the Canadian National Railways, a number of GTP subdivisions remain in use as part of the CN mainlines, while others have been abandoned and lifted starting in the 1980s. At the beginning of the 20th century, the GTR planned a second Canadian transcontinental rail route with a terminal on the Pacific that would be nearer to Asia than Vancouver. It would follow one of the routes surveyed by Sandford Fleming from Winnipeg to Port Simpson at the end of the Portland Canal which formed part of the boundary between British Columbia and Alaska.
In 1903 there was resentment in Canada over the Alaska boundary decision which favoured US interests after a British commissioner sided with them, as a result of the clamour in Canada, US President Theodore Roosevelt threatened to send an occupation force to nearby territory. Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier considered a new location at Prince Rupert would be easily defended and decided to build the terminal there rather than at Port Simpson. Turning of the first sod for the construction of the GTPR, took place at a ceremony, September 11,1905, at Fort William, Ontario. From there a 190-mile section of track was built by the Grand Trunk Pacific Construction Company, connecting with the NTR, from the onset of construction, the GTPR had a variety of socio-economic issues. The GTPR never met the expectations set forth by the Grand Trunk Railway. Construction began on the Canadian Prairies in 1905, the year that the provinces of Alberta, Construction proceeded west to Saskatoon, Saskatchewan in 1907, Alberta in 1909, and through Jasper, Alberta into Yellowhead Pass crossing the Continental Divide in 1910-1911.
In 1910, the company built a dock in Seattle, the Grand Trunk Pacific dock. On July 30,1914, the dock was destroyed by fire, the GTPR did not immediately realize the traffic potential GTR and the federal government had hoped. GTR did not have a marketing plan, and efforts at settlement were disrupted by the First World War. GTR rejected operating the NTR for cost reasons, forcing the government to assume that operation into Canadian Government Railways. By 1919 it was obvious that the GTPR was not paying its way, on July 12,1920 the GTPR was placed under the management of Crown corporation Canadian National Railways and in 1923 was completely absorbed into the CNR. The chateau-style hotels of the early 20th century remain iconic Canadian symbols, after the nationalization, this tradition continued with construction of The Bessborough Hotel in Saskatoon
Edmonton /ˈɛdməntən/ is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Capital Region, the city anchors the north end of what Statistics Canada defines as the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The city had a population of 932,546 in 2016, making it Albertas second-largest city, in 2016, Edmonton had a metropolitan population of 1,321,426, making it the sixth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Edmonton is North Americas northernmost city with a population over one million. A resident of Edmonton is known as an Edmontonian, Edmontons historic growth has been facilitated through the absorption of five adjacent urban municipalities and a series of annexations ending in 1982. Known as the Gateway to the North, the city is a point for large-scale oil sands projects occurring in northern Alberta. Edmonton is a cultural and educational centre and it hosts a year-round slate of festivals, reflected in the nickname Canadas Festival City.
It is home to North Americas largest mall, West Edmonton Mall, in 1754, Anthony Henday, an explorer for the Hudsons Bay Company, may have been the first European to enter the Edmonton area. By 1795, Fort Edmonton was established on the north bank as a major trading post for the Hudsons Bay Company. The new forts name was suggested by John Peter Pruden after Edmonton, the home town of both the HBC deputy governor Sir James Winter Lake, and Pruden. In 1876, Treaty 6, which includes what is now Edmonton, was signed between the Aboriginal peoples in Canada and Queen Victoria as Queen of Canada, as part of the Numbered Treaties of Canada. The agreement includes the Plains and Woods Cree and other governments of First Nations at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt. The area covered by the treaty represents most of the area of the current provinces of Saskatchewan. The arrival of the CPR and the C&E Railway helped bring settlers and entrepreneurs from eastern Canada, Europe, U. S. the Edmonton areas fertile soil and cheap land attracted settlers, further establishing Edmonton as a major regional commercial and agricultural centre.
Some people participating in the Klondike Gold Rush passed through South Edmonton/Strathcona in 1897, in November 1905, the Canadian Northern Railway arrived in Edmonton, accelerating growth. During the early 1900s, Edmontons rapid growth led to speculation in real estate, in 1912, Edmonton amalgamated with the City of Strathcona, south of the North Saskatchewan River, as a result, the city extended south of the North Saskatchewan River for the first time. Just prior to World War I, the boom ended, many impoverished families moved to subsistence farms outside the city, while others fled to greener pastures in other provinces. Recruitment to the Canadian army during the war contributed to the drop in population