Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States. It originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles.
New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation. In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound.
In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay. Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz; the origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasm, a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy"; the earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it". The use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune, its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z'.
It wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies." The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the 20th Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician".
In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz". A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations.
These work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational. Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment; the classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product
Rumer Hill Junction was a canal junction on the Cannock Extension Canal where the Churchbridge Branch left to join the Hatherton Canal. The junction, along with the northern section of the canal was abandoned in 1963; the Churchbridge Branch and Rumer Hill Junction were subsequently obliterated by opencast mining. Following the amalgamation of the Birmingham Canal Navigations and the Wyrley and Essington Canal in April 1840, the company had constructed a number of extensions to their system, as they had proved to be profitable, a further programme was begun in 1854. Included in this batch was the Cannock Extension Canal, to run from Pelsall Junction on the Wyrley and Essington to Hednesford, where there were coal mines; the canal was opened from Pelsall Junction to Rumer Hill Junction in 1858, completed to Hednesford Basin in 1863. At the start of the extension programme, the Birmingham Canal Navigations and the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal agreed to build a link between the Cannock Extension Canal and the Hatherton Branch of the Staffordshire and Worcestershire.
It reached Churchbridge, the connecting link only required a flight of thirteen locks to accommodate the difference in levels. The land on which the link would be built was purchased jointly by the two companies, but the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal seems to have funded the actual construction; the locks were built in 1858 and 1859, but were not used until the opening of the Cannock Extension Canal in 1863. Through much of its life, the junction was busy, with around 12,000 tons per month passing through it and down the locks in 1902; the date when the Hatherton Branch and the Churchbridge locks ceased to be used is given as 1949 by Hadfield and 1953 by Shill, but in either case, the junction closed around this time. By 1958, a concrete barrier had been built at the top lock of the Churchbridge flight, to prevent loss of water through the locks; the Cannock Extension Canal was affected by subsidence from the coal mines it served, the northern section, including Rumer Hill Junction, closed in 1963.
The junction and the surrounding canal were destroyed by subsequent open-cast coal mining. Whilst restoration of the Hatherton Canal is proposed, the restored canal was planned to join the Cannock Extension Canal further south, at Grove Basin, there were no proposals to restore any of the canals leading to the junction. Subsequent objections to the revised route have resulted in a second new route being planned, which connects to the Lord Hayes Branch of the Wyrley and Essington Canal, rather than the Cannock Extension Canal. Rumer Hill Junction was situated about halfway along the 4.1-mile section of the Cannock Extension Canal, abandoned in 1963, so was about 2 miles from Hednesford Basin, 3.6 miles from Pelsall Junction. The canal was level in both directions, as it was all built on the 473-foot Wolverhampton Level of the Birmingham Canal system; the locks of the Churchbridge flight started after the junction. The flight headed to the south-west, while the Extension Canal ran from the north-west to the south-east at this point.
Washbrook Lane crossed the Extension Canal just to the south of the junction at High Bridge, just beyond, Leacroft Wharf, its entrance crossed by a towpath bridge. It served the Cannock and Leacroft Colliery, to which it was connected by a short tramway, which ran through a tunnel as it left the wharf in 1902; the tunnel had been opened out by 1918. By the time the 1957/1962 map was published, the tramway had been dismantled, Leacroft Wharf was disused, Washbrook Lane had been destroyed to the south of the canal, only the top lock of the Churchbridge flight remained. Canals of the United Kingdom History of the British canal system
In June 2014, England played a three test series against New Zealand as part of the 2014 mid-year rugby union tests. They played the All Blacks across the three weeks that the June International window is allocated to; the series was part of the second year of the global rugby calendar established by the International Rugby Board, which runs through to 2019. In addition to the test series, England played Super Rugby side Crusaders, in a mid-week uncapped match ahead of the third test in Hamilton, they played the Barbarians at Twickenham, for their annual meeting at the stadium before the tour. New Zealand won. Note: Caps and ages are to 7 June, pre first test. On 26 May, Stuart Lancaster named two squads. A 23-man squad for the annual uncapped match against the Barbarians, coached by Jon Callard and Joe Lydon, a 30-man squad for their test series against New Zealand; this squad did not feature any players from Saracens or Northampton Saints due to the 2013–14 Aviva Premiership final. Following the final, Lancaster named an additional squad to join the team ahead of the second test against New Zealand.
On 27 May, prop Nathan Catt was added to the touring squad to New Zealand due to fitness concerns over other props. Fraser Balmain replaced Catt for the Barbarians match. On 2 June, Lancaster added an additional 16 players to the touring squad. 15 of which were call-ups, while 1, Kyle Sinckler, was promoted from the England XV side after the Barbarians match. On 13 June, Michael Paterson was added to the touring squad to cover the second row ahead of the uncapped match against the Crusaders. Head Coach: Stuart LancasterNote: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby