A jazz club is a venue where the primary entertainment is the performance of live jazz music, although some jazz clubs focus on the study and/or promotion of jazz-music. Jazz clubs are a type of nightclub or bar, licensed to sell alcoholic beverages. Jazz clubs were in large rooms in the eras of Orchestral jazz and big band jazz, when bands were large and augmented by a string section. Large rooms were more common in the Swing era, because at that time, jazz was popular as a dance music, so the dancers needed space to move. With the transition to 1940s-era styles like Bebop and styles such as soul jazz, small combos of musicians such as quartets and trios were used, the music became more of a music to listen to, rather than a form of dance music; as a result, smaller clubs with small stages became practical. In the 2000s, jazz clubs may be found in the basements of larger residential buildings, in storefront locations or in the upper floors of retail businesses, they can be rather small compared to other music venues, such as rock music clubs, reflecting the intimate atmosphere of jazz shows and long-term decline in popular interest in jazz.
Despite being called "clubs", these venues are not exclusive. Some clubs, have a cover charge if a live band is playing; some jazz clubs host "jam sessions" on early evenings of the week. At jam sessions, both professional musicians and advanced amateurs will share the stage. In the 19th century, before the birth of jazz, popular forms of live music for most well-to-do white Americans included classical concert music, such as concerti and symphonies, music played at performances, such as the opera and the ballet, ballroom music. For these people, going out was a formal occasion, the music was treated as something to listen to, or dance reservedly to. During the same century, African-American communities were marginalized from an economic perspective, but despite this lack of material wealth, they had thriving community and a culture based around informal music performances, such as brass band performances at funerals, music sung in church and music played for families eating picnics in parks.
African-American culture developed communal activities for informal sharing, such as Saturday night fish fries, Sunday camping along the shores of Lake Pontchartrain at Milneburg and Bucktown, making red beans and rice banquettes on Mondays, holding nightly dances at neighborhood halls all over town. This long and deep commitment to music and dance, along with the mixing of musical traditions like spiritual music from the church, the blues carried into town by rural guitar slingers, the minstrel shows inspired by plantation life, the beat and cadence of military marching bands and the syncopation of the ragtime piano, led to the creation of a new way to listen to live music. In the jazz history books, places such as New Orleans, Harlem, Kansas City, U Street in Washington D. C. and the Central Avenue zone of Los Angeles are cited as the key nurturing places of jazz. The African musical traditions made use of a single-line melody and call-and-response pattern, the rhythms have a counter-metric structure and reflect African speech patterns.
Lavish festivals featuring African-based dances to drums were organized on Sundays at Place Congo, or Congo Square, in New Orleans until 1843. Another influence on black music came from the style of hymns of the church, which black slaves had learned and incorporated into their own music as spirituals. During the early 19th century an increasing number of black musicians learned to play European instruments; the "Black Codes" outlawed drumming by slaves, which meant that African drumming traditions were not preserved in North America, unlike in Cuba and elsewhere in the Caribbean. African-based rhythmic patterns were retained in the United States in large part through "body rhythms" such as stomping and patting juba. In the post-Civil War period, African Americans were able to obtain surplus military bass drums, snare drums and fifes, an original African-American drum and fife music emerged, featuring tresillo and related syncopated rhythmic figures; the abolition of slavery in 1865 led to new opportunities for the education of freed African Americans.
Although strict segregation limited employment opportunities for most blacks, many were able to find work in entertainment. Black musicians were able to provide entertainment in dances, minstrel shows, in vaudeville, during which time many marching bands were formed. Black pianists played in bars and brothels, as ragtime developed. Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre, which originated in African-American communities of the "Deep South" of the United States at the end of the 19th century from their spirituals, work songs, field hollers and chants and rhymed simple narrative ballads; the music of New Orleans had a profound effect on the creation of early jazz. Many early jazz performers played in venues throughout the city, such as the brothels and bars of the red-light district around Basin Street, known as "Storyville". In addition to dance bands, there were numerous marching bands who played at lavish funerals, which were arranged by the African-American and European American communities.
The instruments used in marching bands and dance bands became the basic instruments of jazz. Despite its growing popularity, not all who lived in the Jazz Age were keen on the sound of jazz music, of jazz clubs. By the advent of the 20th century, campaigns to censor the "devil's music" started to appear, prohibiting when and where jazz clubs could be built. For example
Thomas Henry Jones OAM was a retired Australian politician and trade union leader. He served the Labor Party as member for Collie from 1968 until his retirement in 1989. Jones was born in Western Australia, he worked as a call boy with the railways at the beginning of his career after moving to Collie in 1929. In 1947 he joined the coal mining industry and in 1951 was elected General Secretary of the Coal Miners Industrial Union - the youngest person elected to that position, he served as Secretary of the Collie Coal Miners Combined Union. Tom Jones was responsible as an industrial advocate for winning the 35-hour week as an Award Condition for Australian workers. Jones was elected as member for Collie-Wellington in 1968 and served as the Labor Member for 21 years, his retirement in 1989 saw. During his parliamentary career he was active in the policies of Government for the coal mining industry, he was Chairman of the State Parliamentary Party during the period of the John Tonkin Government. In 1974, with the Labor Party in Opposition, he was a member of the Tonkin Shadow Ministry.
Jones holds the Medal of the Order of Australia, granted for his service as a member of the Western Australian Legislative Assembly, for his service to the trade union movement and the welfare of the elderly. Tonkin Ministry Tonkin shadow ministry
James Frederick Sangala was a founding member of the Nyasaland African Congress during the period of British colonial rule. Sangala was given the nickname "Pyagusi", which means "one who perseveres". Sangala was born in a village in the highlands of what is now southern Malawi, near the Domasi Presbyterian Mission, around 1900, a few years after the British had established the British Central Africa Protectorate, he completed Standard VI at school in Blantyre in about 1921 and for at least the next five years taught at Domasi. Thereafter, until around 1930, he earned between 30/- and 75/- a month working for a succession of businessmen as clerk, book-keeper and capitao. From 1930 until around 1942 he held clerical positions assisting successive Provincial and District Commissioners in the colonial administration. In 1942, he became an interpreter at the High Court, he retired to earn his living with a brick-making business. In the 1930s, Sangala became a leader of the Native Association movement in Nyasaland, encouraging the formation of local representative groups.
In 1943 he was a founder and the acting secretary of the Nyasaland African Congress, which sought to give a unified voice to the local associations and to press for greater rights for Africans. From 1954 to 1956 he was president of the Congress, but was persuaded to resign to make way for more radical members who were seeking full independence. Despite his moderate stand, Sangala was arrested for his activities more than once in the 1950s. Renamed the Malawi Congress Party, the NAC was to win all the seats in the 1961 Nyasaland elections, to lead the country to self-governance in 1963 and full independence as the state of Malawi in 1964. James Frederick Sangala was born around 1900 at Naisi, near the town of Zomba in the highlands of what is now southern Malawi. Zomba was the residence of the colonial governor and the administrative center of the British Central Africa Protectorate, renamed Nyasaland in 1907. Sangala was a Mang'anja, his mother was a herbalist. Sangala was educated at Zomba Mission primary school and at Blantyre Mission substation at Domasi.
He qualified as a teacher in 1923 and taught primary school until 1927. In search of higher wages, Sangala obtained work with Limbe Trading Company in 1927 as a cotton buyer with the British Cotton Growing Association and next as a bookkeeper for M. G. Dharap, an Indian businessman in Limbe. In March 1928 he started work for the African Lakes Corporation, in May 1929 returned to the BGGA as an office manager. Dissatisfied with the working conditions for Africans in businesses, Sangala joined the civil service in April 1930 as a clerk in the office of the Provincial Commissioner in Blantyre, he worked for the Blantyre District Commissioner and the Blantyre District Medical Office until July 1942. His work involved other forms of assistance to the commissioner. In July 1942, Sangala transferred to the Judicial Department of the civil service in Blantyre as an interpreter, he was moved to the Dedza District Office in his view because of his political activities. In 1947 he returned to the Blantyre District Office, but retired in the early 1950s so he could spend more time on politics, receiving a small government pension and running a brick manufacturing business as his main source of income.
The North Nyasa Native Association was formed in 1912, was followed by several other such associations in the early part of the century composed of the educated elite: teachers, church leaders and civil servants. The Native Associations sought to gain a voice in administrative and other issues, they met some resistance from tribal leaders, but on the whole were encouraged by the colonial administrations. Their emphasis was national rather than tribal. Meetings were attended by representatives of other associations, helping them exchange views on issues and approaches. James Frederick Sangala in Blantyre and Levi Mumba in the rest of the country became leaders of the Native Association movement in Nyasaland during the 1930s. Sangala and Mumba both believed in the importance of Nyasa unity and in the virtues of democratic civil society. During the 1930s, the white colonists of Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia were pushing for unification, wanted to include Nyasaland in the union, seeing Nyasaland as a useful source of labor that might otherwise be drawn to South Africa.
Nyasas resisted this move since they regarded the Rhodesias as "White Man" territory, preferred the trusteeship arrangement in Nyasaland under which they had greater rights. As early as 1935, the Blantyre Native Association led by Sangala called a meeting of leaders in the area where they were invited to sign a petition opposing amalgamation; when the colonial administration asked the chiefs for views on unification in 1938, the formal statement in reply was in fact composed by Mumba. The Nyasaland Educated African Council emerged in 1943 from the leaders of the Native Associations, calling for a rapid movement towards self-government. A few months the Council renamed itself the Nyasaland African Congress at the urging of Sangala, who felt the movement should not be restricted to the educated elite. Sangala was acting secretary at the meeting in May 1944, he was unable to attend the formal inaugural meeting of the Congress in October 1944, at which Levi Zililo Mumba was elected President-General, since he had been transferred to Dedza in the Central province, but he was elected to the central committee.
Sangala and their associates had a vision of the NAC becoming "the mouthpiece of the Africans", cooperating with the governmen
Lorna Dee Cervantes is an award-winning Chicana poet and activist, considered one of the greatest figures in Chicano poetry. She has been described by Alurista, as "probably the best Chicana poet active today." Cervantes was born in 1954 in the Mission District of San Francisco, to parents of Mexican and Native American ancestry.. After her parents divorced when she was five, she grew up in San Jose with her mother and brother, she grew up speaking English exclusively. This was enforced by her parents, who allowed only English to be spoken at home by her and her brother; this was to avoid the racism, occurring in her community at that time. This loss of language and a struggle to find her true identity inspired her poetry on in life, she attended Abraham Lincoln High School. She received an Associate Arts degree from San Jose Community College in 1976, a BA in Creative Arts from San Jose State University in 1984, she attended UC Santa Cruz for a PhD History of Consciousness, 1984-88. Her brother, Stephen Cervantes had a job at a local library and she became familiar with Shakespeare, Keats and Byron who would have the most influence on her self-conception as a poet.
By the age of fifteen she had compiled her first collection of poetry. In 1974 she traveled with her brother to Mexico City, who played with the Theater of the People of San Jose at the Quinto Festival de los Teatros Chicanos. At the last moment, Cervantes was asked to participate by reading some of her poetry, she chose to read a portion of "Refugee Ship," a poem that enacts the major dilemma of being Chicanx. This reading received much attention and appeared in a Mexican newspaper, as well as other journals and reviews; the poem was included in her award-winning debut, Emplumada. Cervantes considers herself "a Chicana writer, a feminist writer, a political writer", her collections of poetry include Emplumada, From the Cables of Genocide, Drive: The First Quartet and Ciento: 100 100-Word Love Poems, Sueño: New Poems, are held in high esteem and have attracted numerous nominations and awards. In an interview conducted by Sonia V. Gonzalez, the poet states that through writing and publishing, “I was trying to give back that gift that had saved me when I discovered, African-American women’s poetry.
I was having this vision of some little Chicana in San Antonio going, scanning the shelves, like I used to do, scanning the shelves for women’s names, or Spanish surnames, hoping she’ll pull it out, relate to it. So it was intentionally accessible poetry, intended to bridge that gap, that literacy gap.” Cervantes was involved in the publication of numerous Chicana/o writers from the 1970s onwards when she produced her own Chicana/o literary journal, MANGO "which was the first to publish Sandra Cisneros, Jimmy Santiago Baca, Alberto Rios, Ray Gonzalez, Ronnie Burk, Orlando Ramírez. Cervantes and MANGO championed the early work of writers Gary Soto, José Montoya, José Montalvo, José Antonio Burciaga, her personal favourite, Luís Omar Salinas"Cervantes has delivered poetry readings and guest lectures across the US, she was part of the Librotraficante Movement. The 2012 Librotraficante Caravan to Tucson was intended to smuggle books back into the hands of students, after they were boxed up and carted out of class rooms during class time, in order to comply with Arizona House Bill 2281.
Cervantes delivered a moving speech to the Movement's supporters outside of the Alamo in March 2012. The poet was one of seven featured writers to give a reading at the American Literature Association Conference held in San Francisco in May 2012. Ciento: 100 100 Word Love Poems was nominated for a Northern California Book Award in 2012 under the poetry category, her fifth collection, Sueño, published in 2013 was shortlisted for the Latin American Book Award in poetry in 2014. A European launch of the collection was hosted by University College Cork, Ireland in June 2014 as part of a symposium on Pathways, Approaches in Mexican and Mexican American Studies. Instructor: UC Santa Cruz, August 1985 - May 1986 Associate Professor of English: University of Colorado at Boulder, August 1988 - August 2007 Visiting Scholar: University of Houston, 1994 - 1995 Ethnic Studies Lecturer: San Francisco State University, 2006 - 2007 Independent Scholar: Poet, San Francisco Bay Area, 2007–Present UC Regents Lecturer: UC Berkeley August 2011 – 2012 Cervantes has presented over 500 poetry readings and performances (Yale, Harvard, Vassar, Mt. Holyoke, Brown, Cornell.
Sueño: New Poems SA, TX: Wings Press, 2013. Ciento: 100 100-Word Love Poems SA, TX: Wings Press, 2011. SA, TX: Wings Press, 2006. From the Cables of Genocide: Poems on Love and Hunger Emplumada. Red Dirt, a cross-cultural poetry journal Mango, a literary review Unsettling America: An Anthology of Contemporary Multicultural Poetry No More Masks! An Anthology of Twentieth-Century Women Poets After Aztlan: Latino Poets of the Nineties. Patterson Prize For Poetry Battrick Award For Poetry Latino Book Award Latin American Book Award Denver Book Award Pushcart Prize California Arts Council Grant for Poetry Hudson D. Walker Fellowship Award at The Fine Arts Work Center Colorado Poet Laureate Vassar Visiting Writers Award Mexican-American Studies Center Visiting Scholar Award The National Association for Chicana and Chicano Studies Scholar
Kerch Polytechnic College is a higher education institution in Kerch, Crimea. It trains personnel in 16 specialties, about 300 students enroll for first-year studies at the college annually, it was established in 1930 as Kerch Mining and Smelting Tekhnikum to support the Kamysh-Burun Iron Ore Plant and the Voykov Metals Factory. Having trained about a thousand graduates by the time of the German invasion in 1941, the tekhnikum was evacuated to the Urals to return to Kerch in 1945. Thereafter, it produced various specialists to work in metallurgical regions of Ukraine and at the Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy of the USSR, remaining the sole special secondary educational institution in the city until 1952; the tekhnikum changed its profile and became a polytechnic in 1990. In 2011, it has been reorganized into Kerch Polytechnic College of the National University of Food Technologies. Shortly after the annexation of Crimea by Russia, the college was nationalized under Order of the State Council of Crimea on 11 April 2014.
On 7 April 2015, the Museum of Battle Glory was opened at the college on the initiative of its tutor Vitaly Nekrasov. The Kerch Tekhnikum of Service Industry was merged with Kerch Polytechnic College in 2016. On 17 October 2018, it was the site of the Kerch Polytechnic College massacre, in which 20 people were killed and 70 injured; the perpetrator committed suicide at the scene. Anatoly Kokorin – Hero of the Soviet Union, junior lieutenant. Ivan Gerashchenko – Hero of the Soviet Union, sergeant. Kerch Polytechnic College on VK Kerch Polytechnic College's channel on YouTube
Joe Z. Tsien is a neuroscientist who pioneered Cre/lox-neurogenetics in the mid-1990s, a versatile toolbox for neuroscientists to study the complex relationships between genes, neural circuits, behaviors, he is known as the creator of the smart mouse Doogie in the late 1990s while being a faculty member at Princeton University. He developed the Theory of Connectivity in an effort to explain the origin of intelligence, or the basic design principle underlying brain computation and intelligence; the theory states that brain computation is organized by a power-of-two-based permutation logic in constructing cell assemblies - the basic building blocks of neural circuits. The theory has received initial validation from experiments; the discovery of this basic computational logic of the brain can have important implications for the development of artificial general intelligence. Tsien earned his A. B. in Biology/Physiology from East China Normal University in Shanghai and his Ph. D. in Molecular Biology from the University of Minnesota in 1990.
He completed two postdoctoral fellowships with two Nobel laureates, Dr. Eric Kandel at Columbia University and Dr. Susumu Tonegawa at MIT. In 1997, he became a faculty member in the Department of Molecular Biology at Princeton University, he is a Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Cognitive and Systems Neurobiology, professor of Neurology and co-director of the Brain and Behavior Discovery Institute in the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University in Augusta, United States. Tsien leads a team of neuroscientists, computer scientists and mathematicians, working on the BRAIN DECODING project initiated in 2007 by Georgia Research Alliance. Tsien pioneered Cre-loxP-mediated brain subregion- and cell type-specific genetic techniques in 1996, enabling researchers to manipulate or introduce any gene in a specific brain region or a given type of neuron; this transformative technique has led to NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research in launching several Cre-driver Mouse Resource projects.
Over the past 20 years, Cre-lox recombination-mediated neurogenetics has emerged as one of the most powerful and versatile technology platforms for cell-specific gene knockouts, transgenic overexpression, neural circuit tracing, optogenetics, CLARITY, voltage imaging and chemical genetics. Tsien is widely known as the creator of the smart mouse Doogie. While as a faculty at Princeton University, Tsien has speculated that one of the NMDA receptor's subunit may hold the key for superior learning and memory at young ages. Accordingly, his laboratory genetically engineered a transgenic mouse in which they over-expressed the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor in the mouse cortex and hippocampus. In 1999, his team reported that the transgenic mouse, nicknamed Doogie, indeed showed to have enhanced synaptic plasticity and enhanced learning and retention as well as greater flexibility in learning new patterns; the discovery of the NR2B as a key genetic factor for memory enhancement prompted other researchers to discover over two dozen other genes for memory enhancement, many of which regulate the NR2B pathway.
One of the NR2B-based memory-enhancement strategies, via dietary supplements of a brain-penetrating magnesium ion, magnesium L-threonate, is undergoing clinical trials for memory improvement. Tsien has made several other major discoveries, including the unified cell-assembly mechanism for explaining how episodic memory and semantic memory are generated in the memory circuits, his laboratory discovered the nest cells in the mouse brain, revealing how animals recognize the abstract concept of nest or home. Tsien is the first to show that defective Alzheimer's genes impaired adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, revealing the role of adult neurogenesis in memory clearance. In addition, Tsien has developed a method capable of selectively erasing a memory of choice, such as a particular fear memory, in the mouse brain. Tsien demonstrated that the NMDA receptor in the dopamine circuit plays a crucial role in the formation of habit. Tsien is leading a team of neuroscientists, computer scientists and mathematicians, who are working on the Brain Decoding Project, a large-scale brain activity mapping effort, which he and his colleagues have initiated since 2007 with the support from the Georgia Research Alliance.
In 2015, Tsien developed the Theory of Connectivity to explain the design principle upon which evolution and development may construct the brain to be capable of generating intelligence. This theory has made six predictions which have received supportive evidence by a recent set of experiments on both the mouse brain and hamster brain. At its core, the Theory of Connectivity predicts that the cell assemblies in the brain are not random, rather they should conform to the power-of-two-based equation, N = 2i - 1, to form the pre-configured building block termed as the functional connectivity motif. Instead of using a single neuron as the computational unit in some simple brains, the theory denotes that in most brains, a group of neurons exhibiting similar tuning properties, termed as a neural clique, should serve as the basic computing processing unit. Defined by the power-of-two-based equation, N = 2i - 1, each FCM consists of principal-projection neuron cliques, ranging from those specific cliques receiving specific information inputs to those general and sub-general cliques receiving various combinatorial convergent inputs.
As the evolutionarily conserved logic, its validation requires experimental demonstrations of the following three major properties: 1) Anatomical prevalence - FCMs are prevalent across neural circuits, regardless of gross anatomical shapes.