"Tiger Rag" is a jazz standard, recorded and copyrighted by the Original Dixieland Jass Band in 1917. It is one of the most recorded jazz compositions. In 2003, the 1918 recording of "Tiger Rag" was entered into the U. S. Library of Congress National Recording Registry; the song was first recorded on August 17, 1917 by the Original Dixieland Jass Band for Aeolian-Vocalion Records. The band did not use the "Jazz" spelling in its name until 1917; the Aeolian Vocalion sides did not sell well because they were recorded in a vertical format which could not be played on most contemporary phonographs. But the second recording on March 25, 1918 for Victor was a hit and established it as a jazz standard; the song was copyrighted and credited to band members Eddie Edwards, Nick LaRocca, Henry Ragas, Tony Sbarbaro, Larry Shields in 1917. "But before the first recording, several musicians had achieved prominence as leading jazz performers, several numbers of what was to become the standard repertoire had been developed.
"Tiger Rag" and "Oh Didn't He Ramble" were played long before the first jazz recording, the names of Buddy Bolden, Jelly Roll Morton, Bunk Johnson, Papa Celestin, Sidney Bechet, King Oliver, Freddie Keppard, Kid Ory, Papa Laine were well known to the jazz community."Other New Orleans musicians claimed that the song, or at least portions of it, had been a standard in the city before it was recorded. Others copyrighted the melody or close variations of it, including Ray Lopez under the title "Weary Weasel" and Johnny De Droit under the title "Number Two Blues". Members of Papa Jack Laine's band said song was known in New Orleans as "Number Two" before the Dixieland Jass Band copyrighted it. In one interview, Laine said. In his book Jazz: A History, Frank Tirro states, "Morton claims credit for transforming a French quadrille, performed in different meters into "Tiger Rag". According to writer Samuel Charters, "Tiger Rag" was worked out by the Jack Carey Band, the group which developed many of the standard tunes that were recorded by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band.
The song was known as "Jack Carey" by the black musicians of the city and as "Nigger # 2" by the white. It was compiled when Jack's brother Thomas,'Papa Mutt', pulled the first strain from a book of quadrilles; the band evolved the second and third strains in order to show off the clarinetist, George Boyd, the final strain was worked out by Jack, a trombonist, the cornet player, Punch Miller." After the success of the Original Dixieland Jass Band recordings, the song gained national popularity. Dance band and march orchestrations were published for bands. Hundreds of recordings appeared through the 1920s; these include the New Orleans Rhythm Kings version with a clarinet solo by Leon Roppolo. Archaeologist Sylvanus Morley played it on his wind up phonograph while exploring the ruins of Chichen Itza in the 1920s. With the arrival of sound films, it appeared on soundtracks to movies and cartoons when energetic music was needed. "Tiger Rag" had over 136 versions by 1942. Musicians who played it included Art Tatum, Benny Goodman, Frank Sinatra, Duke Ellington, Bix Beiderbecke, Louis Armstrong, who released the song at least three times as a 78 single, twice for Okeh in 1930 and 1932, for the French arm of Brunswick in 1934.
A Japanese version was recorded in 1935 by the Columbia Rhythm Boys. The Mills Brothers became a national sensation with their million-selling version in 1931. In the same year the Washboard Rhythm Kings released a version, cited as an influence on rock and roll. During the early 1930s "Tiger Rag" became a standard showoff piece for big band arrangers and soloists in England, where Bert Ambrose, Jack Hylton, Lew Stone, Billy Cotton, Jack Payne, Ray Noble recorded it, but the song declined in popularity during the swing era, as it had become something of a cliché. Les Paul and Mary Ford had a hit version in 1952. Charlie Parker recorded a bebop version in 1954, the same year it appeared in the MGM cartoon Dixieland Droopy. In 2002 it was entered into the National Recording Registry at the U. S. Library of Congress, it is the 32nd most recorded song from 1890 to 1954 based on Joel Whitburn's research for Billboard. "Tiger Rag" is used as a fight song by American high school and college teams which have a tiger for a mascot.
"Tiger Rag" is LSU's pregame song, first introduced in 1926. The Louisiana State University Tiger Marching Band performs it on the field before every home game and after the Tigers score a touchdown; the University of Texas at Dallas adopted "Tiger Rag" as its first official fight song in 2008. The Massillon Tiger Swing Band of Massillon, Ohio began playing "Tiger Rag" at Massillon Washington High School Tigers football games in 1938 when the team was coached by Paul Brown, it has been a Tiger tradition in Massillon since."Tiger Rag" – "The Song That Shakes the Southland" – is Clemson University's familiar fight song since 1942 and is performed at Tiger sporting events, pep rallies, parades. A version has been arranged for the carillon on Clemson's campus, it has been played by Dixieland bands at Detroit Tigers home games and was popular during the 1934 and 1935 World Series. The ODJB's 1917 composition "Tiger Rag" became a jazz standard, covered by Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Charlie Parker, Ted Lewis, Joe Jackson, the Mills Brothers.
Louis Armstrong – Louis Armstrong in Scandinavia Vol. 4, January 16, 1959 Louis Armstrong – New York, May 4, 1930 The Beatles – Get Back/Let It Be sessions, 1969 Bix Beiderbecke – Richmond, June 20, 1924 Duke Ellington
Back Home Again in Indiana
" Indiana" is a song composed by James F. Hanley with lyrics by Ballard MacDonald, published in January 1917. Although it is not the state song of Indiana, it is the best-known song that pays tribute to the Hoosier state; the tune was introduced as a Tin Pan Alley pop song of the time. It contains a musical quotation from the well known "On the Banks of the Wabash, Far Away", as well as repetition of words from the lyrics: candlelight, fields, new-mown hay and the Wabash River. Since 1946, "Back Home Again in Indiana" has been performed during pre-race ceremonies before the Indianapolis 500. From 1972 to 2014, the song was performed most by Jim Nabors, he admitted to having the song's lyrics written on his hand during his inaugural performance, his versions altered several of the words. The vocals are supported by the Purdue All-American Marching Band. In 2014, Nabors performed the song for the final time after announcing his retirement earlier that year, saying: "You know, there's a time in life when you have to move on.
I'll be 84 this year. I just figured it was time... This is the highlight of my year to come here. It's sad for me, but there's something inside of me that tells me when it's time to go." After Nabors retired, the honor of singing the song was done on a rotating basis in 2015 and 2016. A cappella group Straight No Chaser performed in 2015 and the Spring 2014 winner of The Voice US Josh Kaufman performed in 2016; the Speedway has returned to a standard singer starting in 2017, with Jim Cornelison doing it for two races as of the 2018 race. In 1917 it was one of the current pop tunes selected by Columbia Records to be recorded by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band, who released it as a 78 with "Darktown Strutters' Ball"; this lively instrumental version by the ODJB was one of the earliest jazz records issued and sold well. The tune became a jazz standard. For years, Louis Armstrong and his All Stars would open every public performance with the number, its chord changes undergird the Miles Davis composition "Donna Lee", one of jazz's best known contrafacts, a composition that lays a new melody over an existing harmonic structure.
Lesser known contrafacts of Indiana include Fats Navarro's "Ice Freezes Red" and Lennie Tristano's "Ju-Ju". In 1934, Joe Young, Jean Schwartz, Joe Ager wrote "In a Little Red Barn", which not only incorporated all the same key words and phrases above, but whose chorus had the same harmonic structure as "Indiana". In this respect it was a contrafact of the latter. Assuming that the 1917 sheet music, published by Shapiro, Bernstein, & Co. Inc. is an accurate representation of the composer's work, an analysis of the notes gives the following chord changes for the chorus: G E7 A7 D7 G G7 | / / / / | / / / / | / / / / | / / / / | C C#dim7 G A7 D7 | / / / / | / / / / | / / / / | / / / / | G E7 A7 D7 D#dim Em Eb7 | / / / / | / / / / | / / / / | / / / / | G B7 Em C#7sus4 G D9 G | / / / / | / / / / | / / / / | / / / / || Roman numeral analysis of the chorus produces the following: | I VI7 | V7/V | V7 | I V7/IV | | IV #IVdim7 | I | V7/V | V7 | | I VI7 | V7/V | V7 #Vdim | vi bVI7 | | I V7/vi | vi #IV7sus4 | I V9 | I | In a version from the same publishers, the music engraving is the same, but chords and tablature notation were added.
Several chords can be observed to have been incorrectly identified. On beat four of measure five, the chord is identified as G dim, but the notes are C#, Bb, E. Since there is no G in the music and the doubling of the C# suggests that note as the root, it is a C# dim7 in name, acts as a type of altered IV chord. Since it sits on beat four of a IV chord measure, it is acting as a passing chord to the I chord of measure 2. Measure 11 of the chorus is notated with an Adim on beat 4, but with a D# doubled in the bass in the sheet music, it is more notated as D#dim, they have the same notes, this leaves the cord as an altered V chord, with D# as the root, which allows the bass line to move chromatically from D7 up to Em. Measure 12 of the chorus ends with an Eb7, which agrees with the notes on the page, but it is worth noting as an altered VI chord, carrying the bass line back down 1/2 step to the enharmonic version of the D# used on the way up from D to E. In the second A section of the chorus, measures 14 and 15 are notated with Em, Edim, G, D9.
Edim would have E G A#, but the notes in the sheet music are C doubled in the left hand, indicating a C root, B and F# in the right hand. Thus, it cannot be Edim at all; the closest chord with those notes is C#7sus4, which has one added note, the G#. Since the root, 4th and 7th are the defining notes, it would be easy to leave out the fifth, which would be implied in the overtones of the root, anyway; this is a slight variation from the vi II V7 I progression one might expect in a 32 bar song With the E in the right hand in measure 15, the D chord is a 9th, not a 7th as indicated in the publication. Original Dixieland Jazz Band, 1917 Eddie Condon with Frank Teschemacher and Gene Krupa, 1928 Red Nichols, 1929 Casa Loma Orchestra, 1932 Chu Berry with Hot Lips Page, 1937 Lester Young with Nat King Cole, 1942 Lester Young with Count Basie, 1944 Bud Powell, 1947 Louis Armstrong, An Evening with Louis Armstrong at Pasadena Civic Auditorium, 1951 Richard "Groove" Holmes, On Basie's
Vaudeville is a theatrical genre of variety entertainment born in France at the end of the 18th century. A vaudeville was a comedy without psychological or moral intentions, based on a comical situation: a kind of dramatic composition or light poetry, interspersed with songs or ballets, it became popular in the United States and Canada from the early 1880s until the early 1930s, but the idea of vaudeville's theatre changed radically from its French antecedent. In some ways analogous to music hall from Victorian Britain, a typical American vaudeville performance was made up of a series of separate, unrelated acts grouped together on a common bill. Types of acts have included popular and classical musicians, dancers, trained animals, ventriloquists, strongmen and male impersonators, illustrated songs, one-act plays or scenes from plays, lecturing celebrities and movies. A vaudeville performer is referred to as a "vaudevillian". Vaudeville developed from many sources including the concert saloon, freak shows, dime museums, literary American burlesque.
Called "the heart of American show business", vaudeville was one of the most popular types of entertainment in North America for several decades. The origin of the term is obscure, but is explained as being derived from the French expression voix de ville. A second speculation is that it comes from the 15th-century songs on satire by poet Olivier Basselin, "Vaux de Vire". In his Connections television series, science historian James Burke argues that the term is a corruption of the French "Vau de Vire", an area known for its bawdy drinking songs and where Basselin lived. Some, preferred the earlier term "variety" to what manager Tony Pastor called its "sissy and Frenchified" successor. Thus, vaudeville was marketed as "variety" well into the 20th century. With its first subtle appearances within the early 1860s, vaudeville was not a common form of entertainment; the form evolved from the concert saloon and variety hall into its mature form throughout the 1870s and 1880s. This more gentle form was known as "Polite Vaudeville".
In the years before the American Civil War, entertainment existed on a different scale. Variety theatre existed before 1860 in Europe and elsewhere. In the US, as early as the first decades of the 19th century, theatregoers could enjoy a performance consisting of Shakespeare plays, singing and comedy; as the years progressed, people seeking diversified amusement found an increasing number of ways to be entertained. Vaudeville was characterized by traveling companies touring through towns. A handful of circuses toured the country. In the 1840s, the minstrel show, another type of variety performance, "the first emanation of a pervasive and purely American mass culture", grew to enormous popularity and formed what Nick Tosches called "the heart of 19th-century show business". A significant influence came from Dutch minstrels and comedians. Medicine shows traveled the countryside offering programs of comedy, music and other novelties along with displays of tonics and miracle elixirs, while "Wild West" shows provided romantic vistas of the disappearing frontier, complete with trick riding and drama.
Vaudeville incorporated these various itinerant amusements into a stable, institutionalized form centered in America's growing urban hubs. In the early 1880s, impresario Tony Pastor, a circus ringmaster turned theatre manager, capitalized on middle class sensibilities and spending power when he began to feature "polite" variety programs in several of his New York City theatres; the usual date given for the "birth" of vaudeville is October 24, 1881 at New York's Fourteenth Street Theatre, when Pastor famously staged the first bill of self-proclaimed "clean" vaudeville in New York City. Hoping to draw a potential audience from female and family-based shopping traffic uptown, Pastor barred the sale of liquor in his theatres, eliminated bawdy material from his shows, offered gifts of coal and hams to attendees. Pastor's experiment proved successful, other managers soon followed suit. B. F. Keith took the next step, starting in Boston, where he built an empire of theatres and brought vaudeville to the US and Canada.
E. F. Albee, adoptive grandfather of the Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Edward Albee, managed the chain to its greatest success. Circuits such as those managed by Keith-Albee provided vaudeville's greatest economic innovation and the principal source of its industrial strength, they enabled a chain of allied vaudeville houses that remedied the chaos of the single-theatre booking system by contracting acts for regional and national tours. These could be lengthened from a few weeks to two years. Albee gave national prominence to vaudeville's trumpeting "polite" entertainment, a commitment to entertainment inoffensive to men and children. Acts that violated this ethos were admonished and threatened with expulsion from the week's remaining performances or were canceled altogether. In spite of such threats, performers flouted this censorship to the delight of the audience members whose sensibilities were supposedly
Darktown Strutters' Ball
"Darktown Strutters' Ball" is a popular song by Shelton Brooks, published in 1917. The song is considered a popular and jazz standard. There are many variations of the title, including "At the Darktown Strutters' Ball", "The Darktown Strutters' Ball", just "Strutters' Ball". Soon after its 1917 publication, "Darktown Strutters' Ball" was included by Sophie Tucker in her Vaudeville routine; the song was recorded on May 9 that year by the Six Brown Brothers. The best-known recording by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band, recorded on May 30, 1917, released by Columbia Records as catalog number A-2297, was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2006. More than three million copies of the sheet music were sold. Original Dixieland Jazz Band; the ODJB recording was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2006. The Six Brown Brothers, a comedic musical ensemble, recorded the song in 1917. American Republic Band Phil Brito Brown & Terry Jazzola Boys Castle Jazz Band Larry Clinton and Orchestra Arthur Collins & Byron G. Harlan Chick Webb recorded a version on January 15, 1934 in New York but was only issued in England on Columbia CB-754.
Boswell Sisters recorded a version on May 23, 1934 in New York but was only issued in Australia on Columbia DO-1255. Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra Arthur Fields Paul Frees recording is featured in the film The Abominable Dr. Phibes, during a murder scene. Connie Haines, Alan Dale, the Ray Bloch Seven, Sy Oliver's Orchestra Phil Harris and his Orchestra Hoosier Hotshots Pee Wee Hunt Martin & Brown Russ Morgan and his Orchestra Ruby Newman and his Orchestra Orlando's Orchestra Preacher Rollo and the Five Saints Gid Tanner's Skillet Lickers Toots' Quartet Fats Waller Deek Watson and the Brown Dots. Ted Mulry Gang had a #3 hit in Australia with a rock'n roll version of "Darktown Strutters Ball" in 1976. Lou Monte recorded "Darktown Strutter's Ball" in 1954; the RCA release was a major hit. He parodies the lyrics, including "I'll be down to get you in a wheelbarrow honey", asks "Are you from Lyndhurst?", the city of his birth. Ray Anthony in Australia on Capitol CP-139, flip side "Deep Night" and in the US as the flip side to the single "Count Every Star".
Joe Brown on Decca F 11207, 1960, flip side "Swagger". Bing Crosby included the song in a medley on his album On the Happy Side. Howard Armstrong adds some explicit lyrics in the movie Louie Bluie. James Gelfand made a version for the Canadian movie Jack Paradise. Alberta Hunter recorded the song on her 1978 comeback album Amtrak Blues. Allen Broome & His Dixieland All-Stars released a version on his debut solo album BucketMouth in June, 2013. Jaudas' Society Orchestra issued a version in 1918 on Edison Records. In addition to the above (and
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Ragtime – spelled rag-time or rag time – is a musical style that enjoyed its peak popularity between 1895 and 1919. Its cardinal trait is "ragged" rhythm; the style has its origins in African-American communities in cities such as St. Louis. Ben Harney, a Kentucky native, has been credited with introducing the music to the mainstream public, his first ragtime composition, "You've Been a Good Old Wagon But You Done Broke Down", helped popularize the style. The composition was published in 1896, a few months after Hogan's "La Pas Ma La". Ragtime was a modification of the march style popularized by John Philip Sousa, with additional polyrhythms coming from African music. Ragtime composer Scott Joplin became famous through the publication of the "Maple Leaf Rag" and a string of ragtime hits such as "The Entertainer", although he was forgotten by all but a small, dedicated community of ragtime aficionados until the major ragtime revival in the early 1970s. For at least 12 years after its publication, "Maple Leaf Rag" influenced subsequent ragtime composers with its melody lines, harmonic progressions or metric patterns.
Ragtime fell out of favor as jazz claimed the public's imagination after 1917, but there have been numerous revivals since the music has been re-discovered. First in the early 1940s, many jazz bands began to include ragtime in their repertoire and put out ragtime recordings on 78 rpm records. A more significant revival occurred in the 1950s as a wider variety of ragtime genres of the past were made available on records, new rags were composed and recorded. In 1971 Joshua Rifkin brought out a compilation of Joplin's work, nominated for a Grammy Award. In 1973 The New England Ragtime Ensemble recorded The Red Back Book, a compilation of some of Joplin's rags in period orchestrations edited by conservatory president Gunther Schuller; this won a Grammy for Best Chamber Music Performance of the year and was named Top Classical Album of 1974 by Billboard magazine. The movie The Sting brought ragtime to a wide audience with its soundtrack of Joplin tunes; the film's rendering of "The Entertainer", adapted and orchestrated by Marvin Hamlisch, was a Top 5 hit in 1975.
Ragtime – with Joplin's work at the forefront – has been cited as an American equivalent of the minuets of Mozart, the mazurkas of Chopin, or the waltzes of Brahms. Ragtime influenced classical composers including Erik Satie, Claude Debussy, Igor Stravinsky. Ragtime originated in African American music in the late 19th century and descended from the jigs and march music played by African American bands, referred to as "jig piano" or "piano thumping". By the start of the 20th century, it became popular throughout North America and was listened and danced to, written by people of many different subcultures. A distinctly American musical style, ragtime may be considered a synthesis of African syncopation and European classical music the marches made popular by John Philip Sousa; some early piano rags are entitled marches, "jig" and "rag" were used interchangeably in the mid-1890s. Ragtime was preceded by its close relative the cakewalk. In 1895, black entertainer Ernest Hogan composed two of the earliest sheet music rags, one of which sold a million copies.
The other composition was called "La Pas Ma La," and it was a hit. As black musician Tom Fletcher said, Hogan was the "first to put on paper the kind of rhythm, being played by non-reading musicians." While the song's success helped introduce the country to ragtime rhythms, its use of racial slurs created a number of derogatory imitation tunes, known as "coon songs" because of their use of racist and stereotypical images of blacks. In Hogan's years, he admitted shame and a sense of "race betrayal" from the song, while expressing pride in helping bring ragtime to a larger audience; the emergence of mature ragtime is dated to 1897, the year in which several important early rags were published. In 1899, Scott Joplin's "Maple Leaf Rag" was published and became a great hit and demonstrated more depth and sophistication than earlier ragtime. Ragtime was one of the main influences on the early development of jazz; some artists, such as Jelly Roll Morton, were present and performed both ragtime and jazz styles during the period the two styles overlapped.
He incorporated the Spanish Tinge in his performances, which gave a habanera or tango rhythm to his music. Jazz surpassed ragtime in mainstream popularity in the early 1920s, although ragtime compositions continue to be written up to the present, periodic revivals of popular interest in ragtime occurred in the 1950s and the 1970s; the heyday of ragtime occurred before sound recording was available. Like classical music, unlike jazz, classical ragtime had and has a written tradition, being distributed in sheet music rather than through recordings or by imitation of live performances. Ragtime music was distributed via piano rolls for player pianos. A folk ragtime tradition existed before and during the period of classical ragtime, manifesting itself through string bands and mandolin clubs and the like. A form known as novelty piano emerged. Where traditional ragtime depended on amateur pianists and sheet music sales, the novelty rag took advantage of new advances in piano-roll technology and the phonograph record to permit a m
Great American Songbook
The Great American Songbook known as "American Standards", is the canon of the most important and influential American popular songs and jazz standards from the early 20th century. Although several collections of music have been published under the title, it does not refer to any actual book or specific list of songs, but to a loosely defined set including the most popular and enduring songs from the 1920s to the 1950s that were created for Broadway theatre, musical theatre, Hollywood musical film, they have been recorded and performed by a large number and wide range of singers, instrumental bands, jazz musicians. The Great American Songbook comprises standards by George Gershwin, Cole Porter, Irving Berlin, Jerome Kern, Harold Arlen, Johnny Mercer, Richard Rodgers, others. Although the songs have never gone out of style among traditional and jazz singers and musicians, a renewed popular interest in the Great American Songbook beginning in the 1970s has led a growing number of rock and pop singers to take an interest and issue recordings of them.
There is no consensus on which songs are in the "Great American Songbook." Several music publishing companies, including Hal Leonard, J. W. Pepper & Son, Alfred Music, sell music under the name "Great American Songbook." Alfred Music lists the Songbook as its own genre. Music critics have attempted to develop a "canon." For example, in Alec Wilder's 1972 study, American Popular Song: The Great Innovators, 1900–1950, the songwriter and critic lists and ranks the artists he believes belong to the Great American Songbook canon. A composer, Wilder emphasized analysis of their creative efforts in this work. Wilder devotes whole chapters to only six composers: Jerome Kern, Irving Berlin, George Gershwin, Richard Rodgers, Cole Porter and Harold Arlen. Vincent Youmans and Arthur Schwartz share a chapter. Wilder uses a chapter to explore songwriters and composers he deemed "The Great Craftsmen": Hoagy Carmichael, Walter Donaldson, Harry Warren, Isham Jones, Jimmy McHugh, Duke Ellington, Fred Ahlert, Richard A. Whiting, Ray Noble, John Green, Rube Bloom and Jimmy Van Heusen.
He concludes with a catch-all 67-page chapter entitled "Outstanding Individual Songs: 1920 to 1950," which includes additional individual songs which he considers memorable. From some perspectives, the Great American Songbook era ended with the advent of roll. Radio personality and Songbook devotee Jonathan Schwartz has described this genre as "America's classical music". Despite the narrow range of topics and moods dealt with in many of the songs, the best Great American Songbook lyricists specialized in witty, urbane lyrics with teasingly unexpected rhymes; the songwriters combined memorable melodies – which could be anything from pentatonic, as in a Gershwin tune like "I Got Rhythm", to sinuously chromatic, as in many of Cole Porter's tunes – and great harmonic subtlety, a good example being Kern's "All the Things You Are", with its winding modulations. Many of the songs in the Great American Songbook were composed for musicals, some included an introductory sectional verse: a musical introduction that has a free musical structure, speech-like rhythms, rubato delivery.
The sectional verse served as a way of leading from the surrounding realistic context of the play into the more artificial world of the song, has lyrics that are in character and make reference to the plot of the musical for which the song was written. A song's sectional verse, if it exists, is dropped in performances outside the song's original stage or movie context. Whether or not it is sung depends on what the song is and, singing it — for example, Frank Sinatra never recorded "Fly Me to the Moon" with the introductory sectional verse, but Nat King Cole did — and a few of the songs written with such an introduction are nearly always performed in full with the introduction; the song itself is a 32-bar AABA or ABAC form, the lyrics refer to more universal and timeless situations and themes – for instance, the vicissitudes of love. This universality made it easier for songs to be added to or subtracted from a show, or revived in a different show; the following writers and songs are included in the Great American Songbook: Harold Arlen: "Over the Rainbow", "It's Only a Paper Moon".