Jean-André Deluc

Jean-André Deluc or de Luc was a Swiss geologist, natural philosopher and meteorologist. He devised measuring instruments. Jean-André Deluc was born in Geneva, his family had come to the Republic of Geneva from Italy, in the 15th century. His mother was Françoise Huaut, his father, Jacques-François Deluc, had written in refutation of Bernard Mandeville and other rationalistic writers, but he was a decided supporter of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. As a student of Georges-Louis Le Sage, Jean-André Deluc received a basic education in mathematics and in natural philosophy, he engaged early in business, which occupied a large part of his first adult years, with the exception of scientific investigation in the Alps. With the help of his brother Guillaume-Antoine, he built a splendid collection of mineralogy and fossils. Deluc took part in politics. In 1768, sent on an embassy to the duc de Choiseul in Paris, he succeeded in gaining the duke's friendship. In 1770 he became a member of the Council of Two Hundred in Geneva.

Three years business reverses forced him to leave his native town. The change freed him for non-scientific pursuits. Despite his duties at court, he was given leave to make several tours of Switzerland, France and Germany. At the beginning of his German tour, he was distinguished with an honorary professorship of philosophy and geology at the University of Göttingen, which helped to cover diplomatic missions for the king George III. Back to Britain, he undertook a geological tour of the country. In 1773 Deluc was made a fellow of the Royal Society, he died at Windsor, England, in 1817, after nearly 70 years of research. Deluc, an impact crater on the Moon, was given his name. Deluc's main interests were meteorology, his major geological work, Lettres physiques et morales sur les montagnes et sur l'histoire de la terre et de l'homme, was dedicated to Queen Charlotte. He published volumes on geological travels: in northern Europe, in England, in France and Germany. Deluc noticed the disappearance of heat in the thawing of ice about the same time that Joseph Black made it the foundation of his hypothesis of latent heat.

He ascertained that water was densest at about 40 °F. His book Lettres sur l'histoire physique de la terre, addressed to Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, develops a theory of the Earth divided into six periods modelled on the six days of Creation, it contains an essay on the existence of a General Principle of Morality and gives an interesting account of conversations with Voltaire and Rousseau. Deluc was an ardent admirer of Francis Bacon, on whose writings he published two works: Bacon tel qu'il est, showing the bad faith of the French translator, who had omitted many passages favourable to revealed religion, Précis de la philosophie de Bacon, giving an interesting view of the progress of natural science. Lettres sur le christianisme was a controversial correspondence with Wilhelm Abraham Teller of Berlin in regard to the Mosaic cosmogony, his Traité élémentaire de géologie was principally intended as a refutation of James Hutton and John Playfair. They had shown that geology was driven by the operation of internal heat and erosion, but their system required much more time than Deluc's Mosaic variety of neptunism allowed.

Many other papers are in the Journal de Physique, in the Philosophical Transactions and in the Philosophical Magazine. Deluc dedicated a large part of his activity to inventing measuring instruments, he devised a portable barometer for use in geological expeditions. His Recherches sur les modifications de l'atmosphère contain experiments on moisture and the indications of hygrometers and thermometers, he applied the barometer to the determination of heights. The Philosophical Transactions published his account of a new hygrometer, which resembled a mercurial thermometer, with an ivory bulb, which expanded by moisture, caused the mercury to descend, he devised a whalebone hygrometer which sparked a bitter controversy with Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, himself inventor of a hair hygrometer. He gave the first correct rules for measuring heights with the help of a barometer. Deluc advocated the use of mercury, instead of alcohol, in thermometers. In 1809 he sent a long paper to the Royal Society on separating the chemical from the electrical effect of the dry pile, a form of Voltaic pile, with a description of the electric column and aerial electroscope, in which he advanced opinions contradicting the latest discoveries of the day.

The dry column described by Deluc was constructed by various scientists and his improvement of the dry pile has been regarded as his most important work, although he was not in fact its inventor. He was a valued mentor to the young Francis Ronalds, who published several papers on dry piles in 1814–15. The

Bob Gosani

Bob Gosani was a South African photographer. Gosani started off at Drum magazine as a messenger but soon moved to the photographic department where he became Jürgen Schadeberg's darkroom assistant, he became one of Drum's best photographers. Schadeberg said that "Gosani stood out because in the early 1950s good black photographers and press photographers in particular were unheard of"; some of his pictures have become iconic images of the 1950s in South Africa e.g. the picture of Women during the Defiance Campaign in 1952, Nelson Mandela sparring with his boxing club's star boxer of the time, Jerry Moloi and Nelson Mandela outside court in 1958. His most famous sequence of pictures was the sequence he took of the humiliating and degrading Tauza dance that naked prisoners were forced to perform in the courtyard of the notorious Johannesburg prison, The Fort, in Hillbrow; this dance was a humiliating way of ensuring that the prisoners were not smuggling any weapons or contraband into their cells after a day's hard labour.

It involved thrusting their rectums up into the air for inspection by the warders. Gosani managed to photograph the Tauza dance secretly from the top floor of a nurses' home overlooking the prison; as a result of the pictures being published in Drum, there was a public outcry and the apartheid government was forced to act. Tauza - Bob Gosani's People. Bedfordview: Mutloatse Arts Heritage Trust, 2005. ISBN 978-1-77007-177-3. Compiled and edited by Mothobi Mutloatse, Jacqui Masiza and Lesley Hay-Whitton. Drum: a Venture in the new Africa. London: Collins, 1956. By Anthony Sampson. Photographs by Gosani and Jurgen Schadeberg. Drum: the making of a magazine. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball Publishers, 2005. ISBN 9781868422111. In/sight: African Photographers, 1940 to the Present. New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1996. ISBN 9780810968950. With an introduction by Clare Bell and essays by Okwui Enwezor, Olu Oguibe, Octavio Zaya. Photographs by Gosani, Cornélius Yao Azaglo Augustt, Oladélé Ajiboyé Bamgboyé, Zarina Bhimji, Gordon Bleach, Nabil Boutros, Cloete Breytenbach, Salla Casset, Mody Sory Diallo, Mohammed Dib, Kamel Dridi, Touhami Ennadre, Mathew Faji, Rotimi Fani-Kayode, Samuel Fosso, Jellel Gasteli, Meïssa Gaye, Christian Gbagbo, David Goldblatt, Ranjith Kally, Seydou Keita, Peter Magubane, Santu Mofokeng, G.

R. Naidoo, Lamia Naji, Gopal Naransamy, Lionel Oostendorp, Ricardo Rangel, Malick Sidibé, Iké Udé. Catalogue of an exhibition held at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, May–September, 1996

Ion Award

The Ion Award is the largest board game design competition in the United States. It is held annually in Utah at the SaltCON board game convention; the competition started in 2009 for unpublished game designs, with the intent to bring designers and publishers together, to recognize excellence in game design. The first Ion Awards had the support of national publishers including Eagle-Gryphon Games, Mayday Games, Rio Grande Games, Out of the Box Publishing, has continued to get national and international support; the competition has received game design entries from all over the world. Board game designs that have won the Ion Award or have been selected as finalists have been published every year since its inception; each year local and international board game publishers are selected as judges for the competition, including longtime judges Eagle-Gryphon Games, Mayday Games, Gamelyn Games and others. The competition has two rounds of judging. First all the entering designers submit rules, images and summaries of their unpublished game designs.

Those entries are reviewed by judges all over the world, finalists are selected. The 4 finalists in each category are invited to attend the final round of judging at the SaltCON convention, where they present their game design in person to the final judges. After the final judging, the winners are announced at the Awards Ceremony at the convention; the Ion Award at first featured only a single Best Game winner each year, but since 2011, it has featured both a Light Game category and a Strategy Game category. Finalists are announced about a month before the live event. Winners are announced a few days after the final judging. 2020 - Oros - Brandt Brinkerhoff 2019 - Loads of Roads - Joshua and Anthony Winegar 2018 - American Steel - Joshua Mills and Nat Levan 2017 - Palooka Precinct - Glen Dresser 2016 - Scarlet Pimpernel - Brian Kelley 2015 - Race to Innovation - Mike Holyoak 2014 - Xenon Profiteer - T. C. Petty, III 2013 - Nika - Josh Raab 2012 - Karesansui - Joseph Kisenwether 2011 - Pizza Theory - Greg Powers and Brian Powers 2020 - Super Truffle Pigs!

- Jason Corace 2019 - The Night Cage - Rosswell Saunders, Chris McMahon, Chris Chan 2018 - Seven Deadly Sins - Paul Saxberg 2017 - Bad Doctor! - Eric Magnan & Dan Germain 2016 - Cypher - Adam Wyse 2015 - Stalag Escape - Matthew Jensen 2014 - Yardmaster - Steven Aramini 2013 - Hold Your Breath - Daniel Jenkins & Christopher Urinko 2012 - Rigamaroles - Shane Larsen 2011 - Snake Eyes -T. Alexc Davis 2010 - - Jason Fullen 2009 - King's Vineyard - David Haslam and Sandeep Kharkar Alderac Entertainment APE Games Arcane Wonders Atlas Games Blue Panther Breaking Games Daft Concepts Eagle Gryphon Games Gozer Games Indie Board and Cards Lucky Duck Games Mayday Games R and R Games Ravensburger Red Raven Games Smirk and Dagger Strawberry Studios Surfin Meeple Tasty Minstrel Games Mayday Games Eagle-Gryphon Games Gamelyn Games Alderac Entertainment Group Ape Games White Goblin Games QSF Games Tim Fowers Games Red Raven Games Atlas-Games Grey Fox Games Czech Board Games Tasty Minstrel Games Renegade Game Studio