Rouen is a city on the River Seine in the north of France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy. One of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe, Rouen was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy during the Middle Ages, it was one of the capitals of the Anglo-Norman dynasties, which ruled both England and large parts of modern France from the 11th to the 15th centuries. The population of the metropolitan area at the 2011 census was 655,013, with the city proper having an estimated population of 111,557. People from Rouen are known as Rouennais. Rouen and its metropolitan area of 70 suburban communes form the Métropole Rouen Normandie, with 494,382 inhabitants at the 2010 census. In descending order of population, the largest of these suburbs are Sotteville-lès-Rouen, Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray, Le Grand-Quevilly, Le Petit-Quevilly, Mont-Saint-Aignan, each with a population exceeding 20,000. Rouen was founded by the Gaulish tribe of the Veliocasses, who controlled a large area in the lower Seine valley.
They called. It was considered the second city of Gallia Lugdunensis after Lugdunum itself. Under the reorganization of Diocletian, Rouen was the chief city of the divided province Gallia Lugdunensis II and reached the apogee of its Roman development, with an amphitheatre and thermae of which foundations remain. In the 5th century, it became the seat of a bishopric and a capital of Merovingian Neustria. From their first incursion into the lower valley of the Seine in 841, the Normans overran Rouen. From 912, Rouen was the capital of the Duchy of Normandy and residence of the local dukes, until William the Conqueror moved his residence to Caen. In 1150, Rouen received its founding charter. During the 12th century, Rouen was the site of a yeshiva. At that time, about 6,000 Jews lived in the town. On June 24, 1204, King Philip II Augustus of France entered Rouen and definitively annexed Normandy to the French Kingdom, he demolished the Norman castle and replaced it with his own, the Château Bouvreuil, built on the site of the Gallo-Roman amphitheatre.
A textile industry developed based on wool imported from England, for which the cities of Flanders and Brabant were competitors, finding its market in the Champagne fairs. Rouen depended for its prosperity on the river traffic of the Seine, on which it enjoyed a monopoly that reached as far upstream as Paris. In the 14th century urban strife threatened the city: in 1291, the mayor was assassinated and noble residences in the city were pillaged. Philip IV reimposed order and suppressed the city's charter and the lucrative monopoly on river traffic, but he was quite willing to allow the Rouennais to repurchase their old liberties in 1294. In 1306, he decided to expel the Jewish community of Rouen numbering some five or six thousands. In 1389, another urban revolt of the underclass occurred, the Harelle, it was suppressed with the withdrawal of Rouen's river-traffic privileges once more. During the Hundred Years' War, on January 19, 1419, Rouen surrendered to Henry V of England, who annexed Normandy once again to the Plantagenet domains.
But Rouen did not go quietly: Alain Blanchard hung English prisoners from the walls, for which he was summarily executed. Joan of Arc was burned at the stake in Rouen on May 30, 1431 in this city, where most inhabitants supported the duke of Burgundy, Joan of Arc's king enemy; the king of France Charles VII recaptured the town in 1449. During the German occupation, the Kriegsmarine had its headquarters located in a chateau on what is now the Rouen Business School; the city was damaged during World War II on D-day and its famed cathedral was destroyed by Allied bombs. Rouen is known for its Rouen Cathedral, with its Tour de Beurre financed by the sale of indulgences for the consumption of butter during Lent; the cathedral's gothic façade was the subject of a series of paintings by Claude Monet, some of which are exhibited in the Musée d'Orsay in Paris. The Gros Horloge is an astronomical clock dating back to the 14th century, it is located in the Gros Horloge street. Other famous structures include Rouen Castle, whose keep is known as the tour Jeanne d'Arc, where Joan of Arc was brought in 1431 to be threatened with torture.
Rouen is noted for its surviving half-timbered buildings. There are many museums in Rouen: the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen, an art museum with pictures of well-known painters such as Claude Monet and Géricault; the Jardin des Plantes de Rouen is a notable botanical garden once owned by Scottish banker John Law dated from 1840 in its present form. It was the site of Élisa Garnerin's parachute jump from a balloon in 1817. In the centre of the Place du Vieux Marché (the site of Joan of A
Pope Pius X
Pope Pius X, born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, was head of the Catholic Church from August 1903 to his death in 1914. Pius X is known for vigorously opposing modernist interpretations of Catholic doctrine, promoting liturgical reforms and orthodox theology, he directed the production of the 1917 Code of Canon Law, the first comprehensive and systemic work of its kind. Pius X was devoted to the Marian title of Our Lady of Confidence, he advanced the Liturgical Movement as the only Pope to favor the use of the vernacular language in teaching catechesis, he encouraged the frequent reception of holy communion, he lowered the age for First Communion, which became a lasting innovation of his papacy. In addition, he defended the Catholic religion against indifferentism and relativism. Like his predecessors, he promoted Thomism as the principal philosophical method to be taught in Catholic institutions; as Roman Pontiff, he vehemently opposed modernism and various nineteenth-century philosophies, which he viewed as an import of secular errors incompatible with Catholic dogma.
Pius X was known for sense of personal poverty. He gave homily sermons in the pulpit every week, a rare practice at the time. After the 1908 Messina earthquake he filled the Apostolic Palace with refugees, long before the Italian government acted, he rejected any kind of favours for his family, to which his close relatives chose to remain in poverty living near Rome. During his pontificate, many famed Marian images were granted a canonical coronation, namely the Our Lady of Aparecida, Our Lady of the Pillar, Our Lady of the Cape, Our Lady of Chiquinquira of Colombia, Our Lady of the Lake of Mexico, Our Lady of La Naval de Manila, Virgin of Help of Venezuela, Our Lady of Carmel of New York, the Immaculate Conception within the Chapel of the Choir inside Saint Peter's Basilica were granted its prestigious honors. After his death, a strong cult of devotion followed his reputation of piety and holiness, he was beatified in 1951 and was canonized as a Catholic saint on 29 May 1954. The traditionalist Catholic priestly Society of Saint Pius X is named in his honor while a grand statue bearing his name stands within St. Peter's Basilica.
Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto was born in Riese, Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire in 1835. He was the second born of ten children of Giovanni Battista Margarita Sanson, he was baptised 3 June 1835. Giuseppe's childhood was one of poverty. Though poor, his parents valued education, Giuseppe walked 3.75 miles to school each day. Giuseppe had three brothers and six sisters: Giuseppe Sarto, Angelo Sarto, Teresa Parolin-Sarto, Rosa Sarto, Antonia Dei Bei-Sarto, Maria Sarto, Lucia Boschin-Sarto, Anna Sarto, Pietro Sarto, he rejected any kind of favours for his family. At a young age, Giuseppe studied Latin with his village priest, went on to study at the gymnasium of Castelfranco Veneto. "In 1850 he received the tonsure from the Bishop of Treviso, was given a scholarship the Diocese of Treviso" to attend the Seminary of Padua, "where he finished his classical and theological studies with distinction". On 18 September 1858, Sarto was ordained a priest, became chaplain at Tombolo. While there, Sarto expanded his knowledge of theology, studying both Thomas Aquinas and canon law, while carrying out most of the functions of the parish pastor, quite ill.
In 1867, he was named archpriest of Salzano. Here he restored the church and expanded the hospital, the funds coming from his own begging and labour, he became popular with the people when he worked to assist the sick during the cholera plague that swept into northern Italy in the early 1870s. He was named a canon of the cathedral and chancellor of the Diocese of Treviso holding offices such as spiritual director and rector of the Treviso seminary, examiner of the clergy; as chancellor he made it possible for public school students to receive religious instruction. As a priest and bishop, he struggled over solving problems of bringing religious instruction to rural and urban youth who did not have the opportunity to attend Catholic schools. In 1878, Bishop Federico Maria Zinelli died. Following Zinelli's death, the canons of cathedral chapters inherited the episcopal jurisdiction as a corporate body, were chiefly responsible for the election of a vicar-capitular who would take over the responsibilities of Treviso until a new bishop was named.
In 1879, Sarto was elected to the position, in which he served from December of that year to June 1880. After 1880, Sarto taught moral theology at the seminary in Treviso. On 10 November 1884, he was appointed bishop of Mantua by Leo XIII, he was consecrated six days in Rome in the church of Sant'Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Parocchi, assisted by Pietro Rota, by Giovanni Maria Berengo. He was appointed to the honorary position of assistant at the pontifical throne on 19 June 1891. Sarto required p
Religious (Western Christianity)
A religious is, in the terminology of many Western Christian denominations, such as the Catholic Church, Lutheran Churches, Anglican Communion, what in common language one would call a "monk" or "nun", as opposed to an ordained "priest". A religious may be a priest if he has undergone ordination, but in general he is not. More a religious is a member of a religious order or religious institute, someone who belongs to "a society in which members...pronounce public vows...and lead a life of brothers or sisters in common". Some classes of religious have been referred to, though less now than in the past, as regulars, because of living in accordance with a religious rule such as the Rule of Saint Benedict. Religious are members of religious institutes, societies in which the members take public vows and live a fraternal life in common, thus monks such as Benedictines and Carthusians, nuns such as Carmelites and Poor Clares, friars such as Dominicans and Franciscans are called religious. Those living other recognized forms of consecrated life are not classified as religious.
A member of a secular institute is thus not a religious. Nor is a consecrated hermit, a consecrated virgin, or a person who follows some other form whose approval is reserved to the Holy See. Ordination as deacon, priest or bishop does not make one a member of a religious institute and so does not make one a religious. If a religious has been ordained as a deacon, a priest or a bishop, he belongs to the clergy and so is a member of what is called the "religious clergy" or the "regular clergy". Clergy who are not members of a religious institute are known as secular clergy, they serve a geographically defined diocese or a diocese-like jurisdiction such as an apostolic vicariate or personal ordinariate, so are referred to as diocesan clergy. A religious who has not been ordained is a member of the laity, not of the clergy. However, once any non-ordained religious professes vows final vows, they must be formally dispensed from those vows, a lengthy and formal process, with set procedures, that involves their local superior, the local Bishop or other Ordinary, the head of the Order, the Vatican's Congregation for Religious.
If they are ordained, they must be formally suspended from and relieved of their duties, laicized, a related but separate matter. Both laicization and dispensation of vows are only done for serious reasons, except for when one seeks to get married once it is done; the process is more complex if they are accused of a secular or ecclesiastical offense or crime. The state of a non-ordained religious, therefore, is not the same as a lay unmarried person, not a religious. While the state of consecrated life is neither clerical or lay, institutes themselves are classified as one or the other. A clerical institute is one that "by reason of the purpose or design intended by the founder or by virtue of legitimate tradition, is under the direction of clerics, assumes the exercise of sacred orders, is recognized as such by the authority of the Church". In clerical institutes, such as the Dominican Order or the Jesuits, most of the members are clerics. In only a few cases do; the Code of Canon Law devotes to religious 103 canons arranged in eight chapters: Religious houses and their erection and suppression The governance of institutes The admission of candidates and the formation of members The obligations and rights of institutes and their members The apostolate of institutes Separation of members from the institute Religious raised to the episcopate Conferences of major superiors In the Lutheran Churches, religious are defined as those who make religious vows before their bishop to live consecrated life in a religious order.
An ordained priest, not a part of a Lutheran religious order is considered'secular', rather than'religious'. In the Anglican Communion, the religious refer to those who have taken "vows of poverty and obedience in community". Consecrated life Institute of consecrated life Religious institute Religious congregations Secular institute Society of apostolic life
Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War, it was an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated as West Francia, the western half of the Carolingian Empire, with the Treaty of Verdun. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, when Hugh Capet was elected king and founded the Capetian dynasty; the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France was Philip II, in 1190. France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a feudal monarchy. In Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and not yet a part of France.
West Frankish kings were elected by the secular and ecclesiastic magnates, but the regular coronation of the eldest son of the reigning king during his father's lifetime established the principle of male primogeniture, which became codified in the Salic law. During the Late Middle Ages, the Kings of England laid claim to the French throne, resulting in a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years' War. Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy, but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars. France in the early modern era was centralised. Religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France. Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America but was costly and achieved little for France.
The Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the other great powers in 1814 and lasted until the French Revolution of 1848. During the years of the elderly Charlemagne's rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks. After Charlemagne's death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble; the Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Charles the Bald was crowned King of Lotharingia after the death of Lothair II in 869, but in the Treaty of Meerssen was forced to cede much of Lotharingia to his brothers, retaining the Rhone and Meuse basins but leaving the Rhineland with Aachen and Trier in East Francia. Viking advances were allowed to increase, their dreaded longships were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other inland waterways, wreaking havoc and spreading terror.
During the reign of Charles the Simple, Normans under Rollo from Norway, were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris, to become Normandy. The Carolingians were to share the fate of their predecessors: after an intermittent power struggle between the two dynasties, the accession in 987 of Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, established the Capetian dynasty on the throne. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than 800 years; the old order left the new dynasty in immediate control of little beyond the middle Seine and adjacent territories, while powerful territorial lords such as the 10th- and 11th-century counts of Blois accumulated large domains of their own through marriage and through private arrangements with lesser nobles for protection and support. The area around the lower Seine became a source of particular concern when Duke William took possession of the kingdom of England by the Norman Conquest of 1066, making himself and his heirs the King's equal outside France.
Henry II inherited the Duchy of Normandy and the County of Anjou, married France's newly divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, who ruled much of southwest France, in 1152. After defeating a revolt led by Eleanor and three of their four sons, Henry had Eleanor imprisoned, made the Duke of Brittany his vassal, in effect ruled the western half of France as a greater power than the French throne. However, disputes among Henry's descendants over the division of his French territories, coupled with John of England's lengthy quarrel with Philip II, allowed Philip II to recover influence over most of this territory. After the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne; the death of Charles IV of France in 1328 without male heirs ended the main Capetian line. Under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman (Philip IV's daughter
De La Salle Brothers
The Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools is a Catholic religious teaching congregation, founded in France by a priest named Jean-Baptiste de la Salle, now based in Rome. The Brothers use the post-nominal abbreviation FSC to denote their membership of the order, the honorific title Brother, abbreviated Br.. The Lasallian Christian Brothers are not the same order as the Irish Christian Brothers. There are 560 Lasallian educational institutions around the world which, assisted by more than 73,000 lay colleagues, teach over 900,000 students in over 82 countries, from impoverished nations such as Nigeria to post-secondary institutions such as Bethlehem University, Manhattan College, the La Salle Universities in Philadelphia; the central administration of the Brothers operates out of the Generalate in Rome and is made up of the Superior General and his councillors. A number of Lasallian institutions have been accused of, have admitted and apologised for and serious physical and sexual abuse against their charges.
The order was founded in the name of Saint Jean-Baptiste de la Salle, a French priest from a wealthy family, in 1725. In March, 1679, La Salle met Adrian Nyel in a chance encounter at the Convent of the Sisters of the Infant Jesus. Nyel asked for De La Salle's help in opening free schools for the poor boys in Reims. A novitiate and normal school were established in Paris in 1694. La Salle spent his life teaching poor children in parish charity schools, was canonized as a saint on 15 May 1900. In 1950 Pope Pius XII declared him to be the "Special Patron of All Teachers of Youth in the Catholic Church"; the order, approved by Pope Benedict XIII in 1725 spread over France. It was dissolved by a decree of the National Assembly set up after the French revolution in February 1790, but recalled by Napoleon I in 1804 and formally recognized by the French government in 1808. Since its members penetrated into nearly every country of Europe, Asia and Australia; as religious, members take the three usual vows of poverty and obedience.
The Institutes headquarters is in Italy. The order has five global regions: North America, Asia/Oceania, Europe/Mediterranean and Latin America. During the International Year of Literacy/Schooling, UNESCO awarded the NOMA prize to Lasallian Institutions; the order says that its key principles are faith, proclamation of the gospel, respect for all people, quality education, concern for the poor and social justice. In 2017 the Institute had 3,800 brothers, 75% fewer than in 1965; the decline is due to many brothers reaching retirement age, the small number of new recruits. In the same period the number of students in Lasallian schools increased from about 700,000 to over a million. La Salle initiated a number of innovations in teaching, he recommended dividing up of the children into distinct classes according to their attainments. He taught pupils to read the vernacular language. In accordance with their mission statement "to provide a human and Christian education... the poor" the Brothers' principal activity is education of the poor.
As of 2017 the Institute conducted educational work in 82 different countries, in both developed and developing nations, with more than 1,000,000 students enrolled in its educational works. There are 92,000 lay women who are Lasallian Partners in their institutions; the Guadalupana De La Salle Sisters were founded by Br. Juan Fromental Cayroche in the Archdiocese of Mexico, they teach in ten countries. The motherhouse is in Mexico City; the Congregation of the Lasallian Sisters was founded in 1966 by the Brothers of the Christian School in Vietnam to take care of the needs of poor children abandoned because of the civil war there. The office is in Bangkok. Lasallian Volunteers are lay people who volunteer for one or two years to engage in teaching and other Lasallian activities, they receive a living stipend. In 1981, the Institute started Christian Brothers Investment Services, a "socially responsible investing service" for Catholic organisations, that it "encourage companies to improve policies and practices through active ownership".
The Brothers arrived in Martinez, California, US on the southern edge of the Carquinez Strait, part of the greater San Francisco Bay in 1868. In 1882 they began making wine as sacramental wine, they began to distill brandy, beginning with the pot-still production method, used in the cognac region. In 1932, in the period when alcohol was prohibited in the US, they relocated the winery to the Mont La Salle property in the Napa Valley and continued making wine. In 1935 Brother Timothy Diener became wine master, he served in this position for 50 years. In the 1950s they acquired Greystone Cellars near California. Varietal wine was made at the Napa Valley facility, generic wine and brandy were produced at Reedley in the San Joaquin Valley, barrel aging was handled at Greystone; the Christian Brothers winery operated under the corporate name "Mont La Salle Vineyards". In 1988 the winery employed 250 people and produced 900,000 cases of wine, 1.2 million cases of brandy, 80,000 cases of altar wine. Proceeds from sales helped to fund the Christian Brothers programs and sc
Our Lady of Reims is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Reims, built in the High Gothic style. The cathedral replaced an older church, destroyed by fire in 1211, built on the site of the basilica where Clovis I was baptized by Saint Remi, bishop of Reims in 496; that original structure had itself been erected on the site of some Roman baths. The seat of the Archdiocese of Reims, the cathedral was; the cathedral, a major tourist destination, receives about one million visitors annually. According to Flodoard, Saint Nicasius founded the first church on the site of the current cathedral at the beginning of the 5th century in 401, on the site of a Gallo-Roman bath; the site is not far from the basilica built by Bishop Betause, where Saint Nicasius would be martyred by beheading either by the Vandals in 407 or by the Huns in 451. The dedication of the church to the Virgin Mary suggests that the latter of the two dates is the correct one, given that the first church to be named after the Virgin Mary was the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in the 430s.
This building, measuring 20 m by 55 m, would be where Clovis, King of the Franks, would be baptized by Saint Remigius on Christmas Day some time between 496 and 499. A baptistery was built in the 6th century to the north of the current site to a plan of a square exterior and a circular interior. In 816, the Frankish emperor Louis the Pious was crowned in Reims by Pope Stephen IV; the coronation and ensuing celebrations highlighted the poor condition of the church the seat of an archbishop. Over the next decade, Archbishop Ebbo of Reims rebuilt much of the church under the direction of the royal architect Rumaud, only ceasing in 846, under the episcopate of Archbishop Hincmar, who would adorn the church's interior with gilding, paintings and tapestries. On 18 October 862, in the presence of King Charles the Bald, Hincmar dedicated the new church, which measured 86 m and had two transepts. At the beginning of the 10th century, an ancient crypt underneath the original church was rediscovered. Under Archbishop Hervé, the crypt was cleared and rededicated to Saint Remi.
The altar has been located above the crypt for 15 centuries. Beginning in 976, Archbishop Adalbero began to illuminate the Carolingian cathedral; the historian Richerus, a pupil of Adalbero, gives a precise description of the work carried out by the Archbishop: "He destroyed the arcades which, extending from the entrance to nearly a quarter of the basilica, up to the top, so that the whole church, acquired more extent and a more suitable form. He enveloped it with a resplendent trellis, he lit up the same church with windows in which various stories were represented and endowed it with bells roaring like thunder." On 19 May 1051, King Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev married in the cathedral. Whilst conducting the Council of Reims in 1131, Pope Innocent II anointed and crowned the future Louis VII in the cathedral. In the middle of the 12th century, Archbishop Samson demolished the facade and adjoining tower in order to build a new cathedral with two flanking towers in imitation of the Abbey of Saint Denis in Paris, whose choir dedication Samson himself had attended a few years earlier.
In addition to these works to the west of the building, a new choir and chapels began to be built east of the cathedral, which measured 110 m. At the end of the century, the nave and the transept were of the Carolingian style while the chevet and facade were early Gothic. On 6 May 1210, the Carolingian-early Gothic cathedral was destroyed by fire on the Feast day of Saint John Before the Latin Gate due to "carelessness." One year construction began when Archbishop Aubrey laid the first stone of the new cathedral's chevet. In July 1221, the chapel of this axially radiating chevet entered use. Four architects would succeed each other until the completion of the cathedral's structural work in 1275: Jean d'Orbais, Jean-le-Loup, Gaucher of Reims and Bernard de Soissons. Documentary records show the acquisition of land to the west of the site in 1218, suggesting the new cathedral was larger than its predecessors, the lengthening of the nave being an adaptation to afford room for the crowds that attended the coronations.
In 1233 a long-running dispute between the cathedral chapter and the townsfolk boiled over into open revolt. Several clerics were killed or injured during the resulting violence and the entire cathedral chapter fled the city, leaving it under an interdict. Work on the new cathedral was suspended for three years, only resuming in 1236 after the clergy returned to the city and the interdict was lifted following mediation by the King and the Pope. Construction continued more slowly; the area from the crossing eastwards was in use by 1241 but the nave was not roofed until 1299. Work on the west facade took place in several phases, reflected in the different styles of some of the sculptures; the upper parts of the facade were completed in the 14th century, but following 13th century designs, giving Reims an unusual unity of style. Unusually the names of the cathedral's original architects are known. A labyrinth built into floor of the nave at the time of construction or shortly after included the nam