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Jean-François Millet

Jean-François Millet was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France. Millet is noted for his scenes of peasant farmers. Millet was the first child of Jean-Louis-Nicolas and Aimée-Henriette-Adélaïde Henry Millet, members of the farming community in the village of Gruchy, in Gréville-Hague, close to the coast. Under the guidance of two village priests—one of them was vicar Jean Lebrisseux—Millet acquired a knowledge of Latin and modern authors, but soon he had to help his father with the farm-work. So all the farmer's work was familiar to him: to mow, make hay, bind the sheaves, winnow, spread manure, sow, etc. All these motifs would return in his art; this stopped when he was 18 and sent by his father to Cherbourg in 1833, to study with a portrait painter named Paul Dumouchel. By 1835 he was studying full-time with Lucien-Théophile Langlois, a pupil of Baron Gros, in Cherbourg. A stipend provided by Langlois and others enabled Millet to move to Paris in 1837, where he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts with Paul Delaroche.

In 1839 his scholarship was terminated, his first submission to the Salon was rejected. After his first painting, a portrait, was accepted at the Salon of 1840, Millet returned to Cherbourg to begin a career as a portrait painter. However, the following year he married Pauline-Virginie Ono, they moved to Paris. After rejections at the Salon of 1843 and Pauline's death by consumption, Millet returned again to Cherbourg. In 1845 Millet moved to Le Havre with Catherine Lemaire, whom he would marry in a civil ceremony in 1853. In Le Havre he painted portraits and small genre pieces for several months, before moving back to Paris, it was in Paris in the middle 1840s that Millet befriended Constant Troyon, Narcisse Diaz, Charles Jacque, Théodore Rousseau, artists who, like Millet, would become associated with the Barbizon school. In 1847 his first Salon success came with the exhibition of a painting Oedipus Taken down from the Tree, in 1848 his Winnower was bought by the government; the Captivity of the Jews in Babylon, Millet's most ambitious work at the time, was unveiled at the Salon of 1848, but was scorned by art critics and the public alike.

The painting disappeared shortly thereafter, leading historians to believe that Millet destroyed it. In 1984, scientists at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston x-rayed Millet's 1870 painting The Young Shepherdess looking for minor changes, discovered that it was painted over Captivity, it is now believed that Millet reused the canvas when materials were in short supply during the Franco-Prussian War. In 1849, Millet painted a commission for the state. In the Salon of that year, he exhibited Shepherdess Sitting at the Edge of the Forest, a small oil painting which marked a turning away from previous idealized pastoral subjects, in favor of a more realistic and personal approach. In June of that year, he settled in Barbizon with their children. In 1850 Millet entered into an arrangement with Sensier, who provided the artist with materials and money in return for drawings and paintings, while Millet was free to continue selling work to other buyers as well. At that year's Salon, he exhibited Haymakers and The Sower, his first major masterpiece and the earliest of the iconic trio of paintings that would include The Gleaners and The Angelus.

From 1850 to 1853, Millet worked on Harvesters Resting, a painting he would consider his most important, on which he worked the longest. Conceived to rival his heroes Michelangelo and Poussin, it was the painting that marked his transition from the depiction of symbolic imagery of peasant life to that of contemporary social conditions, it was the only painting he dated, was the first work to garner him official recognition, a second-class medal at the 1853 salon. This is one of the most well known of The Gleaners. While Millet was walking the fields around Barbizon, one theme returned to his pencil and brush for seven years—gleaning—the centuries-old right of poor women and children to remove the bits of grain left in the fields following the harvest, he found the theme an eternal one, linked to stories from the Old Testament. In 1857, he submitted the painting The Gleaners to the Salon to an unenthusiastic hostile, public. A warm golden light suggests something sacred and eternal in this daily scene where the struggle to survive takes place.

During his years of preparatory studies, Millet contemplated how best to convey the sense of repetition and fatigue in the peasants' daily lives. Lines traced over each woman's back lead to the ground and back up in a repetitive motion identical to their unending, backbreaking labor. Along the horizon, the setting sun silhouettes the farm with its abundant stacks of grain, in contrast to the large shadowy figures in the foreground; the dark homespun dresses of the gleaners cut robust forms against the golden field, giving each woman a noble, monumental strength. The painting was commissioned by Thomas Gold Appleton, an American art collector based in Boston, Massachusetts. Appleton studied with Millet's frie

Boulevard Nights

Boulevard Nights is a 1979 film directed by Michael Pressman. It is about life in its street gangs, it concerns two brothers and Chuco. Raymond is'straight' -- he has a job and is engaged to Shady -- while Chuco is a drug user and gang member, about to be drawn into a gang war, it was filmed on location in East Los Angeles. In 2017, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Richard Yniguez... Raymond Avila Danny De La Paz... Chuco Avila Marta DuBois... Shady Londeros James Victor... Gil Moreno Betty Carvalho... Mrs. Avila Carmen Zapata... Mrs. Londeros Victor Millan... Mr. Londeros Gary Cervantes... Big Happy Daniel Zacapa... Ernie Jerado Carmona... Wolf Jesse Aragon... Casper Robert Covarrubias... Toby Eliseo Estrada... Hopper Mary McFerren... Receptionist Dawson Mays... Jerry Werner Alejandrino Morales... VGV Gang Member Mario Morales... VGV Gang Member Javier Morales... VGV Gang Member Boulevard Nights was one of a number of "gang films" released in 1979, along with The Warriors, Walk Proud, The Wanderers and Over the Edge.

Fearing a repeat of the gang violence associated with The Warriors, Warner Bros. and the filmmakers tried to distance themselves from that film by saying that Boulevard Nights was not so much a gang film as a "family story" of two brothers "set in a gang environment." A week before releasing the film, Warner Bros. offered theater owners the option of hiring security at the studio's expense if they felt the need. Boulevard Nights was pulled from San Francisco's Alhambra Theatre and an Ontario, California drive-in after incidents of gang-related violence broke out during showings of the film at those locations; the film was picketed by protesters who said that it negatively stereotyped Mexican Americans as gang members. Roger Ebert gave the film two-and-a-half stars out of four and wrote, "It's a movie that tries to tell us something about life in the Mexican-American neighborhoods of East Los Angeles, that sometimes succeeds.'Boulevard Nights' is not altogether successful, because the truth of the situation has been cluttered up by a story structure borrowed from umpteen other Hollywood movies about coming of age in a ghetto."

Vincent Canby of The New York Times wrote the film "is so busy trying to meet the needs of a conventional narrative that it appears to have no point of view about its characters. When we watch them suffer and die in foolish pursuits, the movie is sightseeing. With the possible exception of Mr. De La Paz, whose haunted looks suggest someone troubled, the actors are not good." Dale Pollock of Variety wrote, "To label'Boulevard Nights' another gang picture because its milieu is the streets of East Los Angeles would be doing the Tony Bill-Bill Benenson production a disservice. The film fails to carve out a separate identity of its own, rehashing a familiar story about inter-family conflicts." Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune gave the film three stars out of four and wrote that the film had a "quiet power," with Danny De La Paz giving "a memorable performance of a young man lost." Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times called it "a modest, honest, authentic and effective drama," adding, "Without much overt sermonizing, Desmond Nakano's script elonquently demonstrates the somber and tragic defeats that violence inflicts on its winners and losers alike...

It's a cycle of revenge as empty and unavailing as it was in'Romeo and Juliet.'" Gary Arnold of The Washington Post called the film "disappointing, since screenwriter Desmond Nakano falls back on some miserable melodramatic devices to force his material to a showdown. A gang bullet meant for Chuco kills dear little Mrs. Avila on the day of Raymond's wedding. Still, it's a respectable, absorbing sort of movie though you have to admit it doesn't work." David Ansen of Newsweek wrote, "the all-Hispanic cast are fresh. Boulevard Nights on IMDb

La Tablada

La Tablada is a city in Argentina. It is part of the Greater Buenos Aires metro area. La Tablada developed around the Buenos Aires Western Railway station inaugurated in 1900; the station, located on the 28 km marker along the Haedo—La Plata line served the wholesale market established nearby in 1901, in 1909, the settlement's first homestead lots were sold. Most of the settlement's 1,500 early homeowners worked in the wholesale market, tied to the Liniers cattle market just north of La Tablada, numerous meat packing plants opened in the town during the 1910s and 1920s. Provincial electricity services and the town's first clinic were established in 1925; the city grew moderately yet in subsequent decades, became home to the third-largest business and industrial community in La Matanza Partido. The important La Tablada Regiment was the site of an attack in January 1989 by members of the left-wing Movimiento Todos por la Patria. La Tablada was declared a city by the Provincial Legislature on November 11, 1993