Jean-Léon Gérôme

Jean-Léon Gérôme was a French painter and sculptor in the style now known as academicism. His paintings were so reproduced that he was "arguably the world's most famous living artist by 1880." The range of his oeuvre included historical painting, Greek mythology, Orientalism and other subjects, bringing the academic painting tradition to an artistic climax. He is considered one of the most important painters from this academic period, he was a teacher with a long list of students. Jean-Léon Gérôme was born at Haute-Saône, he went to Paris in 1840 where he studied under Paul Delaroche, whom he accompanied to Italy in 1843. He visited Florence, the Vatican and Pompeii. On his return to Paris in 1844, like many students of Delaroche, he joined the atelier of Charles Gleyre and studied there for a brief time, he attended the École des Beaux-Arts. In 1846 he tried to enter the prestigious Prix de Rome, but failed in the final stage because his figure drawing was inadequate, his painting The Cock Fight is an academic exercise depicting a nude young man and a thinly draped young woman with two fighting cocks, with the Bay of Naples in the background.

He sent this painting to the Paris Salon of 1847. This work was seen as the epitome of the Neo-Grec movement that had formed out of Gleyre's studio, was championed by the influential French critic Théophile Gautier, whose review made Gérôme famous and launched his career. Gérôme took advantage of his sudden success, his paintings The Virgin, the Infant Jesus and Saint John and Anacreon and Eros took a second-class medal at the Paris Salon in 1848. In 1849, he produced A Portrait of a Lady. In 1851, he decorated a vase offered by Emperor Napoleon III of France to Prince Albert, now part of the Royal Collection at St. James's Palace, London, he exhibited Greek Interior, Souvenir d'Italie and Love, Drunk in 1851. In 1852, Gérôme received a commission to paint a large mural of an allegorical subject of his choosing; the Age of Augustus, the Birth of Christ, which would combine the birth of Christ with conquered nations paying homage to Augustus, may have been intended to flatter Napoleon III, whose government commissioned the mural and, identified as a "new Augustus."

A considerable down payment enabled Gérôme to travel and research, first in 1853 to Constantinople, together with the actor Edmond Got, in 1854 to Greece and Turkey and the shores of the Danube, where he was present at a concert of Russian conscripts making music under the threat of a lash. In 1853, Gérôme moved to the Boîte à Thé, a group of studios in the Rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs, Paris; this would become a meeting place for artists and actors, where George Sand entertained the composers Hector Berlioz, Johannes Brahms and Gioachino Rossini and the novelists Théophile Gautier and Ivan Turgenev. In 1854, he completed another important commission, decorating the Chapel of St. Jerome in the church of St. Séverin in Paris, his Last Communion of St. Jerome in this chapel reflects the influence of the school of Ingres on his religious works. To the Universal Exhibition of 1855 he contributed Pifferaro and The Age of Augustus, the Birth of Christ, but it was the modest painting Recreation in a Russian Camp that garnered the most attention.

In 1856, he visited Egypt for the first time. Gérôme's itinerary followed the classic grand tour, up the Nile to Cairo, across to Faiyum further up the Nile to Abu Simbel back to Cairo, across the Sinai Peninsula through Sinai and up the Wadi el-Araba to Jerusalem and Damascus; this would herald the start of many orientalist paintings depicting Arab religious practice, genre scenes and North African landscapes. Among these are paintings in which the Oriental setting is combined with depictions of female nudity; the Slave Market, The Large Pool of Bursa, Pool in a Harem, similar subjects were works of imagination in which Gérôme combined observed Middle Eastern architectural details with idealized nudes painted in his Paris studio. In his travels, Gérôme collected artefacts and costumes for staging oriental scenes in the studio, made oil studies from nature for the backgrounds. In an autobiographical essay of 1878, Gérôme described how important oil sketches made on the spot were for him: "Even when worn out after long marches under the bright sun, as soon as our camping spot was reached I got down to work with concentration.

But Oh! How many things were left behind of which I carried only the memory away! And I prefer three touches of color on a piece of canvas to the most vivid memory, but one had to continue on with some regret."Gérôme's reputation was enhanced at the Paris Salon of 1857 by his display of Egyptian Recruits Crossing the Desert and Sesostris, Camels Watering, Suite d'un bal masqué. In 1858, he helped to decorate the Paris house of Prince Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte in the Pompeian style; the prince had bought his Greek Interior, a depiction of a brothel in the Pompeian manner. In Ave Caesar! Morituri te Salutant, shown at the Salon of 1859, Gérôme returned to the painting of Classical subjects, but the picture failed to interest the public. King Cand


Manushya Puthiran is a poet and a DMK supporter in Tamil Nadu. He was born as S. Abdul Hameed in the Tiruchirappalli district, he began his literary career in early 80's and at a young age of 16, his first poem got published. In 2002, he was awarded the Sanskriti National Award for his outstanding contribution to Tamil literature as a young writer. Over the past two decades, several of his poems got published in popular Tamil Magazines like Ananda Vikatan, Kumudam and Kalachuvadu, his political and topical columns are regular in Tamil periodicals such as Kungumam and Tamil popular daily Dinamalar. He is known for his progressive views on various socio-political issues like capital punishment abolition, caste system annihilation, women liberation etc. Now he lives in Chennai He is running Uyirmmai magazine. On Aug 19th 2015, he joined leading political party Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam of Tamil Nadu Manushya Puthiran born as the second of four children on 15 March 1968, in Thuvarankurichi, Tiruchirappalli District.

He started his schooling at the age of 7 and he describes his early life: "Started my schooling late at the age of seven and I quit the school much earlier. This dream. Having no constraints of fulfilling parent’s dreams, I drowned into my own dreams. My father and brothers brought books for me to kill the time. I reached an incredible world. On the whole, I was a spoiled useless but was growing as a Charismatic child. No much difference in that now."Completed his schooling in private, continued his first year degree in Bachelor of Arts through Distance Learning Programs, Annamalai University. Just not to miss the fun and experience of campus, from 2nd year onwards he started attending college, he did dual master's degree one in Mass Communication and other in History. He is said to have borrowed money from Ms. Kanimozhi to start Uyirmai which he never paid back, he has claimed lot of copy rights for Sujatha's novel but never paid a penny to Sujatha's wife Manushyaputhiran faced wrath of women activists for his derogatory use of women's period related words against Hindu Gods.

His poor choice of words like menstrual fluid to mock Kerala flood tragedy, reflected his poor choice of words and intolerance towards faiths he is not part of Pulariyin Muththangal Oozhiyi thinangal Anniya Nilathup Pen Suriyanuku Arugil Oru Veedu Arundhappadatha Koppai Pasitha Pozhuthu Itharku Munbum Itharku Pinbum Adheethaththin Rusi Kadavuludan Piraarthithal Manalin Kathai Neeralaanathu Idamum Iruppum No En Padukkai Araiyil Yaaro Olinthirukkiraargal Manushyaputhiran Kavithaigal Nizhalgalodu Pesuvom Edhir Kural Part 4 – Kai Vitta Kolaik Kadavul Edhir Kural Part 3 – Kutramum Arasiyalum Edhir Kural Part 2 Nizhalgal Nadantha Paathai Dinosorgal Veliyerik Kondirukindrana Thondramarutha Deivam Edhir Kural Part 1 Enna Mathiriyana Kalathil Vaazhkirom Kaathiruntha Velaiyil Eppothum Vaalum Kodai Sujatha Awards for Literary Excellence In the year 2010 Uyirmmai Padhippagam and The Sujatha Trust together organized a commemorative function at the New Woodlands Hotel in Chennai on Saturday, 27 February, the second death anniversary of Tamil literature icon Sujatha.

At the function, it was announced that the Sujatha Awards for excellence in literature would be given away every year in memory of the great writer. The awards will be given away in 6 categories, namely Best compilation of Short stories Poetry Collection of articles Novel Best Little Magazine Best WebsiteThe awards ceremony will be held on 27 Feb every year; the award will consist of a cash prize of a citation. Manushaputhiran manushaputhiran Sanscrithi Sammaan – Indian Govt award for Young Poets. Ilakkiya Sirpi award by American Ilayakkiya Nanbarkal Kuzhi 2003; the Indian Ministry of Social Justice awarded him with the "Best Individual Creativity" in the year 2004. Received the poetry award from The Tamil Literary Garden, Canada for'Adheethathin Rusi' Manushya Puthiran was chosen as one of top 10 influential people of Tamil Nadu by India Today's for the year 2011 and 2010. For his Adheethathin Rusi poem collection, Manushya Puthiran has been awarded by Canada Tamil Ilakkiya Thottam, in the year 2011.

The Tamil Literary Garden Uyirmmai website Uyirmmai Blog ManusyaPuthiran Website

UEFA Nations League

The UEFA Nations League is a biennial international football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the member associations of UEFA, the sport's European governing body. The first tournament began following the 2018 FIFA World Cup; the four group winners from League A qualified for the finals, played in Portugal in June 2019. Four nations, one from each League, will qualify for the UEFA Euro 2020 finals; the competition replaces the international friendly matches played on the FIFA International Match Calendar. In October 2013, Norwegian Football Association President Yngve Hallén confirmed that talks had been held to create a third full national-team international tournament for UEFA members in addition to the FIFA World Cup and UEFA European Championship; the concept of the UEFA Nations League would see all 55 of UEFA's member associations' national teams divided into a series of groups based upon a ranking formulated using their recent results, where they would be promoted and relegated to other groups according to their results within the group.

The proposed tournament would take place on dates on the International match calendar that are allocated for international friendlies and would not affect the FIFA World Cup or UEFA European Championship. In March 2014, UEFA general secretary Gianni Infantino stated that one of the benefits of the proposal would be to help less glamorous national associations arrange games. Royal Belgian Football Association's general secretary Steven Martens said that lower ranked nations would still benefit financially from the competition, as the television contract with UEFA would be centralised; the UEFA Nations League was unanimously adopted by the 54 UEFA member associations at the XXXVIII Ordinary UEFA Congress in Astana on 27 March 2014. According to the approved format, the now 55 UEFA national teams are divided into four divisions: 12 teams in League A, 12 teams in League B, 15 teams in League C, 16 teams in League D. In each league, four groups are formed and teams play each other both home and away.

After the completion of the first season, UEFA decided to adjust the format of the Nations League starting from the 2020–21 season. The new league structure comprises 16 teams in Leagues A, B and C and seven teams in League D. In the top league, League A, the winners of the four groups go on to play in the Nations League Finals, with two semi finals, one third and fourth place decider, one final to decide which team becomes the UEFA Nations League champion. Teams can be promoted and relegated to a higher or lower league. Starting in 2020–21, each group winner except for League A, who will go on to play in the Nations League Finals, is automatically promoted to the next higher league for the next tournament; each team placing last in its group in the Leagues A and B is automatically relegated to the next lower league. Based on the Nations League overall ranking of the fourth-placed teams, the first-ranked team will face the fourth-ranked team, the second-ranked team will face the third-ranked team.

Two ties are played with each team playing one leg at home. The two teams that score more goals on aggregate over the two legs will remain in League C, while the losing teams will be relegated to League D; the UEFA Nations League is linked with the UEFA European Championship qualifying, providing teams another chance to qualify for the UEFA European Championship. There will be play-offs for each of Leagues A, B, C and D in March 2020; each group winner earns a spot in the semi-finals. If the group winner is one of the 20 qualified teams, rankings will be used to give the play-off spot to another team of that league. If fewer than four teams in the entire league remain unqualified, play-off spots for that league are given to teams of the next lower league; this determines the four remaining qualifying spots for the European Championship. The Nations League may be linked with UEFA's future World Cup qualifications for the same purpose. UEFA devised the tournament as a means to eliminate international friendlies – an aim, shared by many football clubs and supporters with the regular football season being interrupted with non-competitive international matches as part of the FIFA International Match Calendar.

In February 2012, it was agreed between UEFA and the European Club Association that the international friendly schedule would be reduced from 12 to 9 matches a year with the August round of international friendlies in the UEFA confederation abolished from 2015. The aspiration to eliminate friendlies in favour of a more competitive tournament has been welcomed by many football commentators. Supporters more than most realise that most friendlies fail to deliver competitive and meaningful football. Now they will have the opportunity to see their teams play in more competitive matches, take part in a new competition and get a second chance to qualify for the major tournaments. There will be fewer friendly internationals and undoubtedly fewer meaningless friendlies. However, there will still be space in the calendar for friendly internationals – warm-up matches for final tournaments. UEFA is keen that European teams will still have the chance to play opponents from other confederations; the format has been criticised as allowing weaker teams to qualify thr