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Jean-Luc Godard

Jean-Luc Godard is a French-Swiss film director and film critic. He rose to prominence as a pioneer of the 1960s French New Wave film movement. During his early career as a film critic, Godard criticized mainstream French cinema's "Tradition of Quality", which emphasized established convention over innovation and experimentation. In response, he and like-minded critics began to make their own films. Many of Godard's films challenge the conventions of traditional Hollywood in addition to French cinema. In 1964, Godard described his and his colleagues' impact: "We barged into the cinema like cavemen into the Versailles of Louis XV." He is considered the most radical French filmmaker of the 1960s and 1970s. Along with showing knowledge of film history through homages and references, several of his films expressed his political views. Since the New Wave, his politics have been much less radical and his recent films are about representation and human conflict from a humanist, a Marxist perspective.

In a 2002 Sight & Sound poll, Godard ranked third in the critics' top ten directors of all time. He is said to have "created one of the largest bodies of critical analysis of any filmmaker since the mid-twentieth century." He and his work have been central to narrative theory and have "challenged both commercial narrative cinema norms and film criticism's vocabulary." In 2010, Godard did not attend the award ceremony. Godard's films have inspired many directors including Martin Scorsese, Quentin Tarantino, Brian De Palma, Steven Soderbergh, D. A. Pennebaker, Robert Altman, Jim Jarmusch, Wong Kar-wai, Wim Wenders, Bernardo Bertolucci, Pier Paolo Pasolini. Through his father, he is the cousin of former President of Peru, he has been married twice, to actresses Anna Karina and Anne Wiazemsky, both of whom starred in several of his films. His collaborations with Karina—which included such critically acclaimed films as Vivre sa vie, Bande à part and Pierrot le Fou —were called "arguably the most influential body of work in the history of cinema" by Filmmaker magazine.

Jean-Luc Godard was born on 3 December 1930 in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, the son of Odile and Paul Godard, a Swiss physician. His wealthy parents came from Protestant families of Franco–Swiss descent, his mother was the daughter of Julien Monod, a founder of the Banque Paribas, she was the great-granddaughter of theologian Adolphe Monod. Other relatives on his mother's side include composer Jacques-Louis Monod, naturalist Théodore Monod and pastor Frédéric Monod. Four years after Jean-Luc's birth, his father moved the family to Switzerland. At the outbreak of the Second World War, Godard was in France, returned to Switzerland with difficulty, he spent most of the war in Switzerland, although his family made clandestine trips to his grandfather's estate on the French side of Lake Geneva. Godard attended school in Switzerland. Not a frequent cinema-goer, he attributed his introduction to cinema to a reading of Malraux's essay Outline of a Psychology of Cinema, his reading of La Revue du cinéma, relaunched in 1946.

In 1946, he went to study at the Lycée Buffon in Paris and, through family connections, mixed with members of its cultural elite. He lodged with the writer Jean Schlumberger. Having failed his baccalaureate exam in 1948 he returned to Switzerland, he lived with his parents, whose marriage was breaking up. He spent time in Geneva with a group that included another film fanatic, Roland Tolmatchoff, the extreme rightist philosopher Jean Parvulesco, his elder sister Rachel encouraged him to paint, in an abstract style. After time spent at a boarding school in Thonon to prepare for the retest, which he passed, he returned to Paris in 1949, he registered for a certificate in anthropology at the University of Paris, but did not attend class. He got involved with the young group of film critics at the ciné-clubs. Godard held only French citizenship in 1953, he became a citizen of Gland, canton of Vaud, Switzerland through simplified naturalisation through his Swiss father. In Paris, in the Latin Quarter just prior to 1950, ciné-clubs were gaining prominence.

Godard began attending these clubs—the Cinémathèque Française, Ciné-Club du Quartier Latin and Culture ciné club, others—which became his regular haunts. The Cinémathèque had been founded by Henri Langlois and Georges Franju in 1936. At these clubs he met fellow film enthusiasts including Jacques Rivette, Claude Chabrol, François Truffaut. Godard was part of a generation for, he has said: "In the 1950s cinema was as important as bread—but it isn't the case any more. We thought cinema would assert itself as an instrument of knowledge, a microscope... a telescope.... At the Cinémathèque I discovered a world. They'd told us about Goethe, but not Dreyer.... We watched silent films in the era of talkies. We dreamed about film. We were

Eido Tai Shimano

Eido Tai Shimano was a Rinzai Zen Buddhist roshi. He was the founding abbot of the New York Zendo Shobo-Ji in Manhattan and Dai Bosatsu Zendo Kongo-Ji monastery in the Catskill mountains of New York. Eido Shimano was born in Tokyo, Japan, in 1932, his first encounter with a Buddhist scripture came at the age of nine, when his school teacher instructed his class to memorize the Heart Sutra. During the war the Shimano family moved to the mountain city where his mother was born, he died February 18, 2018 at Shogen-ji, Japan, after having given a teisho on Dogen's "Life and Death". Until his death, he held regular meetings with his sangha in both the Europe. In his youth Shimano was ordained as novice monk by Kengan Goto, the priest of Empuku-ji, the Rinzai temple in Chichibu. Kengan Goto gave him the Dharma name Eido, composed from first characters of two Japanese Zen founders and Dogen, he was trained by Shirozou Keizan Roshi, abbot of Heirin-ji, near Tokyo. This was a Rinzai training monastery with strict discipline.

In 1954, Shimano left to study at Ryutaku-ji and practice with Soen Nakagawa Roshi, a young Zen teacher. The following year Nyogen Senzaki visited the temple from America and left a lasting impression on Shimano. In 1957, Soen Roshi asked Shimano to go to America for one year to attend the elderly Nyogen Senzaki, he agreed. Soen asked Shimano to go to Hawaii instead to help to guide the Diamond Sangha, founded by Robert Baker Aitken and his wife, Anne Hopkins Aitken. At first reluctant, Soen persuaded Shimano that going to Hawaii would be good for both his recuperation from an illness and his academic studies. On August, 1960 Shimano left for Hawaii by ship, his friend Dr. Bernard Phillips, an American Zen scholar, was returning home on the same ship, after doing research in Japan sponsored by the Zen Studies Society. Without any prior arrangements, they ended up in the same cabin. Shimano returned to Japan and met Haku'un Yasutani, accompanying him and Soen back to the United States. In 1964, after a rift developed with Aitken, he moved to New York City.

In 1965, he became the teacher of the Zen Studies Society in a Manhattan Upper Westside apartment and a few years became abbot of the Zen Studies Society, consisting of the New York Zendo Shobo-Ji in Manhattan and Dai Bosatsu Zendo Kongo-Ji monastery in the Catskills mountains. Shimano received Dharma transmission from Soen Nakagawa in 1972 in a public ceremony at the New York Zendo Shobo-ji witnessed by his Sangha. In 2004, Eido Shimano Roshi received the Buddhism Transmission Award from the Japan-based Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai Foundation for his impact on the dissemination of Buddhism in the West; this same organization produced a documentary on Dai Bosatsu Zendo Kongo-Ji. In July 2010, Eido and his wife resigned from the ZSS Board of Directors after a relationship between Shimano and one of his female students became subject of controversy, amid accusations that this was only the latest in a series of affairs spanning several decades. Shimano sent a letter of apology to the ZSS community in September, 2010, stating that he would retire as abbot of the Zen Studies Society in December.

He did so on December 8, 2010. Shinge Roko Sherry Chayat Roshi, who received dharma transmission in 1998, was installed as the new Abbot on January 1, 2011. In February, 2011, the Zen Studies Society announced that Eido Shimano no longer would teach Zen under the auspices of their organization. On July 2, 2011, an open meeting for all sangha members of the ZSS was held, where Shimano encouraged everyone to accept his successor, Shinge Sherry Chayat, as their teacher, stated unequivocally that in order to avoid further controversy and division, he would no longer formally teach Zen in any capacity. A committee of Zen teachers formed in November 2011 found that the sexual acts were initiated during formal private sanzen interactions between Zen teacher and student. In December, 2012, the headquarters of Shimano's claimed lineage sect, issued a public statement responding to the controversies surrounding Shimano and ZSS. Shimano and his wife filed a multimillion-dollar lawsuit against the Society in 2013, but dropped it in 2015.

Eido Shimano died of pneumonia on February 18, 2018 in Japan at the age of 85. Junpo Denis Kelly Andy Afable Sherry Chayat John Mortensen Genjo Marinello Shimano, Eido. Shōbōgenzō: being-time. Encre marine. ISBN 2-909422-24-0. Shimano, Eido. Shōbōgenzō: only buddha knows buddha, life-death. Encre marine. ISBN 2-909422-37-2. Shimano, Eido. "Japanese Views of Religion as Opposed to Those of the West". Journal of Japanese trade & industry. Japan Economic Foundation. 15. ISSN 0285-9556. Shimano, Eido; the Book of Rinzai: The Recorded Sayings of Zen Master Rinzai. Zen Studies Society Press. ISBN 0-9769894-0-9. Shimano, Eido. Zen Word, Zen Calligraphy. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-643-X. Shimano, Eido. Points of Departure: Zen Buddhism with a Rinzai View. Zen Studies Society Press. OCLC 26097869. Shimano, Eido. Golden Wind: Zen Talks. Harper & Row

Eagle County, Choctaw Nation

Eagle County was a political subdivision of the Choctaw Nation of Indian Territory, prior to Oklahoma being admitted as a state. The county formed part of the Nation's Apukshunnubbee District, or Second District, one of three administrative super-regions; the county called Osi Kaunti, from the Choctaw word osi, or eagle, took its name from Eagletown, the county seat. Eagletown was an important trading post in the region and was the site, from 1834, of a U. S. post office. Eagle County was one of the original 19 counties created by the General Council of the Choctaw Nation in 1850. Eagle County's boundaries were established and designated according to recognizable natural landmarks, as were the boundaries of all Choctaw Nation counties. Little River formed its southern boundary. A line drawn from one section of Little River to the next formed its western boundary, a line drawn from Little River to the Arkansas state line formed its northern boundary, whose western terminus was anchored by a group of formidable peaks known as the Seven Devils.

The land to the south of those mountains is alluvial and easier to traverse. Three counties bordered Eagle County: Red River County on the south, Bok Tuklo County on the west, Nashoba County on the north; the county served as an election district for members of the National Council, as a unit of local administration. Constitutional officers, all of whom served for two-year terms and were elected by the voters, included the county judge, a ranger; the judge's duties included oversight of overall county administration. The sheriff collected taxes, monitored unlawful intrusion by intruders, conducted the census; the county ranger sold strayed livestock. As Oklahoma's statehood approached, its leading citizens, who were gathered for the Oklahoma Constitutional Convention, realized in laying out the future state's counties that, while logically designed, the Choctaw Nation's counties could not exist as economically viable political subdivisions. In most the county seat existed for holding county court and not as a population center.

This was true of Eagle County, which had no towns or settlements of any size. This conundrum was recognized by the framers of the proposed State of Sequoyah, who met in 1905 to propose statehood for the Indian Territory; the Sequoyah Constitutional Convention proposed a county structure that abolished the Choctaw counties. Eagle County was included within the territory of the proposed McCurtain County. Much of this proposition was borrowed two years by Oklahoma's framers, who adopted principally the same concept for the future McCurtain County in Oklahoma; the territory comprising Eagle County, Choctaw Nation is incorporated wholly into McCurtain County. Eagle County ceased to exist upon Oklahoma’s statehood on November 16, 1907